Formative assessment plays an important role in increasing teacher quality and student learning when it’s viewed as a process rather than a tool. Emphasizing the instructional side of formative assessment, this book explores in depth the use of classroom questioning, learning intentions and success criteria, feedback, collaborative and cooperative learning, and self-regulated learning to engineer effective learning environments for students.
Emphasizing the instructional side of formative assessment, this book explores in depth the use of classroom questioning, learning intentions and success criteria, feedback, collaborative and cooperative learning, and self-regulated ...
Author: Dylan Wiliam
Publisher: Solution Tree Press
Educational achievement carries more importance than ever in the 21st century. According to academic research, teacher quality plays the most vital role in raising achievement among all K¿12 students, so improving teacher quality will lead to both greater student outcomes and greater prosperity for individuals and the whole of society. The Handbook for Embedded Formative Assessment makes the case that incorporating formative assessment into daily classroom practice raises teacher quality and enhances student learning to help all parties meet the evolving demands of society. As a companion to Embedded Formative Assessment, Second Edition (Wiliam, 2018), this book has one main purpose: to help teachers develop the practice of formative assessment in classrooms by providing tried-and-tested classroom formative assessment techniques and giving evidence that shows how these techniques positively impact student achievement. Grades K¿12 teachers can choose from these techniques, try them out in the classroom, and modify them to meet their specific needs. However, The Handbook for Embedded Formative Assessment can also act as a stand-alone book, sharing highlights from Embedded Formative Assessment as necessary before leading straight to the how-tos of classroom formative assessment.
Developed as a companion to Embedded Formative Assessment, 2nd edition, this handbook guides K-12 teachers through the process of developing effective formative assessments.
Author: Solution Tree
The Handbook of Formative Assessment in the Disciplines meaningfully addresses current developments in the field, offering a unique and timely focus on domain dependency. Building from an updated definition of formative assessment, the book covers the integration of measurement principles into practice; the operationalization of formative assessment within specific domains, beyond generic strategies; evolving research directions including student involvement and self-regulation; and new approaches to the challenges of incorporating formative assessment training into pre-service and in-service educator training. As supporters of large-scale testing programs increasingly consider the potential of formative assessments to improve teaching and learning, this handbook advances the subject through novel frameworks, intersections of theory, research, and practice, and attention to discernible disciplines. Written for instructors, graduate students, researchers, and policymakers, each chapter provides expert perspectives on the procedures and evaluations that enable teachers to adapt teaching and learning in-process toward student achievement.
In an ongoing research-practice partnership, Penuel and colleagues have
developed three-dimensional units of science instruction and, as part of that
design process, embedded formative assessments at “bends” in the curriculum
Author: Heidi L. Andrade
This dissertation, "Implementation of Curriculum-embedded Formative Assessments in Two English for Academic Purposes Writing Courses in Hong Kong" by Xiang, Wang, 王翔, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Formative assessment has been increasingly acknowledged as a powerful instrument to facilitate students' learning across disciplines and levels of education. However, it is a relatively new concept in second language (L2) writing. In fact, some key formative assessment strategies such as teacher providing feedback on students' drafts and students evaluating their own works have been widely used in L2 writing classrooms; however, the literature on L2 writing has rarely examined these strategies from the perspective of formative assessment. Therefore, this study aimed to fill the gap by drawing on the formative assessment literature to examine some writing instructional strategies in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses. A two-phase qualitative study design was adopted for the investigation. The first phase aimed to understand what curriculum-embedded formative assessments (CEFAs) were conducted in 2 EAP courses to facilitate students' learning of essay writing and how the teachers and students experienced and perceived the CEFAs. Participants were 2 teachers and 12 of their students in 2 first-year EAP classes in a university in Hong Kong. The main data sources included classroom observation, semi-structured teacher interviews and student interviews, and relevant documents such as students drafts, peer evaluation forms, course handbooks, classroom handouts, and relevant university documents. The second phase of the study, conducted approximately 5 months after the first one, was focused on the participants' reflection on the practices and usefulness of the CEFAs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with the 2 participant teachers, 7 of the participant students, and a coordinator of one of the concerned EAP courses. The findings revealed that 3 kinds of formative assessment strategies were conducted to varying extents in the classes: evaluation of a sample essay, teacher feedback on students' first drafts, and students' peer evaluation. The thesis described how these strategies were conducted in the two classes, how the students were engaged in them, and how the teachers and students perceived them. A qualitative analysis of the data identified 6 factors influencing the implementation of CEFAs in the EAP writing classrooms, which were teacher factors, student factors, classroom atmosphere, curriculum factors, impact of summative assessment, and sociocultural factors. This study builds a bridge between two significant fields of research, that is, formative assessment and L2 writing instructions. The findings add new perspectives to both fields. The identification of the factors that influence the practices of CEFAs in EAP writing in Hong Kong may provide an exploratory framework for understanding the implementation of CEFAs within similar contexts. Finally, the study may raise EAP writing teachers' awareness of effective ways to conduct formative assessments. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4979928 Subjects: Academic writing - Study and teaching (Higher) - China - Hong Kong Educational tests and measurements - China - Hong Kong
This dissertation, "Implementation of Curriculum-embedded Formative Assessments in Two English for Academic Purposes Writing Courses in Hong Kong" by Xiang, Wang, 王翔, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) ...
