Calcium Transport and Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis

New knowledge concerning the processes of cellular calcium entry, extrusion and the fate of intracellular calcium has accumulated in recent years. Much has also been learned about calcium transport by and across epithelial cells.

Author: Danielle Pansu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642839771

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 304

Download →

The crucial role played by calcium as a cellular messenger has become increasingly evident, as has the recognition that cells spend much energy in maintaining the cytosolic concentration of this cation both constant and low. It is thought they do this to avoid precipitating phosphate, needed as a source of bond energy and to modulate protein structure. Moreover, since calcium that does enter the cell must be disposed with, processes that utilize calcium have evolved, e.g. secretion, contraction, signaling, to name just some. New knowledge concerning the processes of cellular calcium entry, extrusion and the fate of intracellular calcium has accumulated in recent years. Much has also been learned about calcium transport by and across epithelial cells. It seems logical to think that the processes of calcium entry, extrusion and intracellular handling are similar in all cells. We have therefore assembled in one volume overviews and research reports of transport and cellular calcium regulation so as to explore similarities and differences between cells that utilize calcium for metabolic purposes and those whose primary function is transport.
Posted in:

Calcium Homeostasis

Author: Gregory R. Mundy

Publisher: Science and Behavior Books

ISBN: UOM:39015014483021

Category: Calcium

Page: 248

View: 122

Download →

Posted in:

Calcium Homeostasis and Signaling in Aging

Mark Paul Mattson. I ADVANCES IN CELL AGING AND GERONTOLOGY VOLUME 10 Calcium Homeostasis.

Author: M.P. Mattson

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN: UOM:39015060825448

Category: Medical

Page: 202

View: 327

Download →

This volume of Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology reviews the mechanisms that regulate cellular calcium homeostasis in various tissues throughout the body and how these systems change during aging. Normal functions of calcium in regulating various physiological processes are considered and the evidence supporting roles for perturbed calcium regulation in the pathogenesis of several prominent age-related disorders are detailed. The cross-disciplinary approach used to organize this book should provide readers interested in a specific area of calcium regulation with a broader perspective and a framework for which to shape future studies in their laboratories.
Posted in:

Calcium Homeostasis

With contributions by numerous experts Volume III of this series deals with cellular calcium homeostasis aspects and structural properties of extra- and intracellular calcium-binding proteins are described.

Author: E. Carafoli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642583063

Category: Science

Page: 188

View: 393

Download →

With contributions by numerous experts
Posted in:

The Comparative Endocrinology of Calcium Regulation

This text provides an overview of contemporary research in the area of comparative endocrinology of calcium and bone metabolism.

Author: Christopher G. Dacke

Publisher: Society for Endocrinology

ISBN: CORNELL:31924080034576

Category: Bones

Page: 220

View: 750

Download →

This text provides an overview of contemporary research in the area of comparative endocrinology of calcium and bone metabolism. It contains a collection of papers reviewing each main area of research: invertebrates, fish/amphibia, birds, and mammals. The papers were presented at a satellite workshop to the International Conference on Calcium Regulating Hormones held in Melbourne, Australia in February 1995. The book gives a comprehensive coverage of calcium regulation and includes topics as diverse as molluscan and dinosaur calcium metabolism. It includes the latest research on calcitonin gene-related and parathyroid hormone-related peptide function and the evolution of these hormones in lower vertebrates and invertebrates. The molecular biology of receptors to these peptides and to active metabolites of vitamin D also feature strongly.
Posted in:

The Role of Mitochondria Oxidative Stress and Altered Calcium Homeostasis in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis From Current Developments in the Laboratory to Clinical Treatments

... adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, and calcium homeostasis; excitability, including hypoexcitability, hyperexcitability, and excitotoxicity; ...

