Creating an Islamic State

Khomeini and the Making of a New Iran
Author: Vanessa Martin
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781860649004
Category: History
Page: 248
View: 1193
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Here is a major contribution to understanding notions of Political Islam.

Islam and the Making of the Nation

Kartosuwiryo and Political Islam in 20th Century Indonesia
Author: Chiara Formichi
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004260463
Category: Political Science
Page: 262
View: 5314
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A testament to the relevance of historical research in understanding contemporary politics, Islam and the Making of the Nation guides the reader through the contingencies of the past that have led to the transformation of a nationalist leader into a 'separatist rebel' and a 'martyr', while at the same time shaping the public perception of political Islam and strengthening the position of the Pancasila in contemporary Indonesia.

The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia


Author: B. J. Boland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940117895X
Category: Religion
Page: 283
View: 7677
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With deep interest I have followed the Indonesian people's fight for freedom and independence from 1945 onwards. This interest has come to be centred in particular on the question of how religions, especially Islam, were involved in this struggle, and what role they would fulfil in the new Indonesia. After having lived and worked in Indonesia from 1946 to the end of 1959, I was twice more enabled to yisit I ndonesia thanks to grants from the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO). It was during these sojourns in particular, from May to October 1966 and from February to July 1969, that the material for this study was collected, supplemented and checked. For the help I received during these visits I am greatly indebted to so many Indonesian informants that it is impossible to mention them all. Moreover, some of them would not appreciate being singled out by name. But while offering them these general thanks I am thinking of them all individually. In spite of all the help given and patience shown me, this publication is bound to be full of shortcomings. An older Muslim friend, however, once encouraged me by reminding me that perfection belongs only to God (al-kamal li'llah). Nevertheless, I should like to offer my apologies for errors and mistakes; I would appreciate it if readers drew my attention to them.

An Island of Stability

The Islamic Revolution of Iran and the Dutch Opinion
Author: Mark Thiessen
Publisher: Sidestone Press
ISBN: 9088900191
Category: History
Page: 77
View: 4588
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In 1979, the world was taken by surprise when the Iranian people revolted against their westernized ruling elite, and traded in the Shah for a radical Islamic republic ruled by the most senior Shiite cleric, ayatollah Khomeini. The Islamic revolution of Iran was a breaking point in history. It was the defining moment for Islam in the twentieth century and fuelled the Islamic confidence that has since then only grown. The roots of the revolution were deeply entrenched in the recent history of Iran, yet in the West, almost no one knew what was happening. The rise of ayatollah Khomeini and the Islamic republic seemed to have come out of nowhere. In this book, historian Mark Thiessen tries to answer the most important questions of the Islamic revolution. What happened, and where did it come from? This book explores the background of the revolution, and gives a detailed account of its course. It analyzes the rise of Khomeini, and his ideology. By studying the archives of the Dutch embassy in Tehran, Thiessen finally tries to find out about the way the Dutch mission experienced and interpreted the revolution, at a time when the outcome was not yet clear.

Creating Enemies of the State

Religious Persecution in Uzbekistan
Author: Acacia Shields
Publisher: Human Rights Watch
ISBN: 9781564322999
Category: Criminal justice, Administration of
Page: 319
View: 487
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State, Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East


Author: Roger Owen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134432917
Category: Political Science
Page: 296
View: 9249
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Roger Owen has fully revised and updated his authoritative text to take into account the latest developments in the Middle East. This book continues to serve as an excellent introduction for newcomers to the modern history and politics of this fascinating region. This third edition continues to explore the emergence of individual Middle Eastern states since the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War and the key themes that have characterized the region since then.

The Political Thought of Ayatollah Murtaza Mutahhari

An Iranian Theoretician of the Islamic State
Author: Mahmood T. Davari
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134294883
Category: History
Page: 216
View: 3962
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Ayatollah Murtaza Mutahhari was a significant figure in the movement which brought the Islamic Republic of Iran into being. Mutahhari, a student of Ayatollah Khomeini and particularly close to his mentor, had broad theoretical concerns regarding religion, society and economy. He is generally considered as a prominent contemporary intellectual figure among the Iranian and Shi'ite scholars of the time. This book describes the life and works of this philosopher, jurist, preacher and writer, who was educated in the Qum Seminary and worked in Tehran.

The Islamic State in Britain

Radicalization and Resilience in an Activist Network
Author: Michael Kenney
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108470807
Category: Political Science
Page: 302
View: 4124
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Presents the first ethnographic study of al-Muhajiroun, an outlawed activist network that survived British counter-terrorism efforts and sent fighters to the Islamic State.

