Differential Subject Marking

This is known as Differential Subject Marking (DSM). Containing illuminating discussions of DSM from languages all over the world, this book shows that DSM is often the result of interactions between conflicting constraints on language use.

Author: Helen de Hoop

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402064975

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 312

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Not all sentences encode their subjects in the same way. Some languages overtly mark some subjects depending on certain features of the subject argument or the sentence in which the subject figures. This is known as Differential Subject Marking (DSM). Containing illuminating discussions of DSM from languages all over the world, this book shows that DSM is often the result of interactions between conflicting constraints on language use.
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Diachrony of differential argument marking

Chapter 14 Differential subject marking and its demise in the history of Japanese Yuko Yanagida University of Tsukuba The subject of various types of subordinate or nominalized clauses in Old Japanese (700– 800) is marked in one of ...

Author: Ilja A. Seržant

Publisher: Language Science Press

ISBN: 9783961100859

Category: Electronic books

Page: 563

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While there are languages that code a particular grammatical role (e.g. subject or direct object) in one and the same way across the board, many more languages code the same grammatical roles differentially. The variables which condition the differential argument marking (or DAM) pertain to various properties of the NP (such as animacy or definiteness) or to event semantics or various properties of the clause. While the main line of current research on DAM is mainly synchronic the volume tackles the diachronic perspective. The tenet is that the emergence and the development of differential marking systems provide a different kind of evidence for the understanding of the phenomenon. The present volume consists of 18 chapters and primarily brings together diachronic case studies on particular languages or language groups including e.g. Finno-Ugric, Sino-Tibetan and Japonic languages. The volume also includes a position paper, which provides an overview of the typology of different subtypes of DAM systems, a chapter on computer simulation of the emergence of DAM and a chapter devoted to the cross-linguistic effects of referential hierarchies on DAM.
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Differential Case Marking in Mongolian

This book investigates the phenomenon starting from the research question of how the Mongolian pattern is influenced by factors that cross-linguistically trigger DOM, such as referentiality, animacy, and topicality.

Author: Dolgor Guntsetseg

Publisher: Harrassowitz

ISBN: 3447106115

Category: Mongolian language

Page: 204

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Mongolian is an ordinary DOM (Differential Object Marking) language: the accusative case does not always occur on direct objects. This book investigates the phenomenon starting from the research question of how the Mongolian pattern is influenced by factors that cross-linguistically trigger DOM, such as referentiality, animacy, and topicality. It shows that looking at any of these factors on its own is not sufficient, but rather that DOM emerges from a complicated interaction of these factors. Apart from DOM, Mongolian also exhibits a specific type of Differential Subject marking (DSM), in which the subjects of embedded clauses (including adverbial clauses) occur with the accusative case. This is the second issue investigated in the study. In addition to the features already mentioned, sentence structure turns out to be relevant here. More specifically, the adjacent occurrence of main and embedded subjects is identified as a crucial factor for triggering DSM. Both observations about DOM and DSM in Mongolian can be brought together in the generalization that the accusative case in Mongolian is used to distinguish between two arguments not only within a clause but also across the clause boundaries. The book provides a detailed introduction into relevant components of Mongolian grammar, and its findings are supported by extensive experimental studies with a large number of native speakers in an attempt to ensure a high quality of linguistic evidence.
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The Diachronic Typology of Non Canonical Subjects

subject marking we are dealing with here. Clearly, differential subject marking is not a homogeneous phenomenon. It comes in different formal guises and it is governed by a variety of conditions cross-linguistically (cf. de Hoop & de ...

