Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism

What would be the effect of strengthening policing to control political corruption? Could electoral reform or a decentralization of government power be a cure for all? These questions among others are answered in this comprehensive volume.

Author: Junichi Kawata

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351949934

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

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Past modernization literature has assumed that corruption and clientelism reflect a pre-modern social structure and could be referred to as a pathologic phenomenon of the political system. Very few have considered corruption and clientelism as structural products of an interwoven connection between capital accumulation, bureaucratic rationalization, interest intermediation and political participation from below. This volume analyzes key aspects of the debate such as: should corruption and clientelism be evaluated as a 'lubricant' in terms of administrative efficiency - legitimate demands from the margins of society to redress social and economic inequality or to readdress economic development? What would be the effect of strengthening policing to control political corruption? Could electoral reform or a decentralization of government power be a cure for all? These questions among others are answered in this comprehensive volume.
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Dys Functionalities of Corruption

Since 2006, he is also Professor in International Relations and Development Policy, Institute of Political Science, University of Duisburg-Essen. Dr. Andrea Gawrich is Professor for International Integration at the University of Gießen.

Author: Tobias Debiel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783658046330

Category: Political Science

Page: 266

View: 987

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Corruption is usually understood as hampering political development, economic growth and democratic participation of citizens, but comparing the effects of corruption for different political regimes presents astonishingly complex findings. The ongoing persistence of corruption underlines that it is not only dysfunctional, but can be highly functional as well. This special issue brings together contributions from comparative politics, political science and economics which precisely focus on these (dys) functionalities of corruption in political regimes across various world regions. The question of methodological pluralism is especially important for studying corruption comparatively. While on an international level a trend towards an increased use of quantitative methods in political science as well as in economics can be observed, the special issue underlines the importance of having a pluralistic approach for grasping the complex and multi-layered effects of the phenomenon. Of similar importance is the adoption of a comparative perspective that includes different world regions in order to understand the different roles of corruption in developing, transforming and developed countries alike. Dr. Tobias Debiel is Director of the Centre for Global Cooperation Research and of the Institute for Development and Peace (INEF). Since 2006, he is also Professor in International Relations and Development Policy, Institute of Political Science, University of Duisburg-Essen. Dr. Andrea Gawrich is Professor for International Integration at the University of Gießen.
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Clientelism Interests and Democratic Representation

This book charts the evolution of clientelist practices in several western European countries.

Author: Simona Piattoni

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521804779

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 425

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This book charts the evolution of clientelist practices in several western European countries. Through the historical and comparative analysis of countries as diverse as Sweden and Greece, England and Spain, France and Italy, Iceland and the Netherlands, the authors study both the "supply-side" and the "demand-side" of clientelism. This approach contends that clientelism is a particular mix of particularism and universalism, in which interests are aggregated at the level of the individual and his family "particularism," but in which all interests can potentially find expression and accommodation in "universalism."
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Political Corruption

Two-thirds of the nearly fifty articles are based either on studies especially written or translated for this volume, or on selected journal literature published in the 1990s.

Author: Michael Johnston

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351308342

Category: Political Science

Page: 582

View: 824

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Corruption is once again high on the international policy agenda as a result of globalization, the spread of democracy, and major scandals and reform initiatives. But the concept itself has been a focus for social scientists for many years, and new findings and data take on richer meanings when viewed in the context of long-term developments and enduring conceptual debates. This compendium, a much-enriched version of a work that has been a standard reference in the field since 1970, offers concepts, cases, and fresh evidence for comparative analysis.Building on a nucleus of classic studies laying out the nature and development of the concept of corruption, the book also incorporates recent work on economic, cultural, and linguistic dimensions of the problem, as well as critical analyses of several approaches to reform. While many authors are political scientists, work by historians, economists, and sociologists are strongly represented. Two-thirds of the nearly fifty articles are based either on studies especially written or translated for this volume, or on selected journal literature published in the 1990s. The tendency to treat corruption as merely a synonym for bribery is illuminated by analyses of the diverse terminology and linguistic techniques that help distinguish corruption problems in the major languages. Recent attempts to measure corruption, and to analyze its causes and effects quantitatively are also critically examined. New contributions emphasize especially: corruption phenomena in Asia and Africa; contrasts among region and regime types; comparing U.S. state corruption incidence; European Party finance and corruption; assessments of international corruption rating project; analyses of international corruption control treaties; unintended consequences of anti-corruption efforts. Cumulatively, the book combines description richness, analytical thrust, conceptual awareness, and contextual articulation.
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Political Corruption

Two-thirds of the nearly fifty articles are based either on studies especially written or translated for this volume, or on selected journal literature published in the 1990s.