Democracy and Islam in Indonesia


Author: Mirjam Künkler,Alfred Stepan
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231535058
Category: Political Science
Page: 272
View: 3100
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Indonesia's military government collapsed in 1998, igniting fears that economic, religious, and political conflicts would complicate any democratic transition. Yet in every year since 2006, the world's most populous Muslim country has received high marks from international democracy-ranking organizations. In this volume, political scientists, religious scholars, legal theorists, and anthropologists examine the theory and practice of Indonesia's democratic transition and its ability to serve as a model for other Muslim countries. They compare the Indonesian example with similar scenarios in Chile, Spain, India, and Tunisia, as well as with the failed transitions of Yugoslavia, Egypt, and Iran. Essays explore the relationship between religion and politics and the ways in which Muslims became supportive of democracy even before change occurred, and they describe how innovative policies prevented dissident military groups, violent religious activists, and secessionists from disrupting Indonesia's democratic evolution. The collection concludes with a discussion of Indonesia's emerging "legal pluralism" and of which of its forms are rights-eroding and rights-protecting.

Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia


Author: Michael Leifer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135129452
Category: Political Science
Page: 328
View: 7923
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This comprehensive Dictionary provides descriptive and analytical coverage of the turbulent political history and striking changes which have occurred both regionally and in key countries since the end of the Second World War. Substantially rewritten to take into account the dramatic political events and developments since 1995, the third edition of this acclaimed Dictionary will provide non-specialists and specialists alike with an essential resource on this constantly changing and volatile region. Including new entries, updated country profiles on Indonesia, Malaysia and Cambodia and a revised reading list, leading authority and commentator on this rapidly developing region Michael Leifer has brought this Dictionary fully up-to-date. Changes in government, the rise of new leaders and the knock-on effect on economy and society are covered including: the death of key figures such as Pol Pot and the rise of a new generation of leaders, dramatic changes of government in Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines and elections in Malaysia. Countries covered include Brunei, Burma (Myanmar),Cambodia (Kampuchea), Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Key features include: * Individual entries provide detailed information and authoritative commentary on the central figures, political parties and organizations, political systems and structures, major events and key documents. * For each state covered, an extended narrative analyses its recent history and political and social development. * Extensive cross-referencing and a subject index lead the reader to the vital material. * Subject bibliographies refer researchers to source and secondary matter.

New Religions in Global Perspective

Religious Change in the Modern World
Author: Peter B. Clarke
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113451705X
Category: Religion
Page: 408
View: 5370
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Peter B. Clarke’s in-depth account explores the innovative character of new religious movements and new forms of spirituality from a global vantage point. Ranging from North America and Europe to Japan, Latin America, South Asia, Africa and the Caribbean, it is the perfect introduction to NRMs such as Falun Gong, Aum Shirikyo, the Brahma Kumaris, the Ikhwan or Muslim Brotherhood, Sufism, the Engaged Buddhist and Engaged Hindi movements, Messianic Judaism and Rastafarianism. Charting the cultural significance and global impact of NRMs, he discusses the ways in which various religious traditions are shaping, rather than displacing, each other’s understanding of notions such as transcendence and faith, good and evil, of the meaning, purpose and function of religion, and of religious belonging. He then examines the responses of governments, churches, the media and general public to new religious movements, as well as the reaction to older, increasingly influential religions, such as Buddhism and Islam, in new geographical and cultural contexts. Taking into account the degree of continuity between old and new religions, each chapter contains not only an account of the rise of the NRMs and new forms of spirituality in a particular region, but also an overview of change in the regions’ mainstream religions.

The Political Ideology of Hamas

A Grassroots Perspective
Author: Michael Irving Jensen
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857715747
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 7379
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Hamas is typically portrayed in the West as nothing more than a terrorist organisation. Yet as Michael Irving Jensen discovers, it also provides medical clinics, kindergartens, schools, elderly care and football training to the population of the West Bank and Gaza. Using a combination of interviews and participant observation, Jensen examines how these forms of social engagement relate to the organisation’s official ideology, which is still characterised by extremism and violence. The Political Ideology of Hamas is the first attempt to provide a multidimensional picture of this organisation by looking at how it is perceived by the leadership, the rank-and-file, and the ordinary Palestinians who come into contact with it. By comparing the rhetoric of the leadership with the social reality, Jensen opens up new ways of understanding Islamist movements in general. 'There are few other texts available in English that look into the social side of Hamas to any degree, and none that I know of that do so in this detail...well researched.' - Glen Rangwala, University of Cambridge

Directory of Islamic Financial Institutions


Author: John R. Presley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415527945
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 354
View: 9145
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When originally published this was the first reference book to address itself to Islamic banking and finance and it offers comprehensive information on all major institutions which have commercial or banking interests in this field. It includes analysis of the principles behind interest-free banking and indicates its relationship with financial institutions in both Islamic countries and Western ones. It also lists the laws governing interest-free banking in countries where it is extensively in operation and provides essential information for all international financial institutions. The Directory lists all banks and financial institutions by country, giving details of their specific role and areas of operation.

Political Islam and Violence in Indonesia


Author: Zachary Abuza
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134161255
Category: Political Science
Page: 176
View: 1685
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Political Islam and Violence in Indonesia presents a penetrating new investigation of religious radicalism in the largest Muslim country in the world. Indonesia is a country long known for its diversity and tolerant brand of Islam. However, since the fall of Suharto, a more intolerant form of Islam has been growing, one whose adherents have carried out terrorist attacks, waged sectarian war, and voiced strident anti-Western rhetoric. Zachary Abuza’s unique analysis of radical Islam draws upon primary documents such as Jemaah Islamiyah’s operations manual, interviews, and recorded testimonies of politicians, religious figures, and known militants, as well as personal interviews with numerous security and intelligence experts in Indonesia and elsewhere, to paint a picture at once guardedly optimistic about the future of Indonesian democracy and concerned about the increasing role of conservative and radical Islam in Indonesian society. This book will be of great interest to students of Indonesian politics, Asian studies, political violence and security studies in general.

Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias

The Warriors of Contemporary Combat
Author: Richard H. Shultz Jr.,Andrea J. Dew
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231503423
Category: Political Science
Page: 328
View: 9461
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Since the end of the Cold War, conventional militaries and their political leaders have confronted a new, brutal type of warfare in which non-state armed groups use asymmetrical tactics to successfully fight larger, technologically superior forces. In order to prevent future bloodshed and political chaos, it is crucial to understand how these unconventional armed groups think and to adapt to their methods of combat. Richard H. Shultz Jr. and Andrea J. Dew investigate the history and politics of modern asymmetrical warfare. By focusing on four specific hotbeds of instability—Somalia, Chechnya, Afghanistan, and Iraq—Shultz and Dew conduct a careful analysis of tribal culture and the value of clan associations. They examine why these "traditional" or "tribal" warriors fight, how they recruit, where they find sanctuary, and what is behind their strategy. Traveling across two centuries and several continents, Shultz and Dew examine the doctrinal, tactical, and strategic advantages and consider the historical, cultural, and anthropological factors behind the motivation and success of the warriors of contemporary combat. In their provocative argument, Shultz and Dew propose that war in the post-Cold War era cannot be waged through traditional Western methods of combat, especially when friendly states and outside organizations like al-Qaeda serve as powerful allies to the enemy. Thoroughly researched and highly readable, Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias examines how non-state armies fight, identifies the patterns and trends of their combat, and recommends how conventional militaries can defeat these irregular yet highly effective organizations.

The Islamic Threat

Myth or Reality?
Author: John L. Esposito
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199727209
Category: Political Science
Page: 352
View: 8974
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Are Islam and the West on a collision course? From the Ayatollah Khomeini to Saddam Hussein, the image of Islam as a militant, expansionist, and rabidly anti-American religion has gripped the minds of Western governments and media. But these perceptions, John L. Esposito writes, stem from a long history of mutual distrust, criticism, and condemnation, and are far too simplistic to help us understand one of the most important political issues of our time. In this new edition of The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, Esposito places the challenge of Islam in critical perspective. Exploring the vitality of this religion as a global force and the history of its relations with the West, Esposito demonstrates the diversity of the Islamic resurgence--and the mistakes our analysts make in assuming a hostile, monolithic Islam. This third edition has been expanded to include new material on current affairs in Turkey, Afghanistan, Palestine, and Southeast Asia, as well as a discussion of international terrorism.

