not lie in the conceptual distinctions but in the perceived functions of metaphors and whether in the concrete case they are judged positive or negative. The ongoing debates reflect these concerns quite clearly~ namely that metaphors are judged on the basis of supposed dangers they pose and opportunities they offer. These are the criteria of evaluation that are obviously dependent on the context in which the transfer of meaning occurs. Our fundamental concern is indeed the transfer itself~ its prospects and its limits. Looking at possible functions of metaphors is one approach to under standing and elucidating sentiments about them. The papers in this volume illustrate, by quite different examples, three basic functions of metaphors: illustrative, heuristic~ and constitutive. These functions rep resent different degrees of transfer of meaning. Metaphors are illustrative when they are used primarily as a literary device, to increase the power of conviction of an argument, for example. Although the difference between the illustrative and the heuristic function of metaphors is not great, it does exist: metaphors are used for heuristic purposes whenever "differences" of meaning are employed to open new perspectives and to gain new insights. In the case of "constitutive" metaphors they function to actually replace previous meanings by new ones. Sabine Maasen in her paper introduces the distinction between transfer and transforma tion.
These are the criteria of evaluation that are obviously dependent on the context in which the transfer of meaning occurs. Our fundamental concern is indeed the transfer itself~ its prospects and its limits.
Author: Sabine Maasen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Critical realism is a movement in philosophy and the human sciences most closely associated with the work of Roy Bhaskar. Since the publication of Bhaskars A Realist Theory of Science, critical realism has had a profound influence on a wide range of subjects. This reader makes accessible, in one volume, key readings to stimulate debate about and within critical realism. It explores the following themes: * transcendental realist * the theory of explanatory critique * dialectics * Bhaskar's critical naturalist philosophy of science.
... E. Mendelsohn and P. Weingart (eds) Biology as Society, Society as Biology: Metaphors, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Hesse, M. (1966) Models and Analogies in Science, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
Author: Justin Cruickshank
Category: Business & Economics
Both classical and contemporary social theorists have created a range of frameworks to formulate and develop concepts of social structure. Focusing on the work of the key theorists, Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Talcott Parsons and Louis Althusser, Society and its Metaphors maps the linguistic basis of different theories of social structure.
(eds), Biology a: Society, Society as Biology Metaphors, Dordrecht/Boston/ London: Kluwer Academic Press. Maasen, 5., Mendelhson, P. and Weingart, P. (eds) (1994) Biology as Society, Society a: Biology Metaphorr, ...
Author: Jose Lopez
Publisher: A&C Black
Category: Political Science
Assessing synthetic biology from a societal and ethical perspective is not only a matter of determining possible harms and benefits of synthetic biology applications. Synthetic biology also incorporates a specific technoscientific understanding of its research agenda and its research objects that has philosophical and ethical implications. This edited volume sets out to explore and evaluate these synthetic biology worldviews and it proposes appropriate governance measures. In addition, legal challenges are discussed.
This volume sets out to explore and assess synthetic biology and its notions of life from philosophical, ethical, social, and legal perspectives. Contents Concepts, Metaphors, Worldviews.
Author: Joachim Boldt
Until a century ago, a metaphor was just a mere figure of speech, but since the development of discourse analysis a metaphor has become more than merely incidental to the content of the arguments or findings. Students and scholars in political studies know the importance of metaphors in electoral and policy-related politics, coming across metaphors that are, knowingly or unknowingly, influencing our perception of politics. This book is the first to develop new methodological approaches to understand and analyse the use of metaphor in political science and international relations. It does this by: Combining theory with case studies in order to advance substantive work in politics and international relations that focuses on metaphor Expands the range of empirical case studies that employ this category descriptively and also in explanatory logic Advances research that investigates the role of metaphor in empirical and discourse-based methodologies, thus building on results from other disciplines, notably linguistics and hermeneutic philosophy. This innovative study will be of interest to students and researchers of politics, international relations and communication studies.
Carver, T. and Pikalo, J. (2004) 'Metaphor in Political Science', unpublished work- shop proposal, ECPR. ... in S. Maasen, P. Weingart and E. Mendelsohn (eds) Biology as Society, Society as Biology: Metaphors, Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Author: Terrell Carver
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
The legitimacy of the European Union is a much studied and highly contested subject. Unlike other works, this book does not engage in another review of the shifts of public opinion and perception regarding the EU. Instead, it offers a different and innovative perspective by focusing on constructions of legitimacy in the European Commission. Starting from the premise that legitimacy is discursively constructed, the book engages in a fine-grained analysis of legitimacy discourses in the European Commission since the early 1970s. Embedded in a poststructuralist theoretical framework, Hegemonies of Legitimation also sheds light on the conditions that made radical shifts of legitimacy discourses possible, and illustrates how these discursive shifts paved the way for different types of legitimation policies. As such, the book maps and reconstructs the historically variable discursive landscape of competing articulations of what legitimacy signifies in the case of the EC/EU, and provides us with a detailed picture of the history of the Commission's struggle for legitimacy.