Author: Xiang Wang
The need for a scientifically-literate American population has gained great prominence on the educational landscape of priorities over the past decade; young children will be increasingly exposed to the STEM fields and encouraged to excel in these areas. Professional development is key to assuring that early childhood teachers provide children with cognitively-challenging early learning experiences. Focusing on the Head Start community, "Foundations of Science Literacy" (FSL) is a credit-bearing professional development course that directly addresses the achievement gap in early science education. The program not only addresses an urgent need, it also integrates the resources, structure, and support that preschool teachers need to improve early science learning and teaching. First, based on data from an efficacy study nearing completion, the authors assess whether "FSL without" embedded formative assessments leads to gains in preschool children. Second, drawing on insights from a new development project, the authors describe how instruction-embedded formative assessment can be used to "strengthen" and "clarify" the relation between gains in teacher pedagogical content knowledge and gains in children's scientific thinking. For the efficacy study, FSL was implemented in the greater New York City area and the population included preschool teachers and a sample of children in their classrooms using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design. The authors highlight a promising approach to learning from mixed (summative) results using formative assessment to provide more nuanced information about children's learning over time and to allow teachers to tailor instruction so that it is more effective. One figure is appended.
Focusing on the Head Start community, "Foundations of Science Literacy" (FSL) is a credit-bearing professional development course that directly addresses the achievement gap in early science education.
Author: Nancy Clark-Chiarelli
In collaboration with two other research organizations, the authors integrate principles of the BEAR Assessment System with Universal Design for Learning principles to develop and validate learning progressions and an aligned, universally designed formative and summative classroom assessment system for promoting conceptual understanding of number sense/operations for students with Math Learning Disabilities (MLD). This research will help to create an effective and validated formative assessment system for meaningfully and validly diagnosing and promoting student learning outcomes on constructs central to number sense and operations for whole numbers up to and including elementary fractions. The assessment system will offer a powerful tool that will provide teachers cutting edge research and empirically based resources for validly monitoring student knowledge and progress, meaningfully interpreting evidence about student learning from formative assessments (including what students know and do not know about the target constructs), and successfully using formative data to adjust subsequent instruction. These tools will enable teachers to intervene with students who are struggling mathematically. Although developed specifically for students with learning disabilities in math, the system will be useful to all those who seek ways to assess and enhance students' conceptual understanding of early foundational math and facilitate access to STEM content for diverse student populations. (Contains 1 footnote.).
In collaboration with two other research organizations, the authors integrate principles of the BEAR Assessment System with Universal Design for Learning principles to develop and validate learning progressions and an aligned, universally ...
Author: Kavita L. Seeratan
Category: Academic writing
Author: Xiang Wang (Ph. D.)
Category: Academic writing
( Chin Fatt , 2001 ; MOEC , 1997 ) The school administration must play a more
proactive role in informing the school and the home communities of the important
use and benefits of embedded , formative assessment . They should also ...
