This book provides a comprehensive review of medical education in the 20th century. It takes the themes articulated in the Flexner Report of 1910 and traces their development. Those themes, many of which have not been discussed in other books, include the basic sciences, the clinical curriculum, women in medicine, black medical education, and sectarian medical education. Also covered are the evolution of the health care delivery system, trends in financing medical education, the use of outpatient settings for clinical education, the current status of the medical curriculum and needed changes, and health manpower needs. The final chapter discusses the current proposals for changes and how they relate to the problems and reforms of the Flexner era.
Flexner , Medical Education , p . 14 . 29. Excerpts from the AMA Physician Masterfile , November , 1984 , p . 4 ; and The World Almanac and Book of Facts ( New York : Newspaper Enterprise Association , 1985 ) , p . 246 . 30.
Author: Barbara M. Barzansky
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Category: Health & Fitness
It will be a touchstone for anyone conducting community-based participatory research, as well as any institution that wants to have a positive effect on its local community.
In a subsequent study, named “Beyond Flexner,” they investigated some of the top- ranked schools (plus some newer schools) to explore factors that contributed to their high rankings. Who Was Flexner? Abraham Flexner was an educator who, ...
Author: Ronald L. Braithwaite
Publisher: JHU Press
Since 2005 a dozen states and more than 15 specialties have reported a physician shortage or anticipate one in the next few years. This anticipated shortage and a worsening of physician distribution are compounded by a projected increased demand for women’s healthcare services. Women’s healthcare is particularly vulnerable, because the obstetrician-gynecologist workforce is aging and is among the least satisfied medical specialists. Furthermore, fellowship training in women’s healthcare in internal medicine and in maternal child health in family and community medicine involves only a small portion of general internists and family physicians. In response to this challenge, the Association of American Medical Colleges called for an expansion of medical schools and graduate medical education enrollments. As we cope with significant and rapid changes in organizations and reimbursement, academic departments of obstetrics and gynecology, family and community medicine, and internal medicine have opportunities to create a unified women’s health curriculum for undergraduate students, share preventive health and well-woman expertise in training programs, provide improved continuity of care, instill concepts of lifelong learning to our graduates, and better develop our research programs. This volume’s chapters focus on strategic planning on behalf of academic faculty who will train the anticipated additional load of students, residents, and fellows in women’s healthcare. -changing demographics of faculty -expanding roles of clinician educators -physician investigators and their future -the hidden value of part-time faculty -faculty salaries -required skillsets of academic leaders -the meaning of tenure and faculty satisfaction and retention. Recommendations presented here from authors with distinguished leadership skills indicate a consensus, but not unanimity. In furthering these goals, we summarize in the final chapter our collective expertise and offer ways to implement recommendations to better prepare for tomorrow’s needs in academic women’s healthcare.
Women in medicine since Flexner. In Beyond Flexner: Medical education in the twentieth century, eds. B. Barzanksy and N. Gevitz, pp. 82–92. New York, NY: Greenwood Press. Cain, J.M. et al. 2001. Effects of perceptions and mentorship on ...
Author: William F. Rayburn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book examines the criticism that modern business schools face and how these obstacles have evolved throughout history. Through historical, resource, and professional school contexts, it sheds light on the operating environment of the business school and the challenges endemic to various university-based professional schools, exploring the likelihood that potential interventions will result in success or failure. Business schools are often accused of inhibiting the practice of business by producing research that is irrelevant and does not address real concerns facing managers. This book investigates these accusations by outlining the historical values on which academic institutions are based, the resources and funding available today, and comparisons to other professional schools which undergo a similar level of scrutiny. This extensive coverage will help academics, administrators, faculty, and policy makers with the tools to understand better the ill-will towards business schools in today’s university structure, and ultimately to deliver on the benefits they provide to stakeholders.
Abraham Flexner in historical perspective. In B. Barzansky & N. Gevitz (Eds.), Beyond Flexner: Medical education in the twentieth century. New York, NY: Greenwood Press. Kaufman, M. (1980). American medical education.
Author: Edward W. Miles
Category: Business & Economics
The U.S. government, complicit with the well-connected corporations, since the so-called Civil War, continues to wage war and destruction. Lincoln's revolutionary war, supported by Marx and Engels, caused at least 618,222 and perhaps as many as 700,000 deaths, including about 50,000 Confederate civilians. Soldiers who were fighting, dying and killing during that war were in training for future wars. If Americans could kill fellow citizens, then they would use force against foreign citizens, in behalf of the government. That war foreshadowed the devastating global warfare that followed with the Spanish American War, two World Wars, Korea, Vietnam, the First Gulf War and the current wars in the Middle East. They do not include the bombings in the Baltic and elsewhere or the CIA's covert warfare wherein millions of people died. In the First World War, soldiers killed 9,911,000 people in action, and wounded 21,219,500 people, while 7,750,000 people were missing in action for a total of 38, 880,500. In the Second World War, there were over 24,000,000 military deaths and 49,000,000 civilian deaths totaling 73,000,000 deaths, not including the number of wounded or missing. That is 82,911,000 deaths in two world wars. The real question is WHY?
“4 Barbara Barzansky and Norman Gevitz (editors) Beyond Flexner: Medical Education in the Twentieth Century, Greenwood Press, New York, 1992, p. 1 6?? Medical Education in the United States and Canada, a Report to the Carnegie ...
Author: Deanna Spingola
Publisher: Trafford Publishing
An extensive history of the founding and early days of the College of Medicine at the University of Illinois
Berliner, "New Light on the Flexner Report," 608. 59. Robert P. Hudson, "Abraham Flexner in Historical Perspective," in Beyond Flexner: Medical Education in the Twentieth Century, ed. Barbara Barzansky and Norman Gevitz, ...
