A "biological clock" has now been inferred in so many and such diverse organisms and tissues that even a summary of the more interesting and important observations would be a tedious and encyclopaedic compila tion, whose bibliography would assume a daunting size. It would also be obsolescent on the day of publication. The new titles appearing in the monthly lists are scattered through many journals, but a new journal devoted exclusively to rhythm research published its first issue in May, 1970-the Journal of Interdisciplinary Cycle Research-and another, Chronobiology, appears in 1973. In this volume several authors have been asked to review separate aspects within their own fields of study, in the hope that thereby the reader might gain an idea of the many directions of active progress and be better placed to interrelate them than would be possible after a more exhaustive study of a limited part of the field. The outcome is a series of essays in which each contributor has exercised his individuality in ideas, style and presentation, and, at some points, in vocabulary, although the glossary includes a number of terms which have been fairly generally used.
In this volume several authors have been asked to review separate aspects within their own fields of study, in the hope that thereby the reader might gain an idea of the many directions of active progress and be better placed to interrelate ...
Author: J. Mills
Chronobiology is the study of adaptations evolved at all levels of organization by living organisms to cope with regular geophysical cycles in the environment. The Earth s rotation originates alternation of light and darkness with a 24-h period; this signal allowed primordial organisms to keep track of time, adjust their internal temporal order, and anticipate external time. This capability fostered the development in living matter of endogenous temporal organization of cellular process over an approximately 24-h period. The cellular machinery that generates this ability is known as the biological clock, and its outputs as circadian rhythms. Such clocks can be found in nearly all organisms, from simple bacteria to insects, mammals, and of course, humans. The selective advantage conferred to all organisms by the biological clock comprises coordination of molecular, physiological, and behavioral processes, so as to ensure its occurrence during the daily cycle s optimal time. When organisms are maintained in an environment with strong time signals (zeitgebers) such as the light-dark cycle, each of their circadian rhythms establishes a stable relationship with each other and with the external cycle, and becomes an entrained system. Different species and different individuals within each species are coupled with their own typical phases to the natural 24-h cycle. Thus, time is embedded in our genes, and circadian clocks have emerged several times during evolution as a result of convergence to meet a common need. And although key proteins are not conserved, all clocks known to date in eukaryotes involve transcriptional-translational feedback loops. Over the last decades, chronobiology has expanded enormously, is emerging independently in many fields, and it is one of the most interdisciplinary fields in biology. While it has not been easy to understand how a biological clock works in an organism, research with different models from single-cell organisms to complex multicellular plants and animals have provided us insight concerning the ticking of the clock. Identification of circadian rhythms in biochemical and behavioral parameters in different unicellular organisms, localization of different oscillators in combination with behavioral outputs markers by neurobiological techniques in insects and mammals, as well as molecular genetics that has led to identification and cloning of clock genes in several species including humans have rendered chronobiology a diverse and dynamic discipline, with not only biological relevance but also important social and medical implications. Our goal in editing this book was to provide a comparative view of our current knowledge regarding circadian rhythms and clocks at different phylogenetic levels. The authors contributing to this volume review both circadian molecules and mechanisms in representative groups ranging from simple organisms as unicells to complex ones such as invertebrates and non-mammal and mammal vertebrates. The book reflects and is a token of different approaches to the field, such as regulation molecules and their biochemical pathways involved in either circadian or exogenous aspects of the rhythmic process and its regulation in photoautotrophic unicells and the neurobiological and molecular bases of circadian oscillators in some invertebrates and vertebrates. A number of works are focused in the importance of environmental, social, and nutrient temporal signals as synchronizing agents in insects and in different vertebrate models. These reviews are not only centered on the adult organism at the integrative level, but also provide an ontogenetic view at behavioral, physiological, and molecular levels. Furthermore, they supply evidence on several organs as potential sources of circadian signaling for different vertebrate groups, which indicates multioscillatory circadian systems similar to those proposed for some invertebrates. In Chapter 1, Rüdiger Hardeland revises the importance of tryptophan metabolic pathways