Death in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times

Emotions were also intrinsic to how people in medieval and early modern Europe prepared for death, said goodbye to loved ones, commemorated their dead, and meditated on life after death. People in medieval and early modern Europe ...

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110436976

Category: Social Science

Page: 551

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Death is not only the final moment of life, it also casts a huge shadow on human society at large. People throughout time have had to cope with death as an existential experience, and this also, of course, in the premodern world. The contributors to the present volume examine the material and spiritual conditions of the culture of death, studying specific buildings and spaces, literary works and art objects, theatrical performances, and medical tracts from the early Middle Ages to the late eighteenth century. Death has always evoked fear, terror, and awe, it has puzzled and troubled people, forcing theologians and philosophers to respond and provide answers for questions that seem to evade real explanations. The more we learn about the culture of death, the more we can comprehend the culture of life. As this volume demonstrates, the approaches to death varied widely, also in the Middle Ages and the early modern age. This volume hence adds a significant number of new facets to the critical examination of this ever-present phenomenon of death, exploring poetic responses to the Black Death, types of execution of a female murderess, death as the springboard for major political changes, and death reflected in morality plays and art.
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Imagination and Fantasy in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Time

Peter Lang, 2016); Death in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times: The Material and Spiritual Conditions of the Culture of Death, ed. A. Classen. Fundamentals of Medieval and Early Modern Culture, 16 (Berlin and Boston: Walter de ...

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110693782

Category: History

Page: 820

View: 707

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The notions of other peoples, cultures, and natural conditions have always been determined by the epistemology of imagination and fantasy, providing much freedom and creativity, and yet have also created much fear, anxiety, and horror. In this regard, the pre-modern world demonstrates striking parallels with our own insofar as the projections of alterity might be different by degrees, but they are fundamentally the same by content. Dreams, illusions, projections, concepts, hopes, utopias/dystopias, desires, and emotional attachments are as specific and impactful as the physical environment. This volume thus sheds important light on the various lenses used by people in the Middle Ages and the early modern age as to how they came to terms with their perceptions, images, and notions. Previous scholarship focused heavily on the history of mentality and history of emotions, whereas here the history of pre-modern imagination, and fantasy assumes center position. Imaginary things are taken seriously because medieval and early modern writers and artists clearly reveal their great significance in their works and their daily lives. This approach facilitates a new deep-structure analysis of pre-modern culture.
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Sexuality in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times

New Approaches to a Fundamental Cultural-Historical and Literary-Anthropological Theme Albrecht Classen. The love-death relationship in medieval literature has been the subject of considerable critical attention, particularly in the ...

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110209402

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 911

View: 179

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Sexuality is one of the most influential factors in human life. The responses to and reflections upon the manifestations of sexuality provide fascinating insights into fundamental aspects of medieval and early-modern culture. This interdisciplinary volume with articles written by social historians, literary historians, musicologists, art historians, and historians of religion and mental-ity demonstrates how fruitful collaborative efforts can be in the exploration of essential features of human society. Practically every aspect of culture both in the Middle Ages and the early modern age was influenced and determined by sexuality, which hardly ever surfaces simply characterized by prurient interests. The treatment of sexuality in literature, chronicles, music, art, legal documents, and in scientific texts illuminates central concerns, anxieties, tensions, needs, fears, and problems in human society throughout times.
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Travel Time and Space in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Time

around him, indicating that all life is a travel to Him.19 In this regard, we could even extend our argument further and identify most religious travel experiences in the pre-modern world as directed toward the metaphysical dimension, ...

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110610963

Category: History

Page: 723

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Research on medieval and early modern travel literature has made great progress, which now allows us to take the next step and to analyze the correlations between the individual and space throughout time, which contributed essentially to identity formation in many different settings. The contributors to this volume engage with a variety of pre-modern texts, images, and other documents related to travel and the individual's self-orientation in foreign lands and make an effort to determine the concept of identity within a spatial framework often determined by the meeting of various cultures. Moreover, objects, images and words can also travel and connect people from different worlds through books. The volume thus brings together new scholarship focused on the interrelationship of travel, space, time, and individuality, which also includes, of course, women's movement through the larger world, whether in concrete terms or through proxy travel via readings. Travel here is also examined with respect to craftsmen's activities at various sites, artists' employment for many different projects all over Europe and elsewhere, and in terms of metaphysical experiences (catabasis).
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Pleasure and Leisure in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age

... “The North Portal of the Freiburg im Breisgau Minster: Cosmological Imagery as Funerary Art,” Death in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times: The Material and Spiritual Conditions of the Culture of Death, ed. A. Classen.

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110623703

Category: History

Page: 764

View: 208

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Jan Huizinga and Roger Caillois have already taught us to realize how important games and play have been for pre-modern civilization. Recent research has begun to acknowledge the fundamental importance of these aspects in cultural, religious, philosophical, and literary terms. This volume expands on the traditional approach still very much focused on the materiality of game (toys, cards, dice, falcons, dolls, etc.) and acknowledges that game constituted also a form of coming to terms with human existence in an unstable and volatile world determined by universal randomness and fortune. Whether considering blessings or horse fighting, falconry or card games, playing with dice or dolls, we can gain a much deeper understanding of medieval and early modern society when we consider how people pursued pleasure and how they structured their leisure time. The contributions examine a wide gamut of approaches to pleasure, considering health issues, eroticism, tournaments, playing music, reading and listening, drinking alcohol, gambling and throwing dice. This large issue was also relevant, of course, in non-Christian societies, and constitutes a critical concern both for the past and the present because we are all homines ludentes.
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Magic and Magicians in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Time

The Occult in Pre-Modern Sciences, Medicine, Literature, Religion, and Astrology Albrecht Classen ... as Funerary Art,” Death in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times: The Material and Spiritual Conditions of the Culture of Death, ed.

