Author: P. J. R. Millican
Category: Artificial intelligence
This is the second of two volumes of essays on the ideas of Alan Turing, whose pioneering work in artificial intelligence and computer science made him one of the seminal thinkers of the century. A distinguished international cast of contributors offer original investigations of key issues in contemporary philosophy of mind and cognitive science, celebrating Turing's intellectual legacy in these fields. 'fascinating . . .we can all learn by reading these essays because they encourage us to explore issues beyond our normal sphere of expertise' Choice
This is the second of two volumes of essays on the ideas of Alan Turing, whose pioneering work in artificial intelligence and computer science made him one of the seminal thinkers of the century.
Author: Andy Clark
Publisher: Clarendon Press
Clark charts a fundamental shift from a static, inner-code-oriented conception of the subject matter of cognitive science to a more dynamic, developmentally rich, process-oriented view. Connectionist approaches, Andy Clark argues, are driving cognitive science toward a radical reconception of its explanatory endeavor. At the heart of this reconception lies a shift toward a new and more deeply developmental vision of the mind—a vision that has important implications for the philosophical and psychological understanding of the nature of concepts, of mental causation, and of representational change. Combining philosophical argument, empirical results, and interdisciplinary speculations, Clark charts a fundamental shift from a static, inner-code-oriented conception of the subject matter of cognitive science to a more dynamic, developmentally rich, process-oriented view. Clark argues that this shift makes itself felt in two main ways. First, structured representations are seen as the products of temporally extended cognitive activity and not as the representational bedrock (an innate symbol system or language of thought) upon which all learning is based. Second, the relation between thoughts (as described by folk psychology) and inner computational states is loosened as a result of the fragmented and distributed nature of the connectionist representation of concepts. Other issues Clark raises include the nature of innate knowledge, the conceptual commitments of folk psychology, and the use and abuse of higher-level analyses of connectionist networks.
Connectionist approaches, Andy Clark argues, are driving cognitive science toward a radical reconception of its explanatory endeavor.
Author: Andy Clark
Publisher: MIT Press
This book presents and discusses seven contemporary theoretical approaches to behavior analysis that build upon the foundations laid by B.F. Skinner’s radical behaviorism and renew its legacy. These contemporary approaches show that behaviorism is not a monolithic or static intellectual tradition, but a dynamic movement, which changes and adapts in face of new questions, issues, and perspectives. The death of behaviorism has been proclaimed since its early days – a “premature” assessment, to say the least – but this volume shows that behaviorism is alive and kicking, even thirty years after its main proponent passed away. This volume contains seven sections, each one dedicated to a particular variation of contemporary behaviorism: Howard Rachlin’s teleological behaviorism, William Baum’s molar behaviorism and multiscale behavior analysis, John Staddon’s theoretical behaviorism, John Donahoe’s biological behaviorism, Gordon Foxall’s intentional behaviorism, Steven Hayes’ contextual behaviorism or contextual behavioral science, and Emilio Ribes-Iñesta’s field-theory behaviorism. Each section contains three chapters: the first one written by the original proponent of each of these forms of behaviorism, the second one written by a commentator, and the third one written by the proponent, replying to the commentator. Contemporary Behaviorisms in Debate will be a valuable tool to behavior analysts and psychologists in general by providing an introduction to contemporary forms of behaviorism and promoting debates about the main philosophical issues faced by the field of behavior analysis today— issues that can directly influence future epistemological variations in the selection process of “behaviorisms.” By doing so the book is directed not only to the present, but, more importantly, toward the future of the field.
Remarks on the paradigms of connectionism. In A. Clark & P. Millican (Eds.), The legacy of Alan Turing. Volume II. Connectionism, concepts, and folk psychology (pp. 45–66). Oxford University Press. Dancy, J. (2000). Practical reality.
Author: Diego Zilio
Publisher: Springer Nature
Evaluating the ways in which we construe consumer choice, this book examines the psychology, methods and realities of the role it plays for today’s consumer. Confronted by competing brands and products, services, and e-tailed opportunities that are but a click away, how does the consumer choose among them to achieve the particular array of goods to suit their lifestyle? Consumer researchers often seek to explain consumer choice by attributing it to beliefs, desires, attitudes, and intentions in the absence of any theoretical justification. Perspectives on Consumer Choice is the outcome of a research program that employs cognitive explanations in a responsible and disciplined way to genuinely elucidate consumer choice in social scientific terms. Employing a reasoned approach to understanding consumption, this book builds upon theoretical and empirical research in economic psychology, behavioral economics and philosophy as well as marketing and consumer research.