Author: Michael Johnston

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351498968

Category: Political Science

Page: 850

View: 263

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Corruption is once again high on the international policy agenda as a result of globalization, the spread of democracy, and major scandals and reform initiatives. But the concept itself has been a focus for social scientists for many years, and new findings and data take on richer meanings when viewed in the context of long-term developments and enduring conceptual debates. This compendium, a much-enriched version of a work that has been a standard reference in the field since 1970, offers concepts, cases, and fresh evidence for comparative analysis. Building on a nucleus of classic studies laying out the nature and development of the concept of corruption, the book also incorporates recent work on economic, cultural, and linguistic dimensions of the problem, as well as critical analyses of several approaches to reform. While many authors are political scientists, work by historians, economists, and sociologists are strongly represented. Two-thirds of the nearly fifty articles are based either on studies especially written or translated for this volume, or on selected journal literature published in the 1990s. The tendency to treat corruption as merely a synonym for bribery is illuminated by analyses of the diverse terminology and linguistic techniques that help distinguish corruption problems in the major languages. Recent attempts to measure corruption, and to analyze its causes and effects quantitatively are also critically examined. New contributions emphasize especially: corruption phenomena in Asia and Africa; contrasts among region and regime types; comparing U.S. state corruption incidence; European Party finance and corruption; assessments of international corruption rating project; analyses of international corruption control treaties; unintended consequences of anti-corruption efforts. Cumulatively, the book combines description richness, analytical thrust, conceptual awareness, and contextual articulation.
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Corruption and Nigerian Political Economy

In J. Kawata (Ed.), Comparing political corruption and clientelism (pp. 133-155). England: Ashgate Publishing. Kegley, C. W. J. R., & Withkopf, E. R. (1985) ...

Author: Ibrahim Kawuley Mikai

Publisher: UUM Press

ISBN: 9789670876511

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 383

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The book analyses the background of corrupt practices in the annals of Nigerian political history from pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial era down to the fourth democratic dispensation. The book also establishes a nexus between corruption and political economy in the Nigerian political theatre. Indeed, corruption undermines the rules of law, equity, transparency democratization and national development which breed poverty, insecurity and general underdevelopment among the populace. Meanwhile, the political economy approach and the theories of corruption and their application on Nigerian political economy is highlighted. The role of policy-makers and stakeholders with their policies and programmes on combating corruption is also analysed. Furthermore, the giant efforts of international organizations, civil society organizations (CSOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) on combating the menace of corruption are also pointed out. The book serves as a guide to researchers on the subject matter and the freedom fighters with their anti-corruption crusade or mandates so as to proffer solutions to corrupt practices and scandals in Nigeria and beyond.
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Corruption and Informal Practices in the Middle East and North Africa

Comparative Political Studies (11): 1328– 349. Jamal, Amaney A. 2007a. ... In Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism. London: Routledge.

Author: Ina Kubbe

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000760613

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 739

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This book investigates the pervasive problem of corruption across the Middle East and North Africa. Drawing on the specifics of the local context, the book explores how corruption in the region is actuated through informal practices that coexist and work in parallel to formal institutions. When informal practices become vehicles for corruption, they can have negative ripple effects across many aspects of society, but on the other hand, informal practices could also have the potential to be leveraged to reinforce formal institutions to help fight corruption. Drawing on a range of cases including Morocco, Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, Tunisia or Israel the book first explores the mechanisms and dynamics of corruption and informal practices in the region, before looking at the successes and failures of anti-corruption initiatives. The final section focuses on gender perspectives on corruption, which are often overlooked in corruption literature, and the role of women in the Middle East. With insights drawn from a range of disciplines, this book will be of interest to researchers and students across political science, philosophy, socio-legal studies, public administration, and Middle Eastern studies, as well as to policy makers and practitioners working in the region.
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Making Sense of Corruption

'The Historical Development of Political Clientelism'. Journal of Interdisciplinary ... In Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism, ed. J Kawata.

Author: Bo Rothstein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107163706

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

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Corruption is a serious threat to prosperity, democracy and human well-being, with mounting empirical evidence highlighting its detrimental effects on society. Yet defining this threat has resulted in profound disagreement, producing a multidimensional concept. Tackling this important and provocative topic, the authors provide an accessible and systematic analysis of how our understanding of corruption has evolved. They identify gaps in the research and make connections between related concepts such as clientelism, patronage, patrimonialism, particularism and state capture. A fundamental issue discussed is how the opposite of corruption should be defined. By arguing for the possibility of a universal understanding of corruption, and specifically what corruption is not, an innovative solution to this problem is presented. This book provides an accessible overview of corruption, allowing scholars and students alike to see the far reaching place it has within academic research.
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Clientelism in Everyday Latin American Politics

This book improves understandings of how and why clientelism endures in Latin America and why state policy is often ineffective.