Author: Ilja A. Serzant

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027271303

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 364

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This volume is an important contribution to the diachrony of non-canonical subjects in a typological perspective. The questions addressed concern the internal mechanisms and triggers for various changes that non-canonical subjects undergo, ranging from semantic motivations to purely structural explanations. The discussion encompasses the whole life-cycle of non-canonical subjects: from their emergence out of non-subject arguments to their expansion, demise or canonicization, focusing primarily on syntactic changes and changes in case-marking. The volume offers a number of different case studies comprising such languages as Italian, Spanish, Old Norse and Russian as well as languages less studied in this context, such as Latin, Classical Armenian, Baltic languages and some East Caucasian languages. Typological generalizations in the form of recurrent developmental paths are offered on the basis of data presented in this volume and in the literature.
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Competition and Variation in Natural Languages

by Amberber and De Hoop and Narasimhan — provide a detailed discussion of case marking with particular reference to the phenomenon of differential casemarking. Mengistu Amberber examines differential subject marking in Amharic.

Author: Mengistu Amberber

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080459773

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 374

View: 449

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This volume combines different perspectives on case-marking: (1) typological and descriptive approaches of various types and instances of case-marking in the languages of the world as well as comparison with languages that express similar types of relations without morphological case-marking; (2) formal analyses in different theoretical frameworks of the syntactic, semantic, and morphological properties of case-marking; (3) a historical approach of case-marking; (4) a psycholinguistic approach of case-marking. Although there are a number of publications on case related issues, there is no volume such as the present one, which exclusively looks at case marking, competition and variation from a cross-linguistic perspective and within the context of different contemporary theoretical approaches to the study of language. In addition to chapters with broad conceptual orientation, the volume offers detailed empirical studies of case in a number of diverse languages including: Amharic, Basque, Dutch, Hindi, Japanese, Kuuk Thaayorre, Malagasy and Yurakaré. The volume will be of interest to researchers and advanced students in the cognitive sciences, general linguistics, typology, historical linguistics, formal linguistics, and psycholinguistics. The book will interest scholars working within the context of formal syntactic and semantic theories as it provides insight into the properties of case from a cross-linguistic perspective. The book also will be of interest to cognitive scientists interested in the relationship between meaning and grammar, in particular, and the human mind's capacity in the mapping of meaning onto grammar, in general.
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Prototypical Transitivity

It is predicted, then, that one will find the opposite case-marking patterns for transitive subjects and objects: while ... An interesting fact about such animacy-driven differential subject marking, however, is that it nearly always ...

Author: Åshild Næss

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027292216

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 240

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This book presents a functional analysis of a notion which has gained considerable importance in cognitive and functional linguistics over the last couple of decades, namely 'prototypical transitivity'. It discusses what prototypical transitivity is, why it should exist, and how it should be defined, as well as how this definition can be employed in the analysis of a number of phenomena of language, such as case-marking, experiencer constructions, and so-called ambitransitives. Also discussed is how a prototype analysis relates to other approaches to transitivity, such as that based on markedness. The basic claim is that transitivity is iconic: a construction with two distinct, independent arguments is prototypically used to refer to an event with two distinct, independent participants. From this principle, a unified account of the properties typically associated with transitivity can be derived, and an explanation for why these properties tend to correlate across languages can be given.
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Language Change Variation and Universals

5.3 Differential marking The organization of CS argument structure is reflected in differential marking , a phenomenon that is particularly well - documented in the typological literature . Briefly , differential subject marking ( DSM ) ...

Author: Peter W. Culicover

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198865391

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 336

View: 155

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This volume explores how human languages become what they are, why they differ from one another in certain ways but not in others, and why they change in the ways that they do. Peter Culicover proposes that language change and variation are responses to the pressure to find efficient grammatical solutions to the task of expressing human thought.
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Coding Participant Marking

... 1sg.give 'I am giving/will give it to you (Pl)' Apart from Differential Object Marking, languages may use Differential Subject Marking, a system attested in languages distantly related to Tama, namely a group of Nilotic languages.

