In the United States, social class ranks with gender, race, and ethnicity in determining the values, activities, political behavior, and life chances of individuals. Most scholars agree on the importance of class, although they often disagree on what it is and how it impacts Americans. This A-Z encyclopedia, the first to focus on class in the United States, surveys the breadth of class strata throughout our history, for high school students to the general public. Class is illuminated in 525 essay entries on significant people, terms, theories, programs, institutions, eras, ethnic groups, places, and much more. This useful set is an authoritative, fascinating source for in-demand information on key aspects of our culture and society and helps researchers to narrow down a broad topic. Class is revealed from angles that often intersect: through history, with entries such as Founding Fathers, the Industrial Revolution, Westward Expansion; through economics, with entries such as Dot.com Bubble, Robber Barons, Chicago School of Economics, Lottery, Wage Slaves, Economic Equal Opportunity Act, Stock Market, Inheritance Taxes, Wal-Mart, Welfare; through social indicators such as Conspicuous Consumption, the Hamptons, WASP, Homelessness, Social Climbing; through politics with entries such as Anarchism, Braceros, Heritage Foundation, Communist Party, Kennedy Family; and through culture through entries such as Country Music, The Great Gatsby, Television, and Studs Terkel. Class is also approached from ethnic, sexual, religious, educational, and regional angles. Special features include an introduction, timeline, suggested reading per entry, cross-references, reader's guide to topics, and thorough index. Sample entries: Immigration, Education, Labor Movement, Pink-Collar Workers, AFL-CIO, Strikes, Great Depression, Jacob Riis, Literature, the Rockefellers, Slavery, Music, Academia, Family, Suburbia, McMansions, Taxation, Segregation, Racism, Ivy League, Robber Barons, Philanthropists, Socialites, Religion, Welfare, the American Dream, Dot.com Millionaires, Equal Opportunity, Founding Fathers, Wage Slaves, Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Economics, Appalachia, Horse Racing, Gender, Communist Party, Country Clubs, Religion, American Indians, Conspicuous Consumption, Studs Terkel, Film, Class-Consciousness, Work Ethic, Media, Television, Puritans, Homelessness, Status Symbols, Assimilation/Melting Pot, Art, Westward Expansion, Poverty, The Great Gatsby, Stock Market, Working Poor, Gated Communities, the Hamptons, Social Climbing, Crime, Lottery, Elitism, WASP, American Dream, Noam Chomsky, Fortune Magazine
Indeed, his five-volume Children of Crisis series is considered by many to rank among the classic works of the effects of poverty on children ... one that would not pit black against white but would face the reality of class in America.
Author: Robert E. Weir
Category: Social Science
This three-volume encyclopedia on the history of American food and beverages covers topics ranging from early American Indian foods to mandatory nutrition information at fast food restaurants.
After the Civil War, upper-middle-class America was swayed by the influx of French chefs into the United States. One popular food authority of the period was Pierre Blot, a Frenchman who immigrated to the United States around 1855 and ...
Author: Andrew F. Smith
Homelessness is one of the most compelling social problems in the United States. Dating from the early years in Colonial America to the current problems relating to homeless women and children, homelessness has been the topic of discussion of scholars, social activists, and policy makers. Many types of social problems are linked to homelessness, including poverty, substance abuse, foster care, and crime. As a result, unpacking the issues has proven to be a challenge for anyone interested in this topic. Homelessness in America offers an assessment of what is known about each segment of the homeless population, which contrary to conventional belief, is comprised of a wide variety of faces from many backgrounds. It explains linkages to other social issues and provides a balanced overview of homelessness in light of the varying perspectives on the topic. While much of what has been written about homelessness has come from the academic perspective, agendas often interfere with an accurate understanding of the problem. Clearly, there is a place for other types of perspectives, including those that view homelessness through political and legal lenses. These groups have provided us with a robust body of information within which we may better understand the questions relating to homelessness. McNamara has brought together the voices of these groups in order to reveal the numerous political, economic, and social constraints that beset current attempts to solve homelessness. In addition, the commonly held belief that homelessness is a result of laziness or a poor work ethic is turned on its head to reveal that homelessness is truly a multifaceted and complex issue.
106 In addition, any such ordinance, similar to one as to begging, disparately affected the homeless as a class, in violation of their equal protection rights. The Supreme Court disagreed with this reasoning. This defendant was arrested ...
