Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization

Over the past decade it has become clear that selective mRNA sorting and translation contributes to an accumulation of cognate proteins at discrete cellular sites. In this book, various systems are discussed (e.g.

Author: Dietmar Richter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540400257

Category: Science

Page: 221

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Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein targeting has long been thought to constitute the sole determinant of cell polarity and complexity. This view has been changed, however, by the discovery of differential subcellular RNA distribution patterns. Over the past decade it has become clear that selective mRNA sorting and translation contributes to an accumulation of cognate proteins at discrete cellular sites. In this book, various systems are discussed (e.g. Xenopus oocytes, mammalian brain, invertebrate nervous system) in terms of RNA trafficking, RNA-targeting sequences (cis-elements) and RNA-transporting proteins (trans-factors), activity-dependent translational regulation and the significance of the cytoskeleton for neuronal function and plasticity. It also discusses nucleocytoplasmic export of mRNA and viral RNA as another example of subcellular RNA kinesis.
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Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization

Over the past decade it has become clear that selective mRNA sorting and translation contributes to an accumulation of cognate proteins at discrete cellular sites. In this book, various systems are discussed (e.g.

Author: Dietmar Richter

Publisher:

ISBN: 3642535690

Category:

Page: 236

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Vasopressin and Oxytocin From Genes to Clinical Applications

MCN magnocellular neuron OT oxytocin PABP poly(A)-binding protein RRM RNA recognition motif SCG superior cervical ganglion UTR ... Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation: Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization, Vol. 34.

Author: D. Poulain

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080522821

Category: Science

Page: 392

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The articles comprising this volume were first presented at the World Congress on Neurohypophysial Hormones held in Bordeaux, France on September 8-12, 2001. This conference brought together more than 170 scientists from 18 countries who belong to the different fields of interest representing research in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Two neurohypophysial neurohormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, exert a variety of central and peripheral actions and thus involve different scientific domains, which too often, even today, do not always find the appropriate occasion to interact. This volume is composed of chapters dealing with topics varying from basic and clinical neurosciences and neuroendocrinology, to reproductive, renal, cardiovascular physiology and pathology. It encompasses all areas of current neurohypophysial research and should be of vital interest as an integrative reference volume to specialized investigators and as an excellent introductory text to students, scientists and clinicians not yet closely familiar with the field. To ensure novelty and to make sure that all topics of current importance were covered, plenary and symposium speakers as well as poster presentations concentrated on recent advances made in the last few years.
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Molecular Kinesis in Cellular Function and Plasticity

In diverse cell types, RNAs have been identified that are targeted to specific subcellular locations for on-site translation (6). In 1982, the first such localized mRNA, encoding myelin basic protein, was identified in oligodendrocytes ...

Author: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309074254

Category: Biological transport, Active

Page: 116

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Genome Evolution

Cell polarity and subcellular RNA localization. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 129–138. Cairns-Smith, A.G. (1982) Genetic Takeover and the Mineral Origins of Life. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Cairns-Smith, A.G. and Davis, ...

Author: Axel Meyer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401002639

Category: Science

Page: 237

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In the years since the publication of Susumu Ohno's 1970 landmark book Evolution by gene duplication tremendous advances have been made in molecular biology and especially in genomics. Studies of genome structure and function prerequisite to testing hypotheses of genome evolution were all but impossible until recent methodological advances. This book evaluates newly generated empirical evidence as it pertains to theories of genomic evolutionary patterns and processes. Tests of hypotheses using analyses of complete genomes, interpreted in a phylogenetic context, provide evidence regarding the relative importance of gene duplication. The alternative explanation is that the evolution of regulatory elements that control the expression of and interactions among genes has been a more important force in shaping evolutionary innovation. This collection of papers will be of interest to all academic and industry researchers working in the fields of molecular biology, biotechnology, genomics and genome centers.
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Origin and Evolution of New Gene Functions

129–138 in Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization, edited by D. Richter. Springer Verlag, Berlin. Bussemakers, M.J., A. van Bokhoven, G.W. Verhaegh, F.P. Smit, H.F. Karthaus et al., 1999. DD3: a new prostate-specific gene, ...