Author: Manoj Kumar Jaiswal

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889451463

Category:

Page:

View: 323

Download →

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, devastating and fatal disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, spinal cord and muscle atrophy. In spite of many years of research, the pathogenesis of ALS is still not well understood. ALS is a multifaceted genetic disease, in which genetic susceptibility to motor neuron death interacts with environmental factors and there is still no cure for this deleterious disease. At present, there is only one FDA approved drug, Riluzole which according to past studies only modestly slows the progression of the disease, and improves survival by up to three months. The suffering of the ALS patients, and their families is enormous and the economic burden is colossal. There is therefore a pressing need for new therapies. Different molecular pathways and pathological mechanisms have been implicated in ALS. According to past studies, altered calcium homeostasis, abnormal mitochondrial function, protein misfolding, axonal transport defects, excessive production of extracellular superoxide radicals, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, inflammatory events, and activation of oxidative stress pathways within the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum can act as major contributor that eventually leads to loss of connection between muscle and nerve ultimately resulting to ALS. However, the detailed molecular and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms and origin and temporal progression of the disease still remained elusive. Ongoing research and future advances will likely advance our improve understanding about various involved pathological mechanism ultimately leading to discoveries of new therapeutic cures. Importantly, clinical biomarkers of disease onset and progression are thus also urgently needed to support the development of the new therapeutic agents and novel preventive and curative strategies. Effective translation from pre-clinical to clinical studies will further require extensive knowledge regarding drug activity, bioavailability and efficacy in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, and proof of biological activity in the target tissue. During the last decades, the development of new therapeutic molecules, advance neuroimaging tools, patient derived induced stem cells and new precision medicine approaches to study ALS has significantly improved our understanding of disease. In particular, new genetic tools, neuroimaging methods, cellular probes, biomarker study and molecular techniques that achieve high spatiotemporal resolution have revealed new details about the disease onset and its progression. In our effort to provide the interested reader, clinician and researchers a comprehensive summaries and new findings in this field of ALS research, hereby we have created this electronic book which comprises of twenty seven chapters having various reviews, perspective and original research articles. All these chapters and articles in this book not only summarize the cutting-edge techniques, approaches, cell and animal models to study ALS but also provide unprecedented coverage of the current developments and new hypothesis emerging in ALS research. Some examples are novel genetic and cell culture based models, mitochondria-mediated therapy, oxidative stress and ROS mechanism, development of stem cells and mechanism-based therapies as well as novel biomarkers for designing and testing effective therapeutic strategies that can benefit ALS patients who are at the earlier stages in the disease. I am extremely grateful to all the contributors to this book and want to thank them for their phenomenal efforts. Manoj Kumar Jaiswal, Ph.D. February 5, 2017 New York, NY
Posted in:

Calcium Homeostasis

Mathematical tools are not very common in the analysis of biological systems. This is due to the fact that biology had long been considered to be a highly qualitative science.

Author: Hana Jawad El-Samad

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:43433679

Category:

Page: 124

View: 598

Download →

Mathematical tools are not very common in the analysis of biological systems. This is due to the fact that biology had long been considered to be a highly qualitative science. Considering the impact that feedback control theory had on technological and physical sciences and the fact that feedback mechanisms abound in biological systems, it might be highly fruitful to place those systems in the same framework. This point is demonstrated by examining the calcium homeostatic mechanism. For animals and humans, maintaining a constant concentration of calcium is crucial for proper nerve and muscle function. Normally, maintaining such concentrations is accomplished by an effective feedback control mechanism. At parturition, however, the sudden increase in demand for calcium and the associated hypocalcemia can stress the calcium homeostatic system tremendously. The large deviations in the calcium concentration that develop cannot be properly understood without understanding the dynamics of the underlying feedback mechanism. In this thesis, it will be shown that such an understanding can also be used in explaining the cause of parturient paresis, a common disease associated with calving and lactation in dairy cows.
Posted in:

Pharmacological Control of Calcium and Potassium Homeostasis

This work was presented at the 6th International Symposium on PHARMACOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM HOMEOSTASIS: BIOLOGICAL, THERAPEUTICAL, AND CLINICAL ASPECTS, in Florence (Italy) on October 4-6, 1994.