Author: Robert Hartmann McNamara
Category: Social Science
This all-encompassing encyclopedia provides a broad perspective on U.S. politics, culture, and society, but also goes beyond the facts to consider the myths, ideals, and values that help shape and define the nation. • Offers approximately 225 entries covering U.S. politics, culture, society, and beliefs • Includes an introductory overview of the forces that have shaped and continue to shape American political culture and a concluding essay that gathers key thematic threads and looks toward the future • Covers the myriad ways in which American political culture influences other aspects of American society • Examines how cultural symbols and beliefs are manipulated to advance political interests and establish government authority • Connects new issues such as social media and sexual politics with the political culture
The Confederate Battle Flag: America's Most Embattled Emblem. ... The Memory of the Civil War in American Culture. ... the volume explain, various features of the American political culture have led to a politics that is less class ...
Author: Mark J. Rozell
Category: Political Science
A mix of thematic essays, reference entries, and primary source documents covering the role of religion in American history and life from the colonial era to the present. Often controversial, religion has been an important force in shaping American culture. Religious convictions strongly influenced colonial and state governments as well as the United States as a new republic. Religious teachings, values, and practices deeply affected political structures and policies, economic ideology and practice, educational institutions and instruction, social norms and customs, marriage, and family life. By analyzing religion's interaction with American culture and prominent religious leaders and ideologies, this reference helps readers to better understand many fascinating, often controversial, religious leaders, ideas, events, and topics. The work is organized in three volumes devoted to particular periods. Volume one includes a chronology highlighting key events related to religion in American history and an introduction that overviews religion in America during the period covered by the volume, and roughly 10 essays that explore significant themes. These essays are followed by approximately 120 alphabetically arranged reference entries providing objective, fundamental information about topics related to religion in America. Each volume presents nearly 50 primary source documents, each introduced by a contextualizing headnote. A selected, general bibliography closes volume three. Timelines in each volume highlight key events in American religious history Some 30 essays survey broad themes central to American religious history Roughly 360 reference entries provide fundamental information about specific topics related to religion in American history Excerpts from around 150 primary source documents provide first-hand accounts of how religion has shaped American history Entry bibliographies and a selected, general, end-of-work bibliography direct users to additional information resources
Although often producing disagreements and debates, religion has been a very important force in shaping American culture from the early 1600s to the present. ... Volume 3 includes a selected, general bibliography and a detailed index.
Author: Gary Scott Smith
A fresh compilation of essays and entries based on the latest research, this work documents African American culture and political activism from the slavery era through the 20th century. • Contributions from over 100 specialists on African America and the African diaspora • A spectacular selection of illustrations and photographs, such as a Kongo cosmogram, the African burial ground in New York City, and maps of the Triangular Trade and the Underground Railroad
Once their service was completed, African Americans were marginalized back to the fringes of society as second-class citizens. Yet, more than 400,000 African Americans served in the Civil War and each of the two world wars.
Author: Leslie M Alexander
Category: Social Science
Asian American literature dates back to the close of the 19th century, and during the years following World War II it significantly expanded in volume and diversity. Monumental in scope, this encyclopedia surveys Asian American literature from its origins through 2007. Included are more than 270 alphabetically arranged entries on writers, major works, significant historical events, and important terms and concepts. Thus the encyclopedia gives special attention to the historical, social, cultural, and legal contexts surrounding Asian American literature and central to the Asian American experience. Each entry is written by an expert contributor and cites works for further reading, and the encyclopedia closes with a selected, general bibliography of essential print and electronic resources. While literature students will value this encyclopedia as a guide to writings by Asian Americans, the encyclopedia also supports the social studies curriculum by helping students use literature to learn about Asian American history and culture, as it pertains to writers from a host of Asian ethnic and cultural backgrounds, including Afghans, Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, Iranians, Indians, Vietnamese, Hawaiians, and other Asian Pacific Islanders. The encyclopedia supports the literature curriculum by helping students learn more about Asian American literature. In addition, it supports the social studies curriculum by helping students learn about the Asian American historical and cultural experience.
In “Letter to Ma,” Woo discussed how and where Asian American women were positioned in U.S. society. She described the ways in ... In her more recent work, “Three Decades of Class Struggle on Campus,” an edited volume by Fred Ho et al.
Author: Guiyou Huang
Category: Literary Criticism
"Covers African American history in more than 130 documents; examples include speeches, articles, mission statements, ephemera, testimony, letters, sermons, prayers, spirituals/songs, slave narratives, memoirs, essays, interviews, and more."--
Source: The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, Volume II, Pre-Civil War Decade 1850–1860, Philip S. Foner. ... as second-class American citizens and to confront a tangled web of racial issues that confronted all Americans.