Author: Gerrit Jan Dimmendaal

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027205773

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 389

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Whereas Africa as a typological area is often associated with extensive verb morphology and verb serialization, this collection of studies shows that there is tremendous typological diversity at the clausal level. Verb serialization in the Khoisan area contrasts with extensive case-marking in languages of northeastern Africa, which also use converbs and light verb plus coverb constructions. Although the categorial distinction between nouns and verbs is generally clear in African languages, a number of them nevertheless provide intricate analytical challenges in this respect. Whereas some languages are strongly head marking at the clausal level, others manifest an interesting mixture of alternative strategies for the coding of participants. The analysis of information packaging, and related issues such as split ergativity, Differential Object Marking, and discourse-configurational properties also play a role in several contributions. The collection contains not only innovative analyses for the respective language families these languages belong to, but also material relevant for the current debate in theoretical linguistics concerning lexical specification as against construction-based approaches towards argument structure.
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Information Structure in Lesser described Languages

Givenness, contrastiveness, definiteness, subjects, topics, and point of view. ... In Differential Subject Marking, Helen de Hoop & Peter de Swart (eds), 1–16. ... On fluid differential case marking: Abidirectional OT approach.

Author: Evangelia Adamou

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789027263810

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 450

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The articles compiled in this volume offer new insights into the wealth of prosodic and syntactic phenomena involved in the encoding of information structure categories. They present data from languages which are rarely, if ever, taken into account in the most prominent approaches in information structure theory, and which belong to the Afroasiatic, Amerindian, Australian, Caucasian, and Niger-Congo language stocks. In addition to the significant descriptive value of these pioneering contributions, several studies also draw attention to previously undescribed or typologically rare phenomena. By adapting a variety of methods to under-described and endangered languages, ranging from experimental to naturalistic corpus studies, this volume also aims to serve as an invitation for further research in this direction.
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The Oxford Handbook of Ergativity

Many of the functions of subject marking in Burmese are strikingly similar to those found for A and S marking in Tibetan. ... Recent treatments use the term differential agent or differential subject marking (Jenny and Hnin Tun 2013).

Author: Jessica Coon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191059780

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 960

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This volume offers theoretical and descriptive perspectives on the issues pertaining to ergativity, a grammatical patterning whereby direct objects are in some way treated like intransitive subjects, to the exclusion of transitive subjects. This pattern differs markedly from nominative/accusative marking whereby transitive and intransitive subjects are treated as one grammatical class, to the exclusion of direct objects. While ergativity is sometimes referred to as a typological characteristic of languages, research on the phenomenon has shown that languages do not fall clearly into one category or the other and that ergative characteristics are not consistent across languages. Chapters in this volume look at approaches to ergativity within generative, typological, and functional paradigms, as well as approaches to the core morphosyntactic building blocks of an ergative construction; related constructions such as the anti-passive; related properties such as split ergativity and word order; and extensions and permutations of ergativity, including nominalizations and voice systems. The volume also includes results from experimental investigations of ergativity, a relatively new area of research. A wide variety of languages are represented, both in the theoretical chapters and in the 16 case studies that are more descriptive in nature, attesting to both the pervasiveness and diversity of ergative patterns.
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Case Agreement and their Interactions

Keywords: differential object marking, differential subject marking, Greek, morphological case, abstract Case 1 Introduction Differential case marking phenomena have drawn the attention of research throughdifferentperspectives,because ...

Author: András Bárány

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110666137

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 362

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Differential argument marking has been a hot topic in linguistics for several decades, both because it is cross-linguistically widespread and because it raises essential questions at multiple levels of grammar, including the relationship between abstract processes and overt morphological marking, between case and agreement, and between syntax and information structure. This volume provides an introduction into the current state of the art of research on differential case marking and chapters by leading linguists addressing theoretical questions in a wide range of typologically and geographically diverse languages from the Indo-European, Sinitic, Turkic, and Uralic families. The chapters engage with current theoretical issues in the morphology, syntax, semantics, and processing of differential argument marking. A central issue addressed by all the authors is the adequacy of various theoretical approaches in modelling (different varieties of) differential case marking, such as those determined by topicality, those driven by cumulative factors, and those that involve double marking. The volume will be of interest to students and researchers working on cross-linguistic variation in differential marking and its theoretical modelling.
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Case Valency and Transitivity

This alternation in subject marking in Hindi is totally independent of O-marking. ... 4.2.3 Differential Object Marking In the split ergative languages considered above case alternations involve both core arguments in a transitive ...