in two unicells, Euglena gracilis, and the dinoflagellate, Lingulodinium polyedrum. Barbara-Ann Battelle, in Chapter 2, reviews and describes current knowledge of the circadian system of a Chelicerata, Limulus polyphemus, visual inputs into the central clock, and efferent pathways of the clock to the eyes, in addition to the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes. In Chapter 3, María Elena Durán-Lizárraga et al. review the role of different crustacean neuropeptides in the regulation of several physiological processes, such as those proposed as controlled by the circadian system of decapoda, particularly in crayfish. Claudio R. Lazzari and Teresita C. Insausti examine, in Chapter 4, the importance of circadian rhythms from insect s populations, closely associated with the history of chronobiology and the Pittendrigh pioneering work. Continuing on insects, the concept of the superorganism and the interaction of rhythms at different frequencies in different cohorts of individuals forming a colony is presented in Chapter 5 by Mirian David-Marques and Cintia Etsuko-Yamashita. In dealing with vertebrates, Raquel Carvalho and Luiz Menna-Barreto in Chapter 6 address fish from the phenomenology of circadian rhythms to the description of the underlying multioscillatory system, finally reviewing its ecological and evolutionary relevance of these species as a model. The following chapter (7) by Carolina Escobar et al. offers an integrative view of the so-called food-entrained oscillator in rodents. Then, in Chapter 8 Ivette Caldelas and colleagues provide us with an ontogenetic approach to non-visual entrainment of the circadian system, an alternative view of the food-entrained oscillator, using as a natural model the newborn rabbit. Still in the area of restricted food availability as an entraining signal, in Chapter 9 Adrián Báez-Ruíz et al. provide yet another perspective of this phenomenon, which stresses the role of liver physiology and biochemistry in the regulation of food ingestion and hepatic circadian rhythmicity. Finally, in Chapter 10 Raúl Aguilar-Roblero and colleagues review the role of the rodent suprachiasmatic nuclei as a biological clock for the mammalian circadian system, with emphasis on molecular and cellular aspects involved in the first steps of coding biological time into a signal readable by its neuronal targets. We have attempted to provide a panoramic perspective of the multiple approaches for addressing the study of the circadian system in different organisms. Selection of contributions included certain aspects of circadian rhythms not easily found in other reviews. We are indebted to the enthusiastic response of the entire group of contributors, all distinguished professors from universities from different countries, in achieving publication of this volume. We hope readers will find the text useful and that it will perhaps further promote their interest in this area of biology.
Our goal in editing this book was to provide a comparative view of our current knowledge regarding circadian rhythms and clocks at different phylogenetic levels.
Author: Maria Luisa Fanjul-Moles
Author: Benella Caminiti
Category: Circadian rhythms
This text begins with a general introduction to biochemical and biophysical aspects of circadian timing, then proceeds to its essential focus on collating the newest information on molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms. It includes a chapter on the implications for clinical research on affective disorders, sleep disorders, and the relevance for therapeutic treatment, as well as coverage of multiple oscillators and hormonal rhythms. Sections include: Molecular Control of Circadian Rhythms: Animal Models Molecular Control of Circadian Rhythms: From Cyanobacteria to Plants Circadian Organization in Complex Organisms. Chapter topics include examinations of circadian rhythms in non-mammalian vertebrates, neurospora, and humans.
This text begins with a general introduction to biochemical and biophysical aspects of circadian timing, then proceeds to its essential focus on collating the newest information on molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms.
Author: Amita Sehgal
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book is the first in a new series entitled ''Advances in Circadian Physiology." Our aim in this and subsequent volumes is to document and critically analyze the state of knowledge on biological clocks, circadian rhythms and their applications to human health, safety, performance and productivity. In the past twenty years, scientists have uncovered an elegant system of biological clocks in the brain that govern the daily rhythms of sleep and alertness, hormone levels and temperature and a myriad other aspects of body function. From the first identification of the suprachiasmatic biological clock in the early 1970s, this field of research has exploded in information and implication. These biological clocks, so perfectly attuned to the pace of a bygone era, are the root cause of the human fatigue, error, accidents and reduced productivity precipi tated by the around-the-clock challenges of today's industry and society. Research on these clocks offers the promise of fundamental solutions which can help the human race adjust physiologically to the technology-paced world we have created.
This book is the first in a new series entitled ''Advances in Circadian Physiology.