Cognitive psychology (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Campiani, M. (1996). Remarks on the paradigms of connectionism. In A. Clark & P. Millican (Eds.), The legacy of Alan Turing (Connectionism, concepts, and folk psychology, ...
Author: Gordon R. Foxall
Category: Business & Economics
Teaching and Researching Listening provides a focused, state-of-the-art treatment of the linguistic, psycholinguistic and pragmatic processes that are involved in oral language use, and shows how these processes influence listening in a range of practical contexts. Through understanding the interaction between these processes, language educators and researchers can develop more robust research methods and more effective classroom language teaching approaches. In this fully revised and updated second edition, the book: · examines a full range of teaching methods and research initiatives related to listening · gives definitions of key concepts in neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics · provides a clear agenda for implementing listening strategies and designing tests · offers an abundance of resources for immediate use for teaching and research Featuring insightful quotes and concept boxes, chapter overviews and summaries to guide the reader, Teaching and Researching Listening will engage and inform teachers, teacher trainers and researchers investigating communicative language use.
Churchland, P. M. (1999) Learning and conceptual change: the view from the neurons, in A. Clark and P. Millican (eds) Connectionism, concepts and folk psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Churchland, P. M. (2005) Functionalism ...
Author: Michael Rost
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Offers an alternative perspective on the nature of belief and the structure of the human mind.
Psychological Medicine , 24 : 385-95 . Jackson , F. , and Pettit , P. 1996. Causation in the philosophy of mind . In A. Clark and P.J. R. Millican ( eds . ) , Connectionism , Concepts and Folk Psychology ( pp . 75– 99 ) .
Author: Keith Frankish
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The examination and evaluation of folk psychology and lay cognition has been carried out predominantly in two domains: personality and social psychology, and the philosophy of psychology. Yet, work in these two areas has largely proceeded independently. The assumption on which this volume is founded is that a proper comparison between scientific cognition and folk ways of thought rests on an adequate study of both science and folk psychology. With this in mind, the author provides an analysis of the intricate, and often hidden, links between these two spheres. In doing so, the book poses two related questions. First, what is the nature of folk psychology and how is it related to scientific psychology? Second, of what should the relationship between folk psychology and scientific psychology consist? In answering these two questions, the author draws extensively from research and arguments in social psychology and social cognition, cognitive science, and the philosophy of science. The interdisciplinary approach gives the book a unique perspective that will be of interest to scholars working in social psychology, cognitive science, and philosophy of science. Written in a concise and accessible style, this volume is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students as well as a general psychological audience.
The assumption on which this volume is founded is that a proper comparison between scientific cognition and folk ways of thought rests on an adequate study of both science and folk psychology.
Author: Garth J.O. Fletcher
Publisher: Psychology Press
In Western culture, law is dominated by textual representation. Lawyers, academics and law students live and work in a textual world where the written word is law and law is interpreted largely within written and printed discourse. Is it possible, however, to understand and learn law differently? Could modes of knowing, feeling, memory and expectation commonly present in the Arts enable a deeper understanding of law's discourse and practice? If so, how might that work for students, lawyers and academics in the classroom, and in continuing professional development? Bringing together scholars, legal practitioners internationally from the fields of legal education, legal theory, theatre, architecture, visual and movement arts, this book is evidence of how the Arts can powerfully revitalize the theory and practice of legal education. Through discussion of theory and practice in the humanities and Arts, linked to practical examples of radical interventions, the chapters reveal how the Arts can transform educational practice and our view of its place in legal practice. Available in enhanced electronic format, the book complements The Moral Imagination and the Legal Life, also published by Ashgate.
In the light of all this, we can now see much that is missing from the basic connectionist story. ... from the neurons', in A. Clark and P. Millican (eds), Connectionism, Concepts, and Folk Psychology: Essays in Honour of Alan Turing.
Author: Zenon Bankowski