Author: L. I. Kulikov

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027230874

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 503

View: 192

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The three concepts of case, valency and transitivity belong to the most discussed topics of modern linguistics. On the one hand, they are crucially connected with morphological aspects of the clause, including case marking, person agreement and voice. On the other hand, they are related to several semantic issues such as the meaning of case, semantico-syntactic verbal classes, and the semantic correlates of transitivity. The volume unifies papers written within different theoretical frameworks and representing variegated approaches (Optimality Theory, Government and Binding, various versions of the Functional approach, Cross-linguistic and Typological analyses), containing both numerous new findings in individual languages and valuable observations and generalizations related to case, valency and transitivity.
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The Linguistic Cycle

I'll now turn to a kind of subject and object marking that is a mix between grammatical and semantic Case. 4. Differential Marking of Objects and Subjects Differential marking (DM) occurs when subjects or objects are specially marked ...

Author: Elly van Gelderen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199756049

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 439

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In this volume, Elly van Gelderen examines the linguistic cycle and describes how it offers a unique perspective on the language faculty. Each chapter provides data on a separate cycle from a myriad of languages.
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The Cambridge Handbook of Japanese Linguistics

As in the case of many Ryukyuan dialects such as Irabu (Section 4.5) and Amami (Section 4.6.1), the differential case marking of S/A is conditioned by the animacy of the subject NP. Ga is attached to nouns higher in animacy (human nouns ...

Author: Yoko Hasegawa

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316952757

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page:

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The linguistic study of Japanese, with its rich syntactic and phonological structure, complex writing system, and diverse sociohistorical context, is a rapidly growing research area. This book, designed to serve as a concise reference for researchers interested in the Japanese language and in typological studies of language in general, explores diverse characteristics of Japanese that are particularly intriguing when compared with English and other European languages. It pays equal attention to the theoretical aspects and empirical phenomena from theory-neutral perspectives, and presents necessary theoretical terms in clear and easy language. It consists of five thematic parts including sound system and lexicon, grammatical foundation and constructions, and pragmatics/sociolinguistics topics, with chapters that survey critical discussions arising in Japanese linguistics. The Cambridge Handbook of Japanese Linguistics will be welcomed by general linguists, and students and scholars working in linguistic typology, Japanese language, Japanese linguistics and Asian Studies.
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The Linguistic Cycle Language Change and the Language Faculty

I'll now turn to a kind of subject and object marking that is a mix between grammatical and semantic Case. 4.Differential Markingof Objects andSubjects Differential marking (DM) occurs when subjects or objects are specially marked ...

Author: Department of English Arizona State University Elly van Gelderen Regents' Professor

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199857630

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 464

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Elly van Gelderen provides examples of linguistic cycles from a number of languages and language families, along with an account of the linguistic cycle in terms of minimalist economy principles. A cycle involves grammaticalization from lexical to functional category followed by renewal. Some well-known cycles involve negatives, where full negative phrases are reanalyzed as words and affixes and are then renewed by full phrases again. Verbal agreement is another example: full pronouns are reanalyzed as agreement markers and are renewed again. Each chapter provides data on a separate cycle from a myriad of languages. Van Gelderen argues that the cross-linguistic similarities can be seen as Economy Principles present in the initial cognitive system or Universal Grammar. She further claims that some of the cycles can be used to classify a language as analytic or synthetic, and she provides insight into the shape of the earliest human language and how it evolved.
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Quantification Definiteness and Nominalization

problem is that this type of differential case marking in Central Pomo carries over to intransitive subjects as well: (10) Q'alá·w died m'u·tu. he.ACC 'He died.' In (10) the subject of the intransitive clause is a patient and when it is ...