Author: Manyuan Long

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401002295

Category: Science

Page: 199

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Although interest in evolutionary novelties can be that these different mechanisms cooperate in the mak traced back to the time of Darwin, the appreciation ing of new genes. In the second phase of new gene evolution, conventional models of new gene evolution, and systematical experimental pursuit of the origin and evolution of new gene functions did not appear for example by gene duplication, held that the muta until the early years of last decade. Since the 1970s, tions fixed in the early stages of the new genes are Susumu Ohno, Walter Gilbert, and others from the assumed to be neutral or nearly neutral. However, it area of evolutionary genetics have made pioneer ef appears that the force of Darwinian positive selection has been detectably strong from the outset in avail forts to elaborate possibilities for major biological mechanisms, for example, gene duplication and exon able population genetic studies of young genes created through the process of exon recombination. This may shuffling, by which new gene functions could arise. However, the problem of new gene evolution did not account for a common phenomenon in phylogenetic catch significant attention among biologists generally analyses of genes with changed functions: the early even recently. One of the reasons was the lack of ex stages of such genes are usually associated with accel perimental or observational systems for investigating erated substitution rates. Nonetheless, a more general factual details of the 'birth' process of new genes.
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Vertebrate Development

Cell polarity in development often relies on mechanisms of RNA localization to specific subcellular domains to define the identity of future developing tissues. The totipotent egg of most animals illustrates in a grand way the ...

Author: Francisco Pelegri

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319460956

Category: Science

Page: 549

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This book provides a comprehensive overview of topics describing the earliest steps of fertilization, from egg activation and fertilization to the activation of the zygotic genome, in various studied vertebrate model systems. The contribution of maternal and paternal factors and their role in the early embryo as parental DNA becomes modified and embryonic genes become activated is fundamental to the initiation of embryogenesis in all animal systems. It can be argued that this is a unique developmental period, when information from the parents is compressed to direct the development of the body plan of the entire organism, a process of astounding simplicity, elegance and beauty. In addition to their fundamental scientific interest, many frontiers of biomedicine, such as reproductive biology, stem cells and reprogramming, and the understanding of intergenerational diseases, depend on advances in our knowledge of these early processes. Vertebrate Development: Maternal to Zygotic Control brings together chapters from experts in various disciplines describing the latest advances related to this important developmental transition. Each chapter is a synthesis of knowledge relevant to all vertebrates, with details on specific systems as well as comparisons between the various studied vertebrate models. The editorial expertise encompasses the fields of major vertebrate model systems (mammalian, amphibian and teleost) ensuring a balanced approach to various topics. This unique book—with its combination of in-depth and up-to-date basic research, inter-species comprehensiveness and emphasis on the very early stages of animal development—is essential for research scientists studying vertebrate development, as well as being a valuable resource for college educators teaching advanced courses in developmental biology.
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In Silico Simulation of Biological Processes

References Carson JH, Cui H, Krueger W, Slepchenko B, Brumwell C, Barbarese E 2001 RNA tra⁄cking in oligodendrocytes. In: Richter D (ed) Cell polarity and subcellular RNA localization. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p 69–83 Choi YS, ...

Author: Gregory R. Bock

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470857908

Category: Science

Page: 270

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Over recent decades vast amounts of biological data have been accumulated. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to apply traditional theoretical methods to the formulation of coherent pictures of cell and organ function because it is no longer possible for a human theorist to integrate all of the available information. Instead, computer technologies must now be used to perform this integration. This book brings together contributions from many different fields to summarize the current status of computer-assisted modelling of biological processes. The initial chapters deal with fundamental developments in hardware, software and mathematics that underlie current approaches to biological modelling. Next, different approaches to collating data on gene structure and function are presented. These databases form a vital resource for any investigator trying to construct an integrated picture of particular biological systems. Cell signalling systems form a particularly complicated aspect of all cellular function and are important both in the understanding of basic cellular processes and in selecting targets for drugs. Recent approaches to integrating data on cell signalling into computer models are covered. Further chapters build on these approaches to show how computerized models of intact cells can be developed. Finally, approaches to the computer modelling of whole organs such as the heart are presented. The role of computer modelling in drug design is the subject of the final chapter and is also touched on throughout the discussions.
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Biomedical Index to PHS supported Research pt A Subject access A H

collular ENDOTHELIAL CELL XANTHINE OXIDASE BETWEEN INSULIN RESISTANCE AND HYPERTENSION RO1 HL - 50147-01 ENDOTHELIN ... 30909-01A1 TCR GAMMA / DELTA RO1GM - 48060-01A1 SUBCELLULAR RNA LYMPHOCYTES IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS LOCALIZATION IN ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:31951P002070717

Category: Medicine

Page:

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Encyclopedia of Biology

Reading, Richard P., and Brian Miller. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000. Richter, Dietmar. Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization. Results and Problems in Cell ...

Author: Don Rittner

Publisher: Infobase Publishing

ISBN: 9781438109992

Category: Biology

Page: 417

View: 277

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Contains approximately 800 alphabetical entries, prose essays on important topics, line illustrations, and black-and-white photographs.
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