Author: Tina Hilgers

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9781137275981

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 258

View: 423

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In Latin America and beyond, societies are deeply unequal, the poor are marginalized, and states face continuous fiscal shortages and real or potential political instability. In this context, democracy functions imperfectly. It intermeshes with clientelism, with the incongruous result that clientelism not only erodes but also accompanies and supplements democratic processes. Armed with evidence of these complex interactions, Clientelism in Everyday Latin American Politics improves understandings of how and why clientelism endures and why state policy is often ineffective. Political scientists and sociologists, the contributors employ ethnography, targeted interviews, case studies, within-case and regional comparison, thick descriptions, and process tracing. They write from political economy and institutionalist as well as principle-centered and agent-centered perspectives.
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New Advances in Experimental Research on Corruption

Against the machine: Party organization and clientelist politics in Mexico. ... In J. Kawata (Ed.), Comparing political corruption and clientelism.

Author: Danila Serra

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 9781780527857

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 322

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Looks at Gender and corruption.
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Corrupt Exchanges

The book will serve both as a theoretical approach to a political problem of large bearing on democratic institutions and a descriptive warning of a system in peril.

Author: Donatella della Porta

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351525664

Category: Political Science

Page: 314

View: 849

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Political corruption has traditionally been presented as a phenomenon characteristic of developing countries, authoritarian regimes, or societies in which the value system favored tacit patrimony and clientelism. Recently, however, the thesis of an inverse correlation between corruption and economic and political development (and therefore democratic maturity) has been frequently and convincingly challenged. Countries with a long democratic tradition, such as the United States, Belgium, Britain, and Italy, have all experienced a combination of headline-grabbing scandals and smaller-scale cases of misappropriation.In Corrupt Exchanges, primary research on Italian cases (judicial proceedings, in-depth interviews, parliamentary documents, and press databases), combined with a cross-national comparison based on a secondary analysis of corruption in democratic systems, is used to develop a model to analyze corruption as a network of illegal exchanges. The authors explore in great detail the structure of that network, by examining both the characteristics of the actors who directly engage in the corruption and the resources they exchange. These processes of degeneration have caused a crisis in the dominant paradigm in both academic and political considerations of corruption.The book is organized around the analysis of the resources that are exchanged and of the different actors who take part. Politicians in business, illegal brokers, Mafia members, protected entrepreneurs, and party-appointed bureaucrats exchange resources on the illegal market, altering the institutional system of interactions between the state and the market. In this complex web of exchanges, bonds of trust are established that allow the corrupt exchange to thrive. The book will serve both as a theoretical approach to a political problem of large bearing on democratic institutions and a descriptive warning of a system in peril.
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Corrupt Circles

For a more nuanced discussion on the structural connections between clientelism and corruption , see Junichi Kawata , ed . , Comparing Political Corruption ...

Author: Alfonso W. Quiroz

Publisher: Woodrow Wilson Center Press

ISBN: 0801891280

Category: History

Page: 514

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The pervasiveness of corruption has been aided by the readiness of both Peruvians and the international community to turn a blind eye.
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Mexico s Evolving Democracy

A Comparative Study of the 2012 Elections Jorge I. Domínguez, Kenneth F. Greene, Chappell H. Lawson, ... Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism.

Author: Jorge I. Domínguez

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9781421415550

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

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In 2012, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)—which had governed Mexico with an iron grip for 71 years before being ousted in 2000—was surprisingly returned to power. In Mexico's Evolving Democracy, a team of distinguished political scientists delivers an exceptional analysis of the remarkable 2012 Mexican elections. Extending the scholarship that the editors generated in their panel studies of the 2000 and 2006 elections, the book assesses all three elections from both traditional and nontraditional vantage points, seeking fuller answers to the lingering question of why this maturing democracy returned the party associated with Mexico’s old regime to office. To evaluate the PRI’s rehabilitation and eventual electoral success, the authors explore Mexico’s electoral institutions, parties, candidates, campaign strategies, public opinion surveys, and media coverage. They also delve into issues of clientelism, corruption, drugs, violence, and the rise of new protest movements in the run-up to and aftermath of the elections. Not only does the book provide rich detail for Latin American electoral and democratization scholars, but its coherent narrative will also appeal to those unfamiliar with Mexican politics. Parts one and two offer an excellent recap of the "state of play" in 2012; part three analyzes why Mexicans voted as they did; and part four considers the election’s implications for Mexico’s political system more broadly.
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Nomination Patronage and Party Splitting

This dissertation asserts that party splitting in South Korea is caused by nomination patronage among senior and junior elected officials.