This dissertation, "Reflective Assessment in Knowledge Building Using the Knowledge Connections Analyzer" by Yuqin, Yang, 楊玉芹, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: This dissertation investigated the design, process and effects of reflective assessment of students' knowledge building, using the Knowledge Connections Analyzer (KCA) for Knowledge Forum(R) (van Aalst et al., 2012). The dissertation is a dissertation by articles, comprised of four studies. Study 1 is a systematic review of the literature on formative assessment interventions in technology-enhanced environments in K-14 education; 39 studies that satisfied the search criteria were analyzed. The findings indicate that assessment interventions with three orientations-continuous formative assessment, embedded formative assessment, and reflective assessment-have been be used to scaffold students' learning, and that the most effective assessment designs provide students with agency, and help students to actively learn both disciplinary ideas and reasoning, and metacognitive skills. This review positions the current dissertation within a broader theoretical framework and informs the choices that were made when investigating classroom designs. Study 2 examined nine recent Knowledge Forum databases to understand the state of students' online discourse, and to identify the challenges in knowledge building that may be addressed by reflective assessment using the KCA. This study found that students contributed many notes and they were seemingly interactive; however, the practices of collaboration, of synthesis and rise-above notes, and of analyzing conceptual progress of ideas were not well-developed in many databases. Study 3 is a case study that investigated whether and how students with low achievement can benefit from reflective assessment using the KCA in knowledge building. Participants were a class of 20 Grade 11 students taking a visual art course from an experienced teacher. Analysis of students' online discourse indicated that students were able to take responsibility for advancing collective knowledge. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that reflective assessment may have helped students focus on goals of knowledge building. However, due to the lack of collaborative reflection on the KCA data and the framing of data-driven discourse improvement as collective responsibility, some students continued to experience difficulties such as focusing on their own performance rather than that of the whole community. Study 4 is a more ethnographic case study and aimed to address the problems identified in Study 3 by implementing a design in which use of the KCA was integrated with other aspects of a pedagogical design for knowledge building. The design had several components, including (a) establishing a collaborative culture and norms; (b) periodic tasks promoting development of cognitive and metacognitive skills; (c) regular and opportunistic use of knowledge-building talks promoting collaborative reflection and thoughtful use of the KCA; and (d) framing the datadriven discourse improvement from a community perspective. 37 students with low achievement from a 9th-grade Visual Arts course participated in the study. Analysis of students' online discourse showed that students in this class were able to advance the community's discourse. Analysis of classroom events indicated that the pedagogical design may have influenced the improvement of ideas on Knowledge Forum. The dissertation's findings have important implications for the design of technologyrich enviro
This review positions the current dissertation within a broader theoretical framework and informs the choices that were made when investigating classroom designs.
Author: Yuqin Yang
Publisher: Open Dissertation Press
The book you can trust to guide you through your teaching career, as the expert authors share tried and tested techniques in both primary and secondary settings. For this new edition Andrew Pollard has worked with the same core author team to bring you expert guidance from top practitioners, in the form of a text that is both cohesive and that continues to evolve to meet the needs of today's teachers. It is designed for trainees whether in universities or schools (such as School Direct, SCITT). Reflective Teaching in Schools uniquely provides two levels of support: - practical, evidence-based guidance on key classroom issues – including relationships, behaviour, curriculum planning, teaching strategies and assessment - evidence-informed 'principles' and 'concepts' to help you continue developing your skills. New to this edition: - 10 Lesson Study cases illustrate the impact this approach can have on classroom teaching, whether in a city Primary School or rural Secondary Academy - 10 Toolkit Evidence summaries based on the Sutton Trust-EEF Teaching and Learning Toolkit cover topics like collaborative learning - New Reflective Activities and guidance on Key Readings at the end of each chapter - Updates to reflect recent changes in curriculum and assessment across the UK reflectiveteaching.co.uk provides a treasure trove of additional support. It now includes a new chapter on mentoring, a glossary to help decipher the difference between IEP and LAP, and much more.
Wiliam, D. (2009) Assessment for Learning: Why, What and How? Inaugural
lecture, UCL Institute of Education, 24 January. Wiliam, D. (2011) Embedded
Formative Assessment. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press. Wilkinson, R. and
Author: Andrew Pollard
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Formative assessment . The preceding description of effective teaching and
learning strategies is an example of using embedded formative self - assessment
as a vital part of the learning process . This is classroom - based assessment that
Author: Melvin F. Pontious
Category: Curriculum planning
Effective classroom formative assessment helps educators make minute-by-minute, day-by-day instructional decisions. This clear, practical guide for teachers centers on five key instructional strategies, along with an overview of each strategy and practical formative assessment techniques for implementing it in K-12 classrooms: Clarifying, sharing, and understanding learning intentions and success criteria Engineering productive discussion and activities that elicit evidence of learning Providing feedback that moves learners forward Activating students as learning resources for each other Activating students as owners of their own learning The authors provide guidance on when and how to use the specific techniques, along with tips, cautions, and enhancements to sustain formative assessment.
This clear, practical guide for teachers centers on five key instructional strategies, along with practical formative assessment techniques for implementing each strategy in K-12 classrooms.
Author: Dylan Wiliam
This book provides teachers and school leaders with practical, effective, and proven assessment strategies that are immediately implementable in classrooms. You’ll learn about 20 high-impact formative assessment strategies, with details on how they can be applied to a variety of content areas and grade levels, including mathematics, science, language arts, social studies, and various electives. In this accessible book, these experienced authors demonstrate the how and why, along with a framework for folding these new ideas into job-embedded professional development. 20 Formative Assessment Strategies that Work provides the full toolkit for implementing, managing, and modifying these assessment strategies in your school and classrooms today.
This book provides teachers and school leaders with practical, effective, and proven assessment strategies that are immediately implementable in classrooms.