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
With the invitation to edit this volume, I wanted to take the opportunity to assemble reviews on different aspects of circadian clocks and rhythms. Although most c- tributions in this volume focus on mammalian circadian clocks, the historical int- duction and comparative clocks section illustrate the importance of various other organisms in deciphering the mechanisms and principles of circadian biology. Circadian rhythms have been studied for centuries, but only recently, a mole- lar understanding of this process has emerged. This has taken research on circadian clocks from mystic phenomenology to a mechanistic level; chains of molecular events can describe phenomena with remarkable accuracy. Nevertheless, current models of the functioning of circadian clocks are still rudimentary. This is not due to the faultiness of discovered mechanisms, but due to the lack of undiscovered processes involved in contributing to circadian rhythmicity. We know for example, that the general circadian mechanism is not regulated equally in all tissues of m- mals. Hence, a lot still needs to be discovered to get a full understanding of cir- dian rhythms at the systems level. In this respect, technology has advanced at high speed in the last years and provided us with data illustrating the sheer complexity of regulation of physiological processes in organisms. To handle this information, computer aided integration of the results is of utmost importance in order to d- cover novel concepts that ultimately need to be tested experimentally.
With the invitation to edit this volume, I wanted to take the opportunity to assemble reviews on different aspects of circadian clocks and rhythms.
Author: Urs Albrecht
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
During the past decade many review papers and books have been devoted to descriptions and analyses of biological rhythms (chronobiology) in plants and animals. These contributed greatly to demonstrating the impor tance of bioperiodicities in living beings in general. However, the practi cal aspects of chronobiology with regard to human health and improving the treatment of disease have not yet been a major focus of publication. One of our aims is to establish the relevance of biological rhythms to the practice of medicine. Another is to organize and convey in a simple fashion information pertinent to health- and life-science professionals so that students, researchers, and practitioners can achieve a clear and pre cise understanding of chronobiology. We have limited scientific jargon to unavoidable basic and well-defined terms and we have emphasized illus trative examples of facts and concepts rather than theories or hypotheti cal mechanisms. This volume is divided into seven chapters, each of which is compre hensive in its treatment and includes an extensive bibliography. The book is organized to serve as a textbook and/or reference handbook of modem applied chronobiology. Chapter 1 describes the historical development of chronobiology and reviews why, when, and how major concepts were introduced, accepted, and transformed.
This volume is divided into seven chapters, each of which is compre hensive in its treatment and includes an extensive bibliography. The book is organized to serve as a textbook and/or reference handbook of modem applied chronobiology.
Author: A. Reinberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Circadian rhythms, the biological oscillations based around our 24-hour clock, have a profound effect on human physiology and healthy cellular function. Circadian Rhythms: Health and Disease is a wide-ranging foundational text that provides students and researchers with valuable information on the molecular and genetic underpinnings of circadian rhythms and looks at the impacts of disruption in our biological clocks in health and disease. Circadian Rhythms opens with chapters that lay the fundamental groundwork on circadian rhythm biology. Section II looks at the impact of circadian rhythms on major organ systems. Section III then turns its focus to the central nervous system. The book then closes with a look at the role of biological rhythms in aging and neurodegeneration. Written in an accessible and informative style, Circadian Rhythms: Health and Disease,will be an invaluable resource and entry point into this fascinating interdisciplinary field that brings together aspects of neuroscience, cell and molecular biology, and physiology.
Section II looks at the impact of circadian rhythms on major organ systems. Section III then turns its focus to the central nervous system. The book then closes with a look at the role of biological rhythms in aging and neurodegeneration.
Author: Christopher S. Colwell
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book addresses multiple aspects of biological clocks in prokaryotes. The first part of the book deals with the circadian clock system in cyanobacteria, i.e. the pioneer of bacterial clocks. Starting with the history and background of cyanobacteria and circadian rhythms in microorganisms, the topics range from the molecular basis, structure and evolution of the circadian clock to modelling approaches, Kai systems in cyanobacteria and biotechnological applications. In the second part, emergent timekeeping properties of bacteria in microbiomes and bacteria other than cyanobacteria are discussed. Since the discovery of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria in the late 1980s, the field has exploded with new information. The cyanobacterial model system for studying circadian rhythms (Synechococcus elongatus), has allowed a detailed genetic dissection of the bacterial clock due to state-of-the-art methods in molecular, structural, and evolutionary biology. Cutting-edge research spanning from cyanobacteria and circadian phenomena in other kinds of bacteria, to microbiomes has now given the field another major boost. This book is aimed at junior and senior researchers alike. Students or researchers new to the field of biological clocks in prokaryotes will get a comprehensive overview, while more experienced researchers will get an update on the latest developments.