'On the Use of Metaphor in Political Analysis'. ... Institutional Reforms, New Policies and International Identity of the European Community, ed. ... In Biology as Society, Society as Biology: Metaphors, ed.
Author: Dominika Biegoń
Category: Social Science
This book is about the doing and experiencing of diagnosis in everyday life. Diagnoses are revealed as interactive negotiations rather than as the assigning of diagnostic labels. The authors demonstrate, through detailed discourse analyses, how the diagnostic process depends on power and accountability as expressed through the talk of those engaged in the diagnostic process. The authors also show that diagnostic decisions are not only made by professional experts trained in the art and science of diagnosis, but they can also be made by anyone trying to figure out the nature of everyday problems. Finally, diagnostic reasoning is found to extend beyond typical diagnostic situations, occurring in unexpected places such as written letters of recommendation and talk about the nature of communication. Together, the chapters in this book demonstrate how diagnosis is a communication practice deeply rooted in our culture. The book is interdisciplinary and unusually broad in its focus. The authors come from different experiential scholarly backgrounds. Each of them takes a different look at the impact and nature of the diagnostic process. The diagnoses discussed include autism, Alzheimer’s disease, speech and language disorders, and menopause. The focus is not only on the here and now of the diagnostic interaction, but also on how diagnoses and diagnostic processes change over time. The book can serve as an undergraduate or graduate text for courses offered in various disciplines, including communication, sociology, anthropology, communication disorders, audiology, linguistics, medicine, and disability studies.
Maasen, Sabine 1995 Who is afraid of metaphors? In Maasen, Sabine, Everett Mendelsohn, and Peter Weingart (eds.), Biology as Society, Society as Biology: Metaphors. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 11–35. Maasen, Sabine, Everett Mendelsohn, ...
Author: Judith Felson Duchan
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Much of the evolutionary debate since Darwin has focused on the level at which natural selection occurs. Most biologists acknowledge multiple levels of selection—from the gene to the species. The debate about group selection, however, is the focus of Mark E. Borrello’s Evolutionary Restraints. Tracing the history of biological attempts to determine whether selection leads to the evolution of fitter groups, Borrello takes as his focus the British naturalist V. C. Wynne-Edwards, who proposed that animals could regulate their own populations and thus avoid overexploitation of their resources. By the mid-twentieth century, Wynne-Edwards became an advocate for group selection theory and led a debate that engaged the most significant evolutionary biologists of his time, including Ernst Mayr, G. C. Williams, and Richard Dawkins. This important dialogue bled out into broader conversations about population regulation, environmental crises, and the evolution of human social behavior. By examining a single facet in the long debate about evolution, Borrello provides powerful insight into an intellectual quandary that remains relevant and alive to this day.
In Biology as Society, Society as Biology: Metaphors, ed. S. Massen, E. Mendelsohn, and P. Weingart, 231—247. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Mitman, G. (1988). “From Population to Society: The Cooperative Metaphors of W. C. ...
Author: Mark E. Borrello
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Humanity and Nature in Economic Thought: Searching for the Organic Origins of the Economy argues that organic elements seen as incompatible with rational homo economicus have been left out of, or downplayed in, mainstream histories of economic thought. The chapters show that organic aspects (that is, aspects related to sensitive, cognitive or social human qualities) were present in the economic ideas of a wide range of important thinkers including Hume, Smith, Malthus, Mill, Marshall, Keynes, Hayek and the Polanyi brothers. Moreover, the contributors to this thought-provoking volume reveal in turn that these aspects were crucial to how these key figures thought about the economy. This stimulating collection of essays will be of interest to advanced students and scholars of the history of economic thought, economic philosophy, heterodox economics, moral philosophy and intellectual history.
Biology as society, society as biology: metaphors. Sociology of the Sciences (A Yearbook – 1994), vol. 18. Dordrecht: Kluwer. doi:10.1007/978-994-011-0673-3_8. Herbert, Sandra. 1971. Darwin, Malthus, and selection.
Author: Gábor Bíró
Category: Business & Economics
DIVScientists turn to metaphors to formulate and explain scientific concepts, but an ill-considered metaphor can lead to social misunderstandings and counterproductive policies, Brendon Larson observes in this stimulating book. He explores how metaphors can entangle scientific facts with social values and warns that, particularly in the environmental realm, incautious metaphors can reinforce prevailing values that are inconsistent with desirable sustainability outcomes. Metaphors for Environmental Sustainability draws on four case studies--two from nineteenth-century evolutionary science, and two from contemporary biodiversity science--to reveal how metaphors may shape the possibility of sustainability. Arguing that scientists must assume greater responsibility for their metaphors, and that the rest of us must become more critically aware of them, the author urges more critical reflection on the social dimensions and implications of metaphors while offering practical suggestions for choosing among alternative scientific metaphors./div
Bowler, P. I. “Social Metaphors in Evolutionary Biology, 1870-1930: The Wider Dimension of Social Darwinism.” In Biology as Society, Society as Biology: Metaphors, edited by S. Maasen, E. Mendelsohn, and P. Weingart.
Author: Brendon Larson
Publisher: Yale University Press