Author: Winton U. Solberg
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
During the nineteenth century, nearly ten thousand Americans traveled to Germany to study in universities renowned for their research and teaching. By the mid-twentieth century, American institutions led the world. How did America become the center of excellence in higher education? And what does that story reveal about who will lead in the twenty-first century? Allies and Rivals is the first history of the ascent of American higher education seen through the lens of German-American exchange. In a series of compelling portraits of such leaders as Wilhelm von Humboldt, Martha Carey Thomas, and W. E. B. Du Bois, Emily J. Levine shows how academic innovators on both sides of the Atlantic competed and collaborated to shape the research university. Even as nations sought world dominance through scholarship, universities retained values apart from politics and economics. Open borders enabled Americans to unite the English college and German PhD to create the modern research university, a hybrid now replicated the world over. In a captivating narrative spanning one hundred years, Levine upends notions of the university as a timeless ideal, restoring the contemporary university to its rightful place in history. In so doing she reveals that innovation in the twentieth century was rooted in international cooperation—a crucial lesson that bears remembering today.
Barbara M. Barzansky and Norman Gevitz, Beyond Flexner: Medical Education in the Twentieth Century (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992); Andrew H. Beck, “The Flexner Report and the Standardization of American Medical Education,” JAMA ...
Author: Emily J. Levine
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
In the nineteenth century, advanced educational opportunities were not clearly demarcated and defined. Author Amy J. Lueck demonstrates that public high schools, in addition to colleges and universities, were vital settings for advanced rhetoric and writing instruction. Lueck shows how the history of high schools in Louisville, Kentucky, connects with, contradicts, and complicates the accepted history of writing instruction and underscores the significance of high schools to rhetoric and composition history and the reform efforts in higher education today. Lueck explores Civil War- and Reconstruction-era challenges to the University of Louisville and nearby local high schools, their curricular transformations, and their fate in regard to national education reform efforts. These institutions reflect many of the educational trends and developments of the day: college and university building, the emergence of English education as the dominant curriculum for higher learning, student-centered pedagogies and educational theories, the development and transformation of normal schools, the introduction of manual education and its mutation into vocational education, and the extension of advanced education to women, African American, and working-class students. Lueck demonstrates a complex genealogy of interconnections among high schools, colleges, and universities that demands we rethink our categories and standards of assessment and our field’s history. A shift in our historical narrative would promote a move away from an emphasis on the preparation, transition, and movement of student writers from high school to college or university and instead allow a greater focus on the fostering of rich rhetorical practices and pedagogies at all educational levels. As the definition of college-level writing becomes increasingly contested once again, Lueck invites a reassessment of the discipline’s understanding of contemporary programs based in high schools like dual-credit and concurrent enrollment.
Of course, Flexner did not actually introduce these ideas to the schools, but rather renewed attention to them (see ... the German and English Academy in the 1860s and 70s, and in his writings on kindergartens in the 1880s and beyond.
Author: Amy J. Lueck
Publisher: Southern Illinois University Press
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Intro -- CONTENTS -- ILLUSTRATIONS -- PREFACE -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- INTRODUCTION - Motivations -- PART I - Education -- CHAPTER 1 - The Rise and Fall of the Black Medical Colleges -- CHAPTER 2 - Aid and Integration -- CHAPTER 3 - Postgraduate Education -- PART II - Professional Life -- CHAPTER 4 - Establishing a Southern Practice -- CHAPTER 5 - The Struggle for Patients -- CHAPTER 6 - Hospital Privileges -- CHAPTER 7 - Professional Associations -- PART III - Community Life -- CHAPTER 8 - Wealth and Class -- CHAPTER 9 - Public Health -- CHAPTER 10 - Civic Life -- Epilogue -- ABBREVIATIONS -- NOTES -- BIBLIOGRAPHY -- INDEX.
College and University Press , 1968 ) , 31–32 ; Todd L. Savitt , “ Abraham Flexner and the Black Medical Schools , ” in Beyond Flexner : Medical Education in the Twentieth Century , ed . Barbara Barzansky and Norman Gevitz ( Westport ...
Author: Thomas J. Ward
Publisher: University of Arkansas Press
Category: African American physicians
Social isolation and loneliness are serious yet underappreciated public health risks that affect a significant portion of the older adult population. Approximately one-quarter of community-dwelling Americans aged 65 and older are considered to be socially isolated, and a significant proportion of adults in the United States report feeling lonely. People who are 50 years of age or older are more likely to experience many of the risk factors that can cause or exacerbate social isolation or loneliness, such as living alone, the loss of family or friends, chronic illness, and sensory impairments. Over a life course, social isolation and loneliness may be episodic or chronic, depending upon an individual's circumstances and perceptions. A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that social isolation presents a major risk for premature mortality, comparable to other risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, or obesity. As older adults are particularly high-volume and high-frequency users of the health care system, there is an opportunity for health care professionals to identify, prevent, and mitigate the adverse health impacts of social isolation and loneliness in older adults. Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults summarizes the evidence base and explores how social isolation and loneliness affect health and quality of life in adults aged 50 and older, particularly among low income, underserved, and vulnerable populations. This report makes recommendations specifically for clinical settings of health care to identify those who suffer the resultant negative health impacts of social isolation and loneliness and target interventions to improve their social conditions. Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults considers clinical tools and methodologies, better education and training for the health care workforce, and dissemination and implementation that will be important for translating research into practice, especially as the evidence base for effective interventions continues to flourish.
The name, Beyond Flexner, is intended to signify the inclusion of the social mission and learning experiences related to social determinants of health that go above and beyond the biologically and clinically based educational model the ...
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category: Social Science