This book addresses multiple aspects of biological clocks in prokaryotes. The first part of the book deals with the circadian clock system in cyanobacteria, i.e. the pioneer of bacterial clocks.
Author: Carl Hirschie Johnson
The Biological Clock describes the rhythmic processes in a great variety of plants and animals. This book is an outgrowth of the 1969 James Arthur Lecture Series on "Time and its Mysteries" held at New York University. This three-chapter work begins with the basic principles of biological rhythms and clocks, along with various diagrams to illustrate some aspects of circadian rhythms in animals. The second chapter discusses the hypothesis of environmental timing of the clock. This chapter explores numerous research studies on phenomenon of biological rhythms, the nature of the rhythmic mechanism, and hormonal regulation. The third chapter examines the cellular-biochemical clock hypothesis and its contribution in the progress of understanding the complexity of biological rhythm. This book is intended primarily for biologists, behaviorists, and researchers.
The Biological Clock describes the rhythmic processes in a great variety of plants and animals. This book is an outgrowth of the 1969 James Arthur Lecture Series on "Time and its Mysteries" held at New York University.
Author: Frank A. Brown
Publisher: Academic Press
Introducing Biological Rhythms is a primer that serves to introduce individuals to the area of biological rhythms. It describes the major characteristics and discusses the implications and applications of these rhythms, while citing scientific results and references. Also, the primer includes essays that provide in-depth historic and other background information for those interested in more specific topics or concepts. It covers a basic cross-section of the field of chronobiology clearly enough so that it can be understood by a novice, or an undergraduate student, but that it would also be sufficiently technical and detailed for the scientist.
Introducing Biological Rhythms covers a basic cross-section of the field of chronobiology clearly enough so that it can be understood by a novice, or an undergraduate student, but it is also sufficiently technical and detailed for the ...
Author: Willard L. Koukkari
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
(Chapters 11 to 14) summarise important features of the biological clock at the level of whole animal covering all vertebrate classes (fish to mammal). Chapters 15 and 16 are on long term (seasonal) rhythms in plants and higher vertebrates. Short term rhythms (ultradian rhythms), the significance of having a clock system in animals living in extreme (arctic) environments, and the diversity of circadian responses to melatonin, the key endocrine element involved in regulation of biological rhythms, have been discussed in Chapters 17 to 19. Finally, a chapter on sensitivity to light of the photoperiodic clock is added which, using vertebrate examples, illustrates the importance of wavelength and intensity of light on circadian and non-circadian functions. A well-known expert writes each chapter. When presenting information, the text provides consistent thematic coverage and feeling for the methods of investigation. Reference citation within the body of the text adequately reflects the literature as subject is developed. A chapter begins with an abstract that enables a reader to know at the first glance the important points covered in that chapter. The chapter concludes with a full citation of references included in the text, which could be useful for further reading. The book ends with a comprehensive subject index that may be useful for quick searches.
The chapter concludes with a full citation of references included in the text, which could be useful for further reading. The book ends with a comprehensive subject index that may be useful for quick searches.
Author: Vinod Kumar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
An eye-opening discussion of how biological clocks affect the lives of all living organisms Why can't teenagers get out of bed in the morning? How do bees tell the time? Why do some plants open and close their flowers at the same time each day? Why do so many people suffer the misery of jet lag? In this fascinating book, Russell Foster and Leon Kreitzman explain the significance of the biological clock, showing how it has played an essential role in evolution and why it continues to play a vitally important role in all living organisms. The authors tell us that biological clocks are embedded in our genes and reset at sunrise and sunset each day to link astronomical time with an organism's internal time. They discuss how scientists are working out the clockwork mechanisms and what governs them, and they describe how organisms measure different intervals of time, how they are adapted to various cycles, and how light coordinates the time within to the external world. They review problems that can be caused by malfunctioning biological clocks--including jet lag, seasonal affective disorder, and depression. And they warn that although new drugs are being promoted to allow us to stay awake for longer periods, a 24/7 lifestyle can have a harmful impact on our health, both as individuals and as a society.
In this fascinating book, Russell Foster and Leon Kreitzman explain the significance of the biological clock, showing how it has played an essential role in evolution and why it continues to play a vitally important role in all living ...