Author: Lionel C. Bascom
This fascinating multivolume set provides a unique resource for learning about early American history, including thematic essays, topical entries, and an invaluable collection of primary source documents. • Provides readers with an easy-to-use collection of primary sources in virtually all areas of early American history • Offers encyclopedic coverage of both specific topics and broader concepts or themes in early American history • Collects a wide range of materials, both primary and tertiary, into a single multivolume resource set • Presents information in a concise, accessible tone and in a format that is easy for students to navigate
She has cotaught a class on Colonial Williamsburg and early American history at Stark. Donald E. Heidenreich Jr., PhD, is a professor of history at Lindenwood University, where he teaches political and military history in both the ...
Author: James E. Seelye Jr.
Over the past decade, a virtual cottage industry has arisen to produce books and articles describing the nature, origins, and impact of globalization. Largely and surprisingly absent from this literature, however, has been extensive discussion of how globalization is affecting the United States itself. Indeed, it is rarely even acknowledged that while the United States may be providing a crucial impetus to globalization, the process of globalization — once set in motion — has become a force unto itself. Thus globalization has its own logic and demands that are having a profound impact within the United States, often in ways that are unanticipated. This set offers the first in-depth, systematic effort at assessing the United States not as a globalizing force but as a nation being transformed by globalization. Among the topics studied are globalization in the form of intensified international linkages; globalization as a universalizing and/or Westernizing force; globalization in the form of liberalized flows of trade, capital, and labor; and globalization as a force for the creation of transnational and superterritorial entities and allegiances. These volumes examine how each of these facets of globalization affects American government, law, business, economy, society, and culture.
CONCLUSION Social theorists and contributors to this volume agree that globalization is fundamentally changing the ... of all assets.37 The American middle class is suddenly confronted with real wage decline and economic insecurity.
Author: Michelle Bertho
Category: Political Science
This three-volume set provides insightful and understandable summaries of the state-of-the-art studies of aging—the most important social demographic issue facing America today. • Each chapter contains a full reference section • 28 charts and tables convey demographic data
The sense of control as a moderator of social class differences in health and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74,763–773. Lachman, M. E., Weaver, S. L., Bandura, M., Elliott, E., & Lewkowicz, C. J. (1992).
Author: John C. Cavanaugh
Category: Family & Relationships
This important multivolume work sheds light on current—and future—research on cultural universals and differences in personality in their evolutionary, ecological, and cultural contexts. • Uniquely brings together diverse topics and theoretical viewpoints related to personality across cultures, including cross-cultural, cultural, indigenous, evolutionary, and neuroscientific perspectives • Provides a thorough picture of current knowledge as well as directions for future research • Comprises 31 chapters by leading international researchers discussing their respective areas of expertise • Addresses personality broadly defined to include universal and indigenous traits, personality types, the self, emotion, motivation, values, beliefs, and life narratives • Draws on cultural samples from every continent except Antarctica
Scores on Rotter's original locus of control (LOC) scales show Americans scoring higher in “internal” LOC than ... in exercise classes—Americans, like Jackie in the chapter opening, tended to choose an exercise class based on their own ...
Author: A. Timothy Church Ph.D.
A unique panoramic survey of ethnic groups throughout the United States that explores the diverse communities in every region, state, and big city. • Provides educators and researchers with a useful guide to the diverse ethnic and racial minorities of the United States that describes their geographic location and their local community life • Serves journalists and scholars needing quick, convenient access to accurate information for research on places like San Francisco's Chinatown or Little Italy in Manhattan • Presents statistics based on the U. S. Census of ethnic and racial diversity in each state
Early-20th-century Hell's Kitchen remained largely immigrant as it had before the Civil War. ... produced the earliest but most vivid picture of family life despite the class gap between researcher and subjects. Her 1905 monograph based ...
Author: Reed Ueda Ph.D.
Category: Social Science
Utilizing multiple perspectives of related academic disciplines, this three-volume set of contributed essays enables readers to understand the complexity of immigration to the United States and grasp how our history of immigration has made this nation what it is today.
Under these arrangements, companies whose actual volume of steerage traffic exceeded their quotas ... the emigrants sought fresh air on deck, but unlike first- and second-class passengers who had the upper decks to themselves, ...