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110557725

Category: History

Page: 767

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There are no clear demarcation lines between magic, astrology, necromancy, medicine, and even sciences in the pre-modern world. Under the umbrella term 'magic,' the contributors to this volume examine a wide range of texts, both literary and religious, both medical and philosophical, in which the topic is discussed from many different perspectives. The fundamental concerns address issue such as how people perceived magic, whether they accepted it and utilized it for their own purposes, and what impact magic might have had on the mental structures of that time. While some papers examine the specific appearance of magicians in literary texts, others analyze the practical application of magic in medical contexts. In addition, this volume includes studies that deal with the rise of the witch craze in the late fifteenth century and then also investigate whether the Weberian notion of disenchantment pertaining to the modern world can be maintained. Magic is, oddly but significantly, still around us and exerts its influence. Focusing on magic in the medieval world thus helps us to shed light on human culture at large.
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Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age

... period thus continued a long tradition of primarily negative attitude towards self-inflicted death. Especially Augustine's (354-430) conception of suicide remained powerful throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern times.7 He ...

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110294583

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 610

View: 792

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All societies are constructed, based on specific rules, norms, and laws. Hence, all ethics and morality are predicated on perceived right or wrong behavior, and much of human culture proves to be the result of a larger discourse on vices and virtues, transgression and ideals, right and wrong. The topics covered in this volume, addressing fundamental concerns of the premodern world, deal with allegedly criminal, or simply wrong behavior which demanded punishment. Sometimes this affected whole groups of people, such as the innocently persecuted Jews, sometimes individuals, such as violent and evil princes. The issue at stake here embraces all of society since it can only survive if a general framework is observed that is based in some way on justice and peace. But literature and the visual arts provide many examples of open and public protests against wrongdoings, ill-conceived ideas and concepts, and stark crimes, such as theft, rape, and murder. In fact, poetic statements or paintings could carry significant potentials against those who deliberately transgressed moral and ethical norms, or who even targeted themselves.
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East Meets West in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times

Transcultural Experiences in the Premodern World Albrecht Classen. But a closer scrutiny of our written and archaeological sources reveals that embalming was an important issue during the Middle Ages. Today, we do not have to rely on ...

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110321517

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 827

View: 547

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This new volume explores the surprisingly intense and complex relationships between East and West during the Middle Ages and the early modern world, combining a large number of critical studies representing such diverse fields as literary (German, French, Italian, English, Spanish, and Arabic) and other subdisciplines of history, religion, anthropology, and linguistics. The differences between Islam and Christianity erected strong barriers separating two global cultures, but, as this volume indicates, despite many attempts to 'Other' the opposing side, the premodern world experienced an astonishing degree of contacts, meetings, exchanges, and influences. Scientists, travelers, authors, medical researchers, chroniclers, diplomats, and merchants criss-crossed the East and the West, or studied the sources produced by the other culture for many different reasons. As much as the theoretical concept of 'Orientalism' has been useful in sensitizing us to the fundamental tensions and conflicts separating both worlds at least since the eighteenth century, the premodern world did not quite yet operate in such an ideological framework. Even though the Crusades had violently pitted Christians against Muslims, there were countless contacts and a palpitable curiosity on both sides both before, during, and after those religious warfares.
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Rural Space in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age

The Spatial Turn in Premodern Studies Albrecht Classen ... effectively against his jokes and deceptions, so that the audience is simply forced to laugh 245 George Huppert, After the Black Death: A Social History of Early Modern Europe.

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110285420

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 930

View: 876

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Older research on the premodern world limited its focus on the Church, the court, and, more recently, on urban space. The present volume invites readers to consider the meaning of rural space, both in light of ecocritical readings and social-historical approaches. While previous scholars examined the figure of the peasant in the premodern world, the current volume combines a large number of specialized studies that investigate how the natural environment and the appearance of members of the rural population interacted with the world of the court and of the city. The experience in rural space was important already for writers and artists in the premodern era, as the large variety of scholarly approaches indicates. The present volume signals how much the surprisingly close interaction between members of the aristocratic and of the peasant class determined many literary and art-historical works. In a surprisingly large number of cases we can even discover elements of utopia hidden in rural space. We also observe how much the rural world was a significant element already in early-medieval mentality. Moreover, as many authors point out, the impact of natural forces on premodern society was tremendous, if not catastrophic.
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Freedom Imprisonment and Slavery in the Pre Modern World

304 Elizabeth →Elliot, “The Counsele of Philosophy: The Kingis Quair and the Medieval Reception History of the ... Death in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times: The Material and Spiritual Conditions of the Culture of Death, ed.

Author: Albrecht Classen

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110731859

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 273

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Contrary to common assumptions, medieval and early modern writers and poets often addressed the high value of freedom, whether we think of such fable authors as Marie de France or Ulrich Bonerius. Similarly, medieval history knows of numerous struggles by various peoples to maintain their own freedom or political independence. Nevertheless, as this study illustrates, throughout the pre-modern period, the loss of freedom could happen quite easily, affecting high and low (including kings and princes) and there are many literary texts and historical documents that address the problems of imprisonment and even enslavement (Georgius of Hungary, Johann Schiltberger, Hans Ulrich Krafft, etc.). Simultaneously, philosophers and theologians discussed intensively the fundamental question regarding free will (e.g., Augustine) and political freedom (e.g., John of Salisbury). Moreover, quite a large number of major pre-modern poets spent a long time in prison where they composed some of their major works (Boethius, Marco Polo, Charles d'Orléans, Thomas Malory, etc.). This book brings to light a vast range of relevant sources that confirm the existence of this fundamental and impactful discourse on freedom, imprisonment, and enslavement.
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