Author: Russell G. Foster
Publisher: Yale University Press
Author: Erwin Bünning
Category: Biological rhythms
Contents: Ecological factors; Psychological factors; Physiological factors -- body chemistry, respiration, alimentation, heart-rate, temperature and other somatic responses; Work-rest cycle; Long distance flights; Medical aspects; Animal and plant studies.
Contents: Ecological factors; Psychological factors; Physiological factors -- body chemistry, respiration, alimentation, heart-rate, temperature and other somatic responses; Work-rest cycle; Long distance flights; Medical aspects; Animal ...
Author: United States. Federal Aviation Administration. Library Services Division
Category: Circadian rhythms
Two new volumes of Methods in Enzymology continue the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Circadian Rhythms and Biological Clocks Part A and Part B is an exceptional resource for anybody interested in the general area of circadian rhythms. As key elements of timekeeping are conserved in organisms across the phylogenetic tree, and our understanding of circadian biology has benefited tremendously from work done in many species, the volume provides a wide range of assays for different biological systems. Protocols are provided to assess clock function, entrainment of the clock to stimuli such as light and food, and output rhythms of behavior and physiology. This volume also delves into the impact of circadian disruption on human health. Contributions are from leaders in the field who have made major discoveries using the methods presented here. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers research methods in biomineralization science Keeping with the interdisciplinary nature of the circadian rhythm field, the volume includes diverse approaches towards the study of rhythms, from assays of biochemical reactions in unicellular organisms to monitoring of behavior in humans.
Protocols are provided to assess clock function, entrainment of the clock to stimuli such as light and food, and output rhythms of behavior and physiology. This volume also delves into the impact of circadian disruption on human health.
Publisher: Academic Press
All photosensitive organisms have a biological clock to cope with daily and seasonal circle of the earth. Biological clocks create circadian rhythms and regulate their processing according to cycle of the world. Circadian rhythm is an autoregulatory system and commands almost every physiological, biological, and biochemical functions of the mammalians. Therefore, biological clocks operate rhythmically with a period for a day, and this phenomenon is called as circadian rhythm. The process ongoing approximately 24 h rhythm in accordance with the meaning of the word (circa (approximately) dies (1 day). The essential purpose of biological clocks (in other word the organism's innate timing device) is the adaptation of the living organism to environment. Circadian rhythms refer to changes in the organism's approximately 1 day's physiological, biochemical and biological processes. In a molecular level, there are thousands of biological clocks in the human body. The main clocks in the human brain coordinate all these cellular clocks. Thus, the rhythmical phenomenon works in a harmony with the master clock and solar cycle. However, the natural factors within the body produce circadian rhythms the environment cues also affect them. The light is the main cue that affects biological rhythm. These light-dark cycles can control of the molecular structure of biological clocks. Changing the light-dark cycles leads to lengthen, shorten or completely absent of circadian rhythms. Dysfunction of circadian cycle leads to many health problems. The studies in chronobiology provide better understanding of the rhythmic metabolism and disrupted circadian rhythms. In recent years, numerous spectacular researches have been conducted in the field of chronobiology. These researches were intended to understand metabolic process of human body. However, the molecular and genetic mechanisms of circadian clocks still not clearly known. In this study, we aimed to investigate and summarize the recent progress about circadian biological research and understand how biological clocks govern the human metabolism.
The main clocks in the human brain coordinate all these cellular clocks. Thus, the rhythmical phenomenon works in a harmony with the master clock and solar cycle.
Author: Hülya Çakmur
This book is a concise, comprehensive and up-to-date account of fundamental concepts and potential applications of biological timekeeping mechanisms in animals and humans. It also discusses significant aspects of the organization and importance of timekeeping mechanisms in both groups. Divided into seven sections, it addresses important aspects including fundamental concepts; animal and human clocks; clock interactions; clocks and metabolism and immune functions; pineal, melatonin and timekeeping; and clocks, photoperiodism and seasonal behaviours. The book also focuses on biological clock applications in a 24x7 human society, particularly in connection with life-style associated disorders like obesity and diabetes. It is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduates, researchers and professionals engaged in the study of the science of biological timekeeping.
This book is a concise, comprehensive and up-to-date account of fundamental concepts and potential applications of biological timekeeping mechanisms in animals and humans.
Author: Vinod Kumar