The book focuses on geological history as the critical factor in determining the present biodiversity and landscapes of Amazonia. The different driving mechanisms for landscape evolution are explored by reviewing the history of the Amazonian Craton, the associated sedimentary basins, and the role of mountain uplift and climate change. This book provdes an insight into the Meso- and Cenozoic record of Amazonia that was characterized by fluvial and long-lived lake systems and a highly diverse flora and fauna. This fauna includes giants such as the ca. 12 m long caiman Purussaurus, but also a varied fish fauna and fragile molluscs, whilst fossil pollen and spores form relics of ancestral swamps and rainforests. Finally, a review the molecular datasets of the modern Amazonian rainforest and aquatic ecosystem, discussing the possible relations between the origin of Amazonian species diversity and the palaeogeographic, palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental evolution of northern South America. The multidisciplinary approach in evaluating the history of Amazonia has resulted in a comprehensive volume that provides novel insights into the evolution of this region.
It is therefore expected that the Andes and Amazon interact spatially and temporally in some way (see Fig. 4.1). The relationship between Andean orogenesis and development of the modern Amazon drainage system is poorly understood.
Author: Carina Hoorn
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The Cordillera of the Andes , therefore , does not cast to west , is between the parallels of 150 and 18 ° south ... coast a character resembling that of the coast of Norway . of Brazil , between the Amazon and the Rio de la Plata .
Author: Society for the diffusion of useful knowledge
By what is the intervening space between the Andes , the Pari'ma , and the Brazilian Mountains occupied ? Into what three basins are these lowlands divided ? What states and countries are included in the plain of the Amazon ?
Author: Cornelius S. Cartee
Category: Physical geography
This book addresses the complex question of how and why languages have spread across the globe: why do we find large language families distributed over a wide area in some regions, while elsewhere we find clusters of very small families or language isolates? What roles have agriculture, geography, climate, ethnic identity, and language ideologies played in language spread? In this volume, international experts in the field provide new answers to these and related questions, drawing on the increasingly large databases available and on novel analytical research techniques. The first part of the volume outlines some general issues and approaches in the study of language dispersal, diversification, and contact. In the rest of the volume, chapters compare the language and population histories of three major regions - Island Southeast Asia/Oceania, Africa, and South America - which show particularly interesting contrasts in the distribution of languages and language families. The volume is interdisciplinary in approach, with insights from archaeology, genetics, anthropology, and geography, and will be of interest to a wide range of scholars interested in language diversity and contact.
15.4.7 The postulated Andes - Amazon divide While traditional surveys suggest that the main split of the languages of South America is between Amazonian and Andean languages , this split by no means reflects the distribution of ...
Author: Mily Crevels
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Despite the clear identification of the different regional patterns of runoff cycles in the Andes, there are still gaps limiting a ... climatological and biogeochemical feedbacks between the Andes, the Amazon and the Pacific Ocean.
Author: Alfonso Fernandez
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
South America is a unique place where a number of past climate archives are ava- able from tropical to high latitude regions. It thus offers a unique opportunity to explore past climate variability along a latitudinal transect from the Equator to Polar regions and to study climate teleconnections. Most climate records from tropical and subtropical South America for the past 20,000 years have been interpreted as local responses to shift in the mean position and intensity of the InterTropical Conv- gence Zone due to tropical and extratropical forcings or to changes in the South American Summer Monsoon. Further South, the role of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds on global climate has been highly investigated with both paleodata and coupled climate models. However the regional response over South America during the last 20,000 years is much more variable from place to place than pre- ously thought. The factors that govern the spatial patterns of variability on millennial scale resolution are still to be understood. The question of past natural rates and ranges of climate conditions over South America is therefore of special relevance in this context since today millions of people live under climates where any changes in monsoon rainfall can lead to catastrophic consequences.
... of Amazon and high Andes rainfall is relevant for understanding regional climate forcing on the continent on all time scales. On intraseasonal time scales, Garreaud (1999) finds an anticorrelation between central Andes and Amazon ...
Author: Francoise Vimeux
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Is a branch of the Amazon river - and is 1200 miles long . UAUPES R. - Rises among the Andes mountains - in the southern part of New Granada - flows first an easterly , then a southerly , and lastly an easterly course .
Author: Benjamin Naylor
... the Amazon , from the snowy ranges of the Andes , after and the La Plata , which drain the northern , which the ... and Apure , ( all of a narrow plain extends between the foot of which come from the declivities of the the Andes and ...
Author: William Hughes
Papers from a conference held at the Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research in Göttingen, Germany, in July 2005 and co-sponsored by the CESifo research network.
The Peruvian geographer Javier Pulgar Vidal distinguishes a total of eight natural regions, depending on altitude and the side (coast or Amazon) of the Andes: Chala (coastal region, between 0 and 500 meters), ...
Author: Ewout Frankema
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Business & Economics
V.1-20 are, like missing vols. 21-26, also freely available online at the the China-America Digital Academic Library (CADAL), & can be accessed with the following individual urls: http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv1 Note: Click to view v.1 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv2 Note: Click to view v.2 via CADAL http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv3 Note: Click to view v.3 via CADAL http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv4 Note: Click to view v.4 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv5 Note: Click to view v.5 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv6 Note: Click to view v.6 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv7 Note: Click to view v.7 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv8 Note: Click to view v.8 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv9 Note: Click to view v.9 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv10 Note: Click to view v.10 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv11 Note: Click to view v.11 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv12 Note: Click to view v.12 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv13 Note: Click to view v.13 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv14 Note: Click to view v.14 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv15 Note: Click to view v.15 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv16 Note: Click to view v.16 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv17 Note: Click to view v.17 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv18 Note: Click to view v.18 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv19 Note: Click to view v.19 via CADAL. -- http://lookup.lib.hku.hk/lookup/bib/B3144507Xv20 Note: Click to view v.20 via CADAL.
Atlantic , between the mouth of the Magdalena and that of The Amazon River , said to be the largest in the world , the Orinoco . The Magdalena rises in the Andes at the point and the Plata , which is scarcely inferior in the area that ...
Category: Encyclopedias and dictionaries