Author: T. Godfraind

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401101172

Category: Medical

Page: 275

View: 330

Download →

As the number of drugs acting on calcium and potassium channels grows, there is a need for a continuous reappraisal of the cellular machinery controlling them. The present volume provides an update on the basic knowledge, the molecular targets of the two channels, and the importance the drugs that bind them have as pharmacological tools and therapeutic agents. This work was presented at the 6th International Symposium on PHARMACOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM HOMEOSTASIS: BIOLOGICAL, THERAPEUTICAL, AND CLINICAL ASPECTS, in Florence (Italy) on October 4-6, 1994. Because of the recent advances in the field, discussions on potassium channels were included for the first time. At least six classes of voltage-dependent calcium channels have been defined based on their physiological and pharmacological properties. Among them, L-type channels, mediating long lasting currents, are better characterized. Calcium homeostasis within the cell is not only regulated by calcium channels; intracellular calcium stores, in particular a pool contained in the lumen of specialized areas of the endoplasmic reticulum, are rapidly exchanged with the cytoplasm and playa key role in the control of calcium homeostasis. This area, however, has not yet been exploited from a therapeutic point of view. Potassium channels are present in virtually every cell type, excitable and nonexcitable, and are distinguished by structural, biophysical, and pharmacological criteria. Different classes including voltage-gated, ligand-gated, AP-sensitive, and G-protein coupled among others, have been defined by their primary regulatory and gating mechanisms.
Posted in:

Control of Calcium Homeostasis and Load Regulation in a Ventricular Z Plane Model

In this work, calcium fluxes will be studied in order to better understand the mechanisms of self-regulation of calcium concentrations in ventricular myocytes.

Author: Luis Martin de Pablo

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1120484925

Category:

Page:

View: 625

Download →

Calcium is considered one of the most important ions involved in the intricate workings of the heart. The control of intracellular calcium is crucial to the process called excitation-contraction coupling, enabling the chambers of the heart to contract and relax. It is involved in some of the most common heart diseases, like cardiac disfunction and arrhythmias, so knowing how it behaves during the calcium homeostasis cycle, the process of self-regulation which takes place in every beat, it is crucial for medical purposes. If we want to understand the basic physiology of this organ it is important to study in detail how calcium moves through the various organelles of the myocyte provoking this process. In this work, calcium fluxes will be studied in order to better understand the mechanisms of self-regulation of calcium concentrations in ventricular myocytes. It will require the comprehension of the intracellular calcium dynamics and their interaction and influence in the different microdomains of the cell. Be aware of ryanodine receptors and sarcoplasmic reticulum importance as well as the different mechanisms to increase or reduce the concentration of this ion in the myocyte, and study how these mechanism affect to cytosolic calcium concentration, which at the end is the responsable of the cardiac response. We will investigate the formation of steady state solutions and how the NCX work for getting stable responses. In this way a subsequent study has been carried out by means of simulations using a z-plane ventricular model to observe how different variables affect calcium homeostasis.
Posted in:

Vitamin D

This volume comprises 13 chapters, with the first discussing the progress of vitamin D-cholecalciferol from vi .

Author: Anthony W. Norman

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015000304652

Category: Calcium

Page: 490

View: 816

Download →

Vitamin D: The Calcium Homeostatic Steroid Hormone provides a continuing coordinated group of edited critiques of the dynamic state of the science and art of nutrition. The most recent basic advances will be reviewed within the broad framework of the scientific knowledge of food and nutrition, including its application to man, individually and societally. The volumes, authored singly or by invited contributors, will appeal to serious scholars concerned with pure or applied nutrition. This volume comprises 13 chapters, with the first discussing the progress of vitamin D-cholecalciferol from vi ...
Posted in: