Cryocoolers 8


Author: Ronald G. Jr. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475798881
Category: Science
Page: 961
View: 2971
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The last few years have witnessed a substantial maturing of long life Stirling-cycle cryocoolers built upon the heritage of the flexure-bearing cryocoolers from Oxford University, and have seen the emergence of mature pulse tube cryocoolers competing head-to-head with the Stirling cryocoolers. Hydrogen sorption cryocoolers, Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers with rare earth regenerators, and helium Joule-Thomson cryocoolers have also made tremendous progress in opening up applications in the 4 K to 10 K temperature range. Tactical Stirling cryocoolers, now commonplace in the defense industry, are finding application in a number of cost constrained commercial applications and space missions, and are achieving ever longer lives as they move to linear-drive, clearance-seal compressors. Building on this expanding availability of commercially viable cryocoolers, numerous new applications are being enabled; many of these involve infrared imaging systems, and high temperature superconductors in the medical and communications fields. The vibration sensitivity of many of the infrared and medical imaging applications has led to the recognition that cryocooler-generated vibration and EMI is a critical performance parameter for these applications. In response, advanced closed-loop active vibration control systems have been developed and are being delivered to their first users. Application experiments, designed to explore, troubleshoot and resolve product integration issues, are occurring on an ever widening front, particularly in the fields of infrared imaging and spectroscopy, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and high-temperature superconductor applications. An important lesson is that integrating cryogenic systems requires care and thoughtfulness in a broad range of engineering and scientific disciplines.

Cryocoolers 9


Author: Ronald G.Jr. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461558697
Category: Science
Page: 967
View: 9003
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Proceedings of the 9th International Conference held in Waterville Valley, New Hampshire, June 25-27, 1996

Cryocoolers 10


Author: Ronald G. Jr. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 030647090X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 876
View: 760
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Cryocoolers 10 is the premier archival publication of the latest advances and performance of small cryogenic refrigerators designed to provide localized cooling for military, space, semi-conductor, medical, computing, and high-temperature superconductor cryogenic applications in the 2-200 K temperature range. Composed of papers written by leading engineers and scientists in the field, Cryocoolers 10 reports the most recent advances in cryocooler development, contains extensive performance test results and comparisons, and relates the latest experience in integrating cryocoolers into advanced applications.

Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Cryogenic Engineering Conference/International Cryogenic Materials Conference


Author: T. Haruyama,T. Mitsui,K. Yamafuji
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080539751
Category: Science
Page: 766
View: 6263
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This book contains the proceedings of the 16th ICEC/ICMC Conference, held in Kitakyushu, Japan, on 20th-24th May 1996. The Proceedings are presented in three volumes containing a total of 476 papers from 1484 authors. The proceedings covers the main areas of: Large Scale Refrigeration. Cryocoolers. Cryogenic Engineering. Space Cryogenics. Application of Superconductivity. Oxide Superconductors. Metallic Superconductors. Metallic Materials. Non Metallic Materials. In addition there are seven Plenary Lectures covering such diverse topics as commercialization of high-Tc superconductors, the continuing development of the Maglev system in Japan, and the Large Hadron Collider project. The Proceedings comprise an excellent and up-to-date summary of research and development in the fields of Cryogenics and Superconductivity.

Cryocoolers 11


Author: Ronald G. Jr. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306471124
Category: Science
Page: 825
View: 3516
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Composed of papers written by leading engineers and scientists in the field, this valuable collection reports the most recent advances in cryocooler development, contains extensive performance test results and comparisons, and relates the latest experience in integrating cryocoolers into advanced applications.

Cryocoolers ...

A Publication of the International Cryocooler Conference
Author: Ronald G. Ross
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: N.A
View: 9475
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Cryocoolers 12


Author: Ronald G. Jr. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306479192
Category: Science
Page: 825
View: 5226
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The last two years have witnessed a continuation in the breakthrough shift toward pulse tube cryocoolers for long-life, high-reliability cryocooler applications. One class of pulse tubes that has reached maturity is referred to as “Stirling type” because they are based on the linear Oxford Stirling-cooler type compressor; these generally provide cooling in the 30 to 100 K temperature range and operate at frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. The other type of pulse tube cooler making great advances is the so-called “Gifford-McMahon type. ” Pulse tube coolers of this type use a G-M type compressor and lower frequency operation to achieve temperatures in the 2 to 10 K temperature range. Nearly a third of this proceedings covers these new developments in the pulse tube arena. Complementing the work on low-temperature pulse tubes is substantial continued progress on rare earth regenerator materials and Gifford-McMahon coolers. These technologies continue to make great progress in opening up the 2 - 4 K market. Also in the commercial sector, continued interest is being shown in the development of long-life, low-cost cryocoolers for the emerging high temperature superconductor electronics market, particularly the cellular telephone base-station market. At higher temperature levels, closed-cycle J-T or throttle-cycle refrigerators are taking advantage of mixed refrigerant gases to achieve low-cost cryocooler systems in the 65 to 80 K temperature range.

Cryocoolers 13


Author: Ronald G. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387275339
Category: Science
Page: 726
View: 3886
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The last two years have witnessed a continuation in the breakthrough shift toward pulse tube cryocoolers for long-life, high-reliability cryocooler applications. New this year are papers de scribing the development of very large pulse tube cryocoolers to provide up to 1500 watts of cooling for industrial applications such as cooling the superconducting magnets of Mag-lev trains, coolmg superconducting cables for the power mdustry, and liquefymg natural gas. Pulse tube coolers can be driven by several competing compressor technologies. One class of pulse tube coolers is referred to as "Stirling type" because they are based on the linear Oxford Stirling-cooler type compressor; these generally provide coolmg m the 30 to 100 K temperature range and operate ^t frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. A second type of pulse tube cooler is the so-called "Gifford-McMahon type. " Pulse tube coolers of this type use a G-M type compressor and lower frequency operation (~1 Hz) to achieve temperatures in the 2 to 10 K temperature range. The third type of pulse tube cooler is driven by a thermoacoustic oscillator, a heat engine that functions well in remote environments where electricity is not readily available. All three types are described, and in total, nearly half of this proceedings covers new developments in the pulse tube arena. Complementing the work on low-temperature pulse tube and Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers is substantial continued progress on rare earth regenerator materials.

Applications of closed-cycle cryocoolers to small superconducting devices

proceedings of a conference held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, October 3-4, 1977
Author: United States. National Bureau of Standards,United States. Office of Naval Research
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery
Page: 251
View: 1580
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Applied Superconductivity

Handbook on Devices and Applications
Author: Paul Seidel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527670653
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 1336
View: 5651
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This wide-ranging presentation of applied superconductivity, from fundamentals and materials right up to the details of many applications, is an essential reference for physicists and engineers in academic research as well as in industry. Readers looking for a comprehensive overview on basic effects related to superconductivity and superconducting materials will expand their knowledge and understanding of both low and high Tc superconductors with respect to their application. Technology, preparation and characterization are covered for bulk, single crystals, thins fi lms as well as electronic devices, wires and tapes. The main benefit of this work lies in its broad coverage of significant applications in magnets, power engineering, electronics, sensors and quantum metrology. The reader will find information on superconducting magnets for diverse applications like particle physics, fusion research, medicine, and biomagnetism as well as materials processing. SQUIDs and their usage in medicine or geophysics are thoroughly covered, as are superconducting radiation and particle detectors, aspects on superconductor digital electronics, leading readers to quantum computing and new devices.

Case Studies in Superconducting Magnets

Design and Operational Issues
Author: Yukikazu Iwasa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387098003
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 682
View: 4671
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The 2nd edition emphasizes two areas not emphasized in the 1st edition: 1) high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnets; 2) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) magnets. Despite nearly 40 years of R and D on superconducting magnet technology, most areas, notably fusion and electric power applications, are still in the R and D stage. One exception is in the area of NMR and MRI. NMR magnets are very popular among chemists, biologists, genome scientists, and most of all, by drug manufacturers for drug discovery and development. MRI and NMR magnets have become the most successful application of superconducting magnet technology and this trend should continue. The 2nd edition will have new materials never treated formally in any other book of this kind. As with the 1st, most subjects will be presented through problem format to educate and train the designer.

Advances in Cryogenic Engineering


Author: Peter Kittel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306458071
Category: Science
Page: 2103
View: 8593
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The Oregon Convention Center, Portland, Oregon, was the venue for the 1997 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. The meeting was held jointly with the International Cryogenic Materials Conference. John Barclay, of the University of Victoria, and David Smathers, of Cabot Performance Materials, were conference chairmen. Portland is the home of Northwest Natural Gas, a pioneer in the use of liquid natural gas, and Portland State University, where cryogenic research has long been conducted. The program consisted of 350 CEC papers, considerable more than CEC-95. This was the largest number of papers ever submitted to the CEC. Of these, 263 papers are published here, in Volume 43 of Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. Once again the volume is published in two books. CEC PAPER REVIEW PROCESS Since 1954 Advances in Cryogenic Engineering has been the archival publication of papers presented at the biennial CEC!ICMC conferences. The publication includes invited, unsolicited, and government sponsored research papers in the research areas of cryogenic engineering and applications. All of the papers published must (1) be presented at the conference, (2) pass the peer review process, and (3) report previously unpublished theoretical studies, reviews, or advances in cryogenic engineering.

Cryogenic Technology and Applications


Author: A.R. Jha
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080457975
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 7073
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Cryogenic Technology and Applications describes the need for smaller cryo-coolers as a result of the advances in the miniaturization of electrical and optical devices and the need for cooling and conducting efficiency. Cryogenic technology deals with materials at low temperatures and the physics of their behavior at these temps. The book demonstrates the ongoing new applications being discovered for cryo-cooled electrical and optical sensors and devices, with particular emphasis on high-end commercial applications in medical and scientific fields as well as in the aerospace and military industries. This book summarizes the important aspects of cryogenic technology critical to the design and development of refrigerators, cryo-coolers, and micro-coolers needed by various commercial, industrial, space and military systems. Cryogenic cooling plays an important role in unmanned aerial vehicle systems, infrared search and track sensors, missile warning receivers, satellite tracking systems, and a host of other commercial and military systems. * Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology * Includes the latest information on micro-coolers for military and space applications * Offers detailed information on high-capacity cryogenic refrigerator systems used in applications such as food storage, high-power microwave and laser sensors, medical diagnostics, and infrared detectors

Digital and Radiographic Imaging E-Book

A Practical Approach
Author: Chris Gunn
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1455725153
Category: Medical
Page: 208
View: 6956
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This book covers all the existing imaging modalities currently in use in imaging departments, providing a sound basis for understanding how individual systems work. It is designed to be accessible to students without minimising the content. Although conventional imaging is being phased out, it still exists in certain areas, e.g. dental surgeries, and therefore is reduced in size and placed in an Appendix. The text has been restructured in list form to increase clarity and aid study Pedagogic features include an introduction and summary for each chapter Glossaries of imaging terms and computer buzz words, and a key to commonly used abbreviations are included New edition is completely rewritten: Digital imaging is main focus CT, ultrasound, MRI and NMR imaging added 'Conventional' imaging retained as an Appendix Text simplified, and block diagrams, flow charts and tables added to increase accessibility of content

Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Volume 4

Energy and Power
Author: Myer Kutz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118956362
Category: Science
Page: 1200
View: 3442
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The engineer's ready reference for mechanical power and heat Mechanical Engineer's Handbook provides the mostcomprehensive coverage of the entire discipline, with a focus onexplanation and analysis. Packaged as a modular approach, thesebooks are designed to be used either individually or as a set,providing engineers with a thorough, detailed, ready reference ontopics that may fall outside their scope of expertise. Each bookprovides discussion and examples as opposed to straight data andcalculations, giving readers the immediate background they needwhile pointing them toward more in-depth information as necessary.Volume 4: Energy and Power covers the essentials of fluids,thermodynamics, entropy, and heat, with chapters dedicated toindividual applications such as air heating, cryogenic engineering,indoor environmental control, and more. Readers will find detailedguidance toward fuel sources and their technologies, as well as ageneral overview of the mechanics of combustion. No single engineer can be a specialist in all areas that theyare called on to work in the diverse industries and job functionsthey occupy. This book gives them a resource for finding theinformation they need, with a focus on topics related to theproductions, transmission, and use of mechanical power andheat. Understand the nature of energy and its proper measurement andanalysis Learn how the mechanics of energy apply to furnaces,refrigeration, thermal systems, and more Examine the and pros and cons of petroleum, coal, biofuel,solar, wind, and geothermal power Review the mechanical parts that generate, transmit, and storedifferent types of power, and the applicable guidelines Engineers must frequently refer to data tables, standards, andother list-type references, but this book is different; instead ofjust providing the answer, it explains why the answer is what itis. Engineers will appreciate this approach, and come to findVolume 4: Energy and Power an invaluable reference.

Practical Design of Magnetostatic Structure Using Numerical Simulation


Author: Qiuliang Wang
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118398173
Category: Science
Page: 496
View: 3966
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Magnets are widely used in industry, medical, scientific instruments, and electrical equipment. They are the basic tools for scientific research and electromagnetic devices. Numerical methods for the magnetic field analysis combined with mathematical optimization from practical applications of the magnets have been widely studied in recent years. It is necessary for professional researchers, engineers, and students to study these numerical methods for the complex magnet structure design instead of using traditional "trial-and-error" methods. Those working in this field will find this book useful as a reference to help reduce costs and obtain good magnetic field quality. Presents a clear introduction to magnet technology, followed by basic theories, numerical analysis, and practical applications Emphasizes the latest developments in magnet design, including MRI systems Provides comprehensive numerical techniques that provide solutions to practical problems Introduces the latest computation techniques for optimizing and characterizing the magnetostatic structure design Well organized and adaptable by researchers, engineers, lecturers, and students Appendix available on the Wiley Companion Website As a comprehensive treatment of the topic, Practical Design of Magnetostatic Structure Using Numerical Simulation is ideal for researchers in the field of magnets and their applications, materials scientists, structural engineers, and graduate students in electrical engineering. The book will also better equip mechanical engineers and aerospace engineers.

Handbook of Hydrogen Storage

New Materials for Future Energy Storage
Author: Michael Hirscher
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527629817
Category: Science
Page: 373
View: 1124
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Owing to the limited resources of fossil fuels, hydrogen is proposed as an alternative and environment-friendly energy carrier. However, its potential is limited by storage problems, especially for mobile applications. Current technologies, as compressed gas or liquefied hydrogen, comprise severe disadvantages and the storage of hydrogen in lightweight solids could be the solution to this problem. Since the optimal storage mechanism and optimal material have yet to be identified, this first handbook on the topic provides an excellent overview of the most probable candidates, highlighting both their advantages as well as drawbacks. From the contents: ¿ Physisorption ¿ Clathrates ¿ Metal hydrides ¿ Complex hydrides ¿ Amides, imides, and mixtures ¿ Tailoring Reaction Enthalpies ¿ Borazan ¿ Aluminum hydride ¿ Nanoparticles A one-stop reference on all questions concerning hydrogen storage for physical and solid state chemists, materials scientists, chemical engineers, and physicists.

Advances in Cryogenic Engineering


Author: Quan-Sheng Shu,Peter Kittel,David Glaister,John Hull,Bill Burt,Al Zeller,John Zbasnik,Vitalij Pecharsky,Steven W. Van Sciver,Ray Radebaugh,Michael DiPirro,J. Patrick Kelley,Klaus D. Timmerhaus,Jay Theilacker,Charles Reece
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306464430
Category: Science
Page: 975
View: 409
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In recent years, the technology of cryogenic comminution has been widely applied in the field of chemical engineering, food making, medicine production, and particularly in recycling of waste materials. Because of the increasing pollution of waste tires and the shortage of raw rubber resource, the recycling process for waste rubber products has become important and commercially viable. This technology has shown a great number of advantages such as causing no environmental pollution, requiring low energy consumption and producing high quality products. Hence, the normal crusher which was used to reclaim materials, such as waste tires, nylon, plastic and many polymer materials at atmospheric 12 temperature is being replaced by a cryogenic crusher. • In the cryogenic crusher, the property of the milled material is usually very sensitive to temperature change. When a crusher is in operation, it will generate a great deal of heat that causes the material temperature increased. Once the temperature increases over the vitrification temperature, the material property will change and lose the brittle behavior causing the energy consumption to rise sharply. Consequently, the comminution process cannot be continued. Therefore, it is believed that the cryogenic crusher is the most critical component in the cryogenic comminution system. The research on the temperature increase and energy consumption in the cryogenic crusher is not only to reduce the energy consumption of the crasher, but also to reduce the energy consumption of the cryogenic system.

Bismuth-Based High-Temperature Superconductors


Author: Hiroshi Maeda
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824796907
Category: Science
Page: 656
View: 6701
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Provides coverage of the ongoing investigations on bismuth-based high-temperature cuprate superconductors, integrating scattered research activities and literature from 70 leading scientists throughout the world. The text covers crystal structures and microstructures, reversible or equilibrium magnetic and thermal properties, atomic site tunnel spectroscopy, experimental studies concerning equilibrium phases, and more.