Author: Kate Wolfe Maxlow
That is , assessment measures were needed that could be aligned with the new
content standards ( i.e. , descriptions of ... embedded ) formative assessment (
Pellegrino et al . , 1999 ) . As contrasted to large - scale , externally administered
assessments , classroom - based formative assessments are theoretically “ more
Author: Julie Marie Nicholson
Empower students to own their learning This resource is designed to empower teachers and leaders with strategies to develop learners who have the confidence and tools to engage in any challenge. By flipping the focus to student ownership of learning, the authors provide clear and simple ways to: Develop collaborative relationships Jointly establish clear expectations for learning and criteria for success Intentionally build learner strategies that last a lifetime Use formative assessment results to monitor progress Harness the power of reciprocal feedback to improve teaching and learning Empower and motivate students set meaningful goals and prove learning
This book provides teachers and leaders with the "how to" by focusing on the impact of building collaborative relationships, clarifying criteria for success, building learner capacity, embedded formative assessment, and using feedback to ...
Author: Mary Jane O'Connell
Publisher: Corwin Press
The purpose of this study was to determine how middle school math teachers implemented formative assessment in their mathematics classrooms, including whether and how they used technology to do so. There were three key questions that guided this study: 1) How do middle school teachers plan for and collect data for formative assessment during a mathematics lesson? 2) In what ways do teachers use evidence gained from formative assessment to change their instruction, if at all? and, 3) To what degree do middle school mathematics teachers use technology when engaging in formative assessment during a mathematics lesson? I used a qualitative research design in this study, which included document analysis, observations, and teacher interviews, to collect data from five middle school mathematics teachers. The research revealed three significant findings: 1) Formative assessment activities in these middle school mathematics lessons fell into one of three categories; Purposefully Planned for, Not Planned for but Used, and Missed Opportunities. 2) When teachers did include formative assessments in their Acquisition Lesson Plans, it was rare that the plans also included the exact interventions they would use if the data showed that some or all of the students held some misunderstanding. While teachers did frequently add new math problems to their instruction or modify the mode of instruction, those changes often came the next day in a multi-day lesson as opposed to in the exact moment that the formative assessment activity occurred. 3) Although teachers embedded formative assessments into lessons that were delivered through the use of technology and a learning management system, Schoology, they did not use technology solely for the purpose of formative assessment. ☐ Keywords: formative assessment, Learning-Focused Strategies, LFS, Acquisition Lesson Plans, ALPs, Schoology, mathematics, professional learning communities, PLCs.
The purpose of this study was to determine how middle school math teachers implemented formative assessment in their mathematics classrooms, including whether and how they used technology to do so.
Author: Jennifer L. Bonham
Category: Dissertations, Academic
Formative assessment, the assessment of student understanding to inform learning, has been shown to be a teaching practice that has powerful positive effects on student learning. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), teachers' knowledge specific to teaching particular subject matter, has been posited as an important resource for teachers engaging in formative assessment. However, no research has been conducted into the role of PCK in teachers' formative assessment practice. This study examined relationships between teachers' formative assessment and pedagogical content knowledge in the context of a professional development program that engaged eleven elementary science teachers in analysis of samples of their students' work related to electric circuits. It investigated both the ways that teachers' PCK contributed to their formative assessment practice, as well as the opportunities created through formative assessment for teachers to build PCK. Analyses showed that teachers both used and built pedagogical content knowledge through their engagement in formative assessment. Teachers built knowledge of student understanding though interpretation of the student work, and used that knowledge in subsequent interpretation. The assessment tasks supplied by the PD and the corresponding student work provided evidence of a range of and patterns in student thinking. In general, teachers made productive use of the evidence available in the work, and used multiple approaches to interpretation that created opportunities to build different kinds of PCK. However, when teachers were engaged in the task of interpreting larger sets of work in focused ways and constructing a rubric, their approach to interpretation obscured the patterns available in the work, and constrained their opportunities to build PCK. Teachers used knowledge of the local curriculum and instructional strategies as they engaged in formative assessment, knowledge derived from their own science learning experiences in the PD, and their concurrent teaching practice. Through their talk and collective analysis, teachers co-constructed an orientation toward the nature of classroom science in which students were responsible for applying concepts provided by the teacher to appropriate situations. Patterns in teachers' talk about assessment were consistent with this orientation. There was also evidence that teachers' expressed PCK was consistent with this orientation. More often, however, teachers did not describe classroom practice to a level of detail that supported connections to a specific orientation. The findings provide support for proposals that PCK is an important resource for teachers' formative assessment practice, as well as providing evidence that formative assessment represents an important opportunity for teachers to build PCK. Future research and professional development in this area needs to consider the role of material resources such as curriculum and assessment tools, as well as the role of teachers' orientations to the nature of classroom science.
One example of such a curriculum is the FAST ( Foundational Approaches in
Science Teaching ) curriculum on sinking and floating , which was embedded
with “ reflective lessons " ( formative assessment tasks aligned with the goals of
Author: Andrew Hopkins Falk
Category: Curriculum change