Author: Michael C. LeMay
Category: Social Science
African Americans' historical roots are encapsulated in the lyrics, melodies, and rhythms of their music. In the 18th and 19th centuries, African slaves, longing for emancipation, expressed their hopes and dreams through spirituals. Inspired by African civilization and culture, as well as religion, art, literature, and social issues, this influential, joyous, tragic, uplifting, challenging, and enduring music evolved into many diverse genres, including jazz, blues, rock and roll, soul, swing, and hip hop. Providing a lyrical history of our nation, this groundbreaking encyclopedia, the first of its kind, showcases all facets of African American music including folk, religious, concert and popular styles. Over 500 in-depth entries by more than 100 scholars on a vast range of topics such as genres, styles, individuals, groups, and collectives as well as historical topics such as music of the Harlem Renaissance, the Black Arts Movement, the Civil Rights Movement, and numerous others. Offering balanced representation of key individuals, groups, and ensembles associated with diverse religious beliefs, political affiliations, and other perspectives not usually approached, this indispensable reference illuminates the profound role that African American music has played in American cultural history. Editors Price, Kernodle, and Maxile provide balanced representation of various individuals, groups and ensembles associated with diverse religious beliefs, political affiliations, and perspectives. Also highlighted are the major record labels, institutions of higher learning, and various cultural venues that have had a tremendous impact on the development and preservation of African American music. Among the featured: Motown Records, Black Swan Records, Fisk University, Gospel Music Workshop of America, The Cotton Club, Center for Black Music Research, and more. With a broad scope, substantial entries, current coverage, and special attention to historical, political, and social contexts, this encyclopedia is designed specifically for high school and undergraduate students. Academic and public libraries will treasure this resource as an incomparable guide to our nation's African American heritage.
Folk Blues and Blues Rock Inspired by blues-influenced folk artists like Bob Dylan, following in the footsteps of Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Lead Belly, and Josh White, a substantial number of predominantly young, white, middle-class, ...
Author: Tammy Kernodle
This comprehensive compilation of entries documents the origins, transmissions, and transformations of Asian American folklore and folklife. • More than 600 entries • Contributions from more than 170 expert contributors • Introductory essays covering disciplinary theories and methods in the study of folklore and folklife • An appendix of Asian American folktales
The most common instruments in Indian American folk music incorporate the sarod, sitar, dholak drum, tabla drums, santoor (dulcimer) ... The numerous factors influencing regional cuisine include the presence of colonizers, class, caste,.
Author: Jonathan H. X. Lee
Category: Social Science
.R . A. CLASS D. McCulloch , J. Geographical , historical and statistical dictionary . 2 vols . ... 11 Nourse , J. American explorations . ... 3 volumes .
This three-volume work traces the history of revolts and rebellions from the colonial era to the 20th century. • 71 chronologically arranged entries detail the revolts and uprisings that have shaped the history of the United States, with 2–5 subentries that drill down into those histories • Each entry includes an overview essay, followed by entries on related people, groups, organizations, ideas, and places, along with select primary sources • Contributions come from a distinguished group of American historians from across the nation and across historical disciplines • One volume is comprised entirely of primary source documents • Illustrations and photographs show events discussed
the summer of 1861, the Union and the Confederacy were poised to fight a terrible civil war. —Paul E. Teed Further Reading Freehling, William W. Road to Disunion, Volume I: Secessionists at Bay, 1776–1854. New York: Oxford University ...
Author: Steven L. Danver
2d 27th 1841-2 , 11th volume . 3d 27th 1842–3 , 12th volume . 1st 29th 1843-4 , 13th volume . 2d 28th 1844-5 , 14th volume . 1st 29th 1845–6 , New Series , 1 volume in 2 parts . 2d 29th 1846–7 , 66 66 66 66 66 66 G 66 CLASS No. 12 .
Author: William L. Hickey
Category: Constitutional history
A comprehensive, three-volume set that provides detailed background essays, short topical entries, and primary document excerpts to explain the organization, history, and functioning of the U.S. justice system. • More than 50 contributing scholars provide a variety of expertise from the fields of law, history, and politics • A separate volume of primary source documents • A comprehensive bibliography as well as suggested readings for each essay and article • A glossary of hundreds of key terms like "contract," "injunction," and "precedent"
As a result, previously mundane business matters gave rise to disputes, and Americans turned ever more frequently to lawsuits. Increased litigation led to the emergence of a class of professional lawyers. Moreover, informal and locally ...
Author: Steven Harmon Wilson Ph.D.