Author: Jacob Austin Reidhead

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1193994148

Category:

Page:

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The political party is a central feature of representative democracy. In the post-War and Third Wave democracies of East Asia, durable political parties have contributed to national development and democratic consolidation. In this context, the transience of South Korean political parties is an anomaly. While no new, major parties have been created in Japan or Taiwan since the 1990s, more than ten major parties have been created or reorganized in South Korea during this thirty year period. Explaining this variation in party stability is critical for advancing democracy in South Korea and understanding democracy in East Asia. Party systems theories explain party behavior in terms of macro political factors such as political systems, voting rules, historical development, and electoral structure. However, the comparison of South Korea to Taiwan confounds these explanations. Party stability varies dramatically between the two countries in spite of their similar political histories, institutions, and electoral structure. This comparison implies that intraparty politics are at play. Prior explanations of South Korea's transient political parties have implicated factional politics, clientelistic voter linkages, or some combination of the two. This explanation is intuitive given the prominence of factional politics and clientelistic voter linkages in Japan and Taiwan. However, empirical evidence and comparative inference cast serious doubt on these claims for South Korea. Contrary to prevailing beliefs, factional politics are not prevalent in South Korean parties and do explain party transience. Building on prior research of intraparty factions, neopatrimonial patronage and contentious networks, the dynamics of faction and patronage politics may be distinguished as follows: 1) Having strong collective identities and weakly differentiated leader-member ties, factions are more capable of collective action, compromise, and coalition building. 2) Having weak collective identities and strongly differentiated patron-client ties, patronage networks are less capable of coalition building and more prone to all-or-nothing co-optation or splitting. This dissertation asserts that party splitting in South Korea is caused by nomination patronage among senior and junior elected officials. This form of intraparty patronage differs from outbound patronage such as clientelistic voter linkages and inbound patronage such as crony capitalism and other extra-legal forms of corruption. The implementation of regional elections in the late 1990s created a new, decentralized stratum of nomination patrons and clients who were more resistant to co-optation by central party leaders and more prone to party splitting. This argument is developed over three empirical studies. The first identifies nomination patronage in South Korea and confirms its absence in Taiwan. The second tests the effects of nomination patronage on party splitting. The third examines motives and moderating factors of nomination patronage, which may be helpful for designing institutional reforms. Although this dissertation dives deeply into the organizational mechanics of nomination patronage, it is important to keep in mind that intraparty nomination patronage directly affects party splitting, and that this has profound implications on party politics and the quality of South Korean democracy. It is hoped that this dissertation not only sheds light the varieties of party politics in East Asian democracies, but also clarifies the mechanisms of party splitting, and offers practical solutions for designing institutional reforms and improving the future of democracy in South Korea.
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Overcoming the Corruption Conundrum in Africa

As such, any definition or explanation of political corruption should capture ... and Republicanism” in Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism, ed.

Author: Anzanilufuno Munyai

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781527545465

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 387

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This book adopts a holistic approach to identifying what could be done to surmount the corruption conundrum in the African continent. It acknowledges the objective reality of corruption in Africa, and identifies primary solutions to the issue. The volume takes a socio-legal approach in order to reveal the nature and extent of corruption, and suggests that solutions can be found simply by interrogating how society reacts to it. In conjunction with this, the book identifies and critiques constraints in the formation of a definitive definition of corruption. As shown here, although it is critical for African states to develop anti-corruption strategies, the solution to the problem requires an understanding of the significance of political will, and how the lack thereof has led to the endurance of corruption in Africa.
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Political Corruption and Scandals in Japan

“Political Corruption and Reform in Democracies: Theoretical Perspectives.” In Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism, edited by Junichi Kawata, ...