The Hojjatiyeh Society in Iran

Ideology and Practice from the 1950s to the Present
Author: R. Cohen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137304774
Category: Political Science
Page: 194
View: 1460
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This book analyzes the evolution of the Hojjatiyeh movement in Iran, a semi-clandestine movement which emerged in the 1950s as an anti-Baha'i movement, went underground in the 1960s, and re-emerged openly after Iran's 1979 revolution with its members coming to occupy some of the highest echelon posts in Iranian politics

The Islamic State

A Brief Introduction
Author: Charles R. Lister
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815726686
Category: Political Science
Page: 110
View: 1712
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An authoritative guide to the rise of the Islamic State and its senior leadership. How did the Islamic State grow from regional terrorist group to a brutal multinational bureaucratic machine? What are its goals? How can it be stopped? In 2014 the Islamic State seemingly appeared out of nowhere, routing Iraqi forces, conquering Iraq's second-largest city, boldly announcing the establishment of a caliphate, and declaring itself the Islamic State (IS). Today, IS controls thousands of square miles and is attempting to govern millions of people. In this definitive guide to the Islamic State and its senior leadership, Charles R. Lister traces its roots from the release of its notorious father figure, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, from a Jordanian prison and the group's formation in Afghanistan in the late-1990s, and finally to its stunning maturation in Iraq and Syria. The West knows IS through its unrelenting propaganda war, with its deft use of social media and videos of horrific acts. Lister shares details of IS's sophisticated revenue machine, attempts at governing, and its formidable military. With IS knocking on the doors of Lebanon, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, Lister's portrait helps us understand what to expect next and recommends a course of action to defeat IS, extinguish extremism, and encourage a tolerant Islam across the Middle East. This book includes a Who's Who in the Islamic State's senior leadership. From the foreword by Ahmed Rashid "The Islamic State is the best basic understanding available of the ISIS phenomena and how to deal with it."

Sayyid Qutb

The Life and Legacy of a Radical Islamic Intellectual
Author: James Toth
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199969604
Category: Religion
Page: 432
View: 314
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Sayyid Qutb is widely considered the guiding intellectual of radical Islam, with a direct line connecting him to Osama bin Laden. But Qutb has too often been treated maliciously or reductively-"the Philosopher of Islamic Terror," as Paul Berman famously put it in the New York Times Magazine. James Toth offers an even-handed account of Sayyid Qutb and shows him to be a much more complex figure than the many one-dimensional portraits would have us believe. Qutb first gained notice as a novelist, literary critic, and poet but then turned to religious and political criticism aimed at the Egyptian government and Muslims he deemed insufficiently pious. After a two-year sojourn in the U.S., he returned to Egypt even more radicalized and joined the Muslim Brotherhood, eventually taking charge of its propaganda operation. When Brotherhood members were accused of assassinating Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, the group was outlawed and Qutb imprisoned. He was executed in 1966, becoming the first martyr to the Islamist cause. Using an analytical approach that investigates without passing judgment, Toth traces the life and thought of Qutb, giving attention not only to his well-known Signposts on the Road, but also to his less-studied works like Social Justice in Islam and his 30-volume Qur'anic commentary, In the Shade of the Qur'an. Toth's aim is to give Qutb's ideas a fair hearing, to measure their impact, and to treat him like other intellectuals who inspire revolutions, however unpopular they may be. In offering a more nuanced account of Qutb, one that moves beyond the cartoonish depictions of him as the evil genius lurking behind today's terrorists, Sayyid Qutb deepens our understanding of a central figure of radical Islam and, indeed, our understanding of radical Islam itself.

Khomeinism

Essays on the Islamic Republic
Author: Ervand Abrahamian
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520085039
Category: History
Page: 188
View: 8506
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"Fanatic," "dogmatic," "fundamentalist"—these are the words most often used in the West to describe the Ayatollah Khomeini. The essays in this book challenge that view, arguing that Khomeini and his Islamic movement should be seen as a form of Third World political populism—a radical but pragmatic middle-class movement that strives to enter, rather than reject, the modern age. Ervand Abrahamian, while critical of Khomeini, asks us to look directly at the Ayatollah's own works and to understand what they meant to his principal audience—his followers in Iran. Abrahamian analyzes political tracts dating back to 1943, along with Khomeini's theological writings and his many public statements in the form of speeches, interviews, proclamations and fatwas (judicial decrees). What emerges, according to Abrahamian, is a militant, sometimes contradictory, political ideology that focuses not on issues of scripture and theology but on the immediate political, social, and economic grievances of workers and the middle class. These essays reveal how the Islamic Republic has systematically manipulated history through televised "recantations," newspapers, school textbooks, and even postage stamps. All are designed to bolster the clergy's reputation as champions of the downtrodden and as defenders against foreign powers. Abrahamian also discusses the paranoia that permeates the political spectrum in Iran, contending that such deep distrust is symptomatic of populist regimes everywhere.