Author: Anastasia Giannakidou

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191562013

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 432

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This book addresses recent developments in the study of quantifier phrases, nominalizations, and the linking definite determiner. It reflects the intense reconsideration of the nature of quantification, and of fundamental aspects of the syntax and semantics of quantifier phrases. Leading international scholars explore novel and challenging ideas at the interfaces between syntax and morphology, syntax and semantics, morphology and the lexicon. They examine core issues in the field, such as kind reference, number marking, partitivity, context dependence and the way presuppositions are built into the meanings of quantifiers. They also consider how in this context definiteness and the definite determiner D play a central role, and the way in which D is also instrumental in nominalizations. With nominalization, the lexical semantic contribution of verbs and their arguments becomes central, and within the perspective of this book the question is asked whether syntactic nominalizations share with noun phrases the same external layer, namely the functional projection DP. If so, what exactly is the contribution of D in this case, and how much of the lexical correspondence between nouns and verbs is preserved? This book presents the latest thinking on cross-paradigm and cross-linguistic approaches in three of the most vibrant and productive research areas in linguistics. It paves the way towards a more comprehensive understanding of how quantification, definiteness, and nominalizations are encoded in the grammar.
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Person Case and Agreement

The parameter hierarchy in Figure 6.1 does not make any reference to differential object and subject marking per se. This is because differential object and subject marking (or agreement) depend not just on the distribution of ...

Author: Andras Barany

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198804185

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 240

View: 185

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This book provides both language-specific and cross-linguistic comparative analyses of phenomena relating to person, case and case-marking, and agreement. It offers an explicit and detailed analysis of differential object marking in Hungarian, and shows that the same general type of analysis can account for related phenomena in unrelated languages such as Kashmiri and Sahaptin. In Hungarian, the person of both the subject and the object determines verbal morphology, while in Kashmiri and Sahaptin, person determines object case-marking and subject case-marking, respectively. Andras Barany adopts broadly the same analysis for these three languages, focusing on how person and agreement influence case-marking. In contrast, the final chapters examine how case-marking influences agreement and show how to account for both orders of interaction. Finally, the author discusses typological generalizations based on the interaction of case and agreement and shows how only the attested patterns of case-marking and agreement in ditransitive clauses are predicted. The book combines data from eight different language families with theory and explicit analyses, and will be of interest to both formal and data-oriented linguists and typologists alike.
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Burmese

12.9 Pragmatic case marking Differential case marking is a phenomenon by which a grammatical relation such as subject or object receives specific case marking only in certain semantic or pragmatic environments.

Author: Mathias Jenny

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317309307

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 504

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Burmese: A Comprehensive Grammar is a complete reference guide to modern Burmese grammar. It presents a fresh and thorough description of the language, concentrating on the real patterns of use in modern Burmese. The volume is organized to promote a thorough understanding of Burmese grammar. It offers a stimulating analysis of the complexities of the language, with clear explanations. Throughout, the emphasis is on Burmese as used by present-day native speakers. Features include: detailed treatment of the common grammatical structures and parts of speech particular attention to areas of confusion and difficulty all examples given in Burmese script, IPA phonetic transcription, and English glossary of linguistic terminology The Grammar is the ideal reference source for intermediate to advanced learners and users of Burmese and will remain the standard reference work for years to come.
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Space in Diachrony

Differential Goal marking vs. differential Source marking in Ancient Greek Silvia Luraghi University of Pavia Differential marking of Goal and Source is a relatively underresearched topic. Available cross-linguistic evidence points ...

Author: Silvia Luraghi

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789027265197

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 370

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Space is a fundamental dimension of human life and is pervasive in human experience. Research on space has highlighted the possible asymmetrical nature of spatial relations. Differences in the encoding of goals and sources of motion are a case in point, and cross-linguistic coding tendencies show that path is less frequently flagged by a dedicated case than goal, source/origin, and (static) location (locative). Interestingly, such asymmetries may correlate with certain types of landmark, as in the case of toponyms or of animate entities. Even though these issues have been focused upon both in typological and psycholinguistic research, they remain largely open. The papers in this collection aim to show that a diachronic approach may shed light on the way in which asymmetries in the space domain come about over time, thus contributing to the clarification of synchronically puzzling facts.
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