Author: Matthew M. Carlson

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9781501715679

Category: History

Page: 204

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Understanding corruption in Japanese politics -- Scandals in early postwar Japan, 1948-1978 -- Scandals and reform, 1979-2001 -- Scandals and reform, 2002-2016 -- Bureaucratic corruption and political scandals -- Sex and campaign finance scandals -- Election law violations as political corruption
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Party Patronage and Party Government in European Democracies

'The Long Life of Clientelism in Southern Italy', in J. Kawata (ed.), Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism, 157–170. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Author: Petr Kopecký

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199599370

Category: Political Science

Page: 415

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Party Patronage and Party Government in European Democracies brings together insights from the worlds of party politics and public administration in order to analyze the role of political parties in public appointments across contemporary Europe. Based on an extensive new data gathered through expert interviews in fifteen European countries, this book offers the first systematic comparative assessment of the scale of party patronage and its role in sustaining modern party governments. Among the key findings are: First, patronage appointments tend to be increasingly dominated by the party in public office rather than being used or controlled by the party organization outside parliament. Second, rather than using appointments as rewards, as used to be the case in more clientelistic systems in the past, parties are now more likely to emphasize appointments that can help them to manage the infrastructure of government and the state. In this way patronage becomes an organizational rather than an electoral resource. Third, patronage appointments are increasingly sourced from channels outside of the party, thus helping to make parties look increasingly like network organizations, primarily constituted by their leaders and their personal and political hinterlands. Comparative Politics is a series for students, teachers, and researchers of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: www.essex.ac.uk/ecpr The Comparative Politics series is edited by Professor David M. Farrell, School of Politics and International Relations, University College Dublin, Kenneth Carty, Professor of Political Science, University of British Columbia, and Professor Dirk Berg-Schlosser, Institute of Political Science, Philipps University, Marburg.
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The Migration Industry and the Commercialization of International Migration

29 Donatella della Porta and Alberto Vannucci, “A Typology of Corrupt Networks,” in Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism, ed.

Author: Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780415623780

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

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Migration has become business, big business. Over the last few decades a host of new business opportunities have emerged that capitalize both on the migrants' desires to migrate and the struggle by governments to manage migration. From the rapid growth of specialized transportation and labour immigration companies, to multinational companies managing detention centres or establishing border security, to the organized criminal networks profiting from human smuggling and trafficking, we are currently witnessing a growing commercialization of international migration. This volume claims that today it is almost impossible to speak of migration without also speaking of the migration industry. Yet, acknowledging the role the migration industry plays prompts a number of questions that have so far received only limited attention among scholars and policy makers. The book offers new concepts and theory for the study of international migration by bringing together cross-disciplinary theoretical explorations and original case studies. It also provides a global coverage of the phenomena under study, covering migrant destinations in Europe, the United States and Asia, and migrant sending regions in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
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Debates of Corruption and Integrity

(2006), Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism (London: Ashgate). Kerby, A. (1991), Narrative and the Self (Bloomington, Indiana University Press).

Author: P. Hardi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137427649

Category: Political Science

Page: 242

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Two aspects link together the notions of corruption and integrity from an epistemological perspective: the complexity of defining the two notions, and their richness in forms. This volume brings together the perspectives of six disciplines - business, political science, law, philosophy, anthropology and behavioural science - to the debate on integrity and corruption. The main goal is to promote a fruitful interdisciplinary dialogue on complex themes such as integrity and corruption in business and politics. The book investigates possible ways in which corruption and integrity apply to everyday practices, ideas and ideologies, and avoids the stigmatizations and oversimplifications that often plague these fields of research.
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Global Corruption

Porta, D., 'A typology of corruption networks', in Junichi Kawata, Comparing Political Corruption and Clientelism (Aldershot, 2006).

Author: Laurence Cockcroft

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9780857721655

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 642

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Corruption is a key factor in sustaining appallingly high levels of poverty in many developing countries, particularly in relation to the poor provision of basic services such as education and health. It is also a major reason why growth-rate increases in Africa and South Asia have failed to benefit large segments of the population. Corruption drives the over-exploitation of natural resources, capturing their value for a small elite - whether timber from Indonesia or coltan from the Congo. In the developed world, corrupt party funding undermines political systems and lays policy open to heavy financial lobbying. In this book Laurence Cockcroft shows how corruption has to be seen as the result of the interplay between elite 'embedded networks', greed and organized crime. The growth of corruption has been facilitated by globalization, the integration of new and expanding markets into the world economy, and the rapid expansion of 'offshore' financial facilities, which provide a home to largely unregulated pools of finance derived from personal fortunes, organized crime and pricing malpractice in international trade. This book shows how the current international interest in corruption follows the fifty years of the Cold War in which corruption was regarded in international policy-making circles as off the table. Cockcroft describes the change of attitude from the 1990s onwards and the initiatives which have been designed to combat corruption over the last twenty years - from individual prosecutors, to governments, to civil society, and to progressive business - and assesses their impact to date. The modest and uneven progress made indicates that corruption is a continuing threat - and one which is likely to become one of the most serious problems of the twenty-first century.
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