Ensuring Inequality

In the past several decades, increases in income inequality between people with varying degrees of education have become more dramatic as job acquisition and ... At the time, they considered the unique pattern among 172 ENSURING INEQUALITY.

Author: Donna L. Franklin

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199374878

Category: African American families

Page: 272

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There is a crisis today in the American family, and this crisis has been particularly severe in the African American community. Black women and men are more likely than ever to remain single, and as a result, a staggering number of African-American children are growing up in households that do not include their biological fathers. In this revised edition of an award winning book, Donna L. Franklin and co-author Angela D. James expand and update the nuanced historical perspective used in the first edition to understand African American family patterns. The result is a well-documented narrative that challenges conventional understanding of the continuing plight of African American families. Ensuring Inequality traces the evolution of the black family from slavery to the present, showing the cumulative effects of centuries of historical change. Beginning with a richly researched account of the impact of slavery on the black family, the authors point out that slavery not only caused extreme instability and suffering for families, but established a lasting pattern of poverty which made the economic advantages of marriage unattainable for many. Providing sharp critiques of the full range of federal policies, from the Freedmen's Bureau during Reconstruction, to contemporary changes in penal and welfare policies, the authors suggest a prominent role of such policy in constructing the circumstances of black family life. The revised edition updates the final chapters of this comprehensive and nuanced study by exploring changes in marriage patterns over time. It also provides an expanded consideration of the impact on the urban poor of the massive changes in the economy in the recent past and of mass incarceration. The authors demonstrate how each of these changes has operated to dramatically reduce the marriage options of men and women in urban communities. Exhaustively researched and insightfully written, Ensuring Inequality continues to make an important contribution.
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Ensuring Inequality

This revised edition of an award-winning book expands and updates the nuanced historical perspective used in the first edition to understand African American family patterns.

Author: Franklin

Publisher:

ISBN: 0190254181

Category: African American families

Page:

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Ensuring Inequality

In this insightful new book, Donna L. Franklin offers an in depth account of the history and development of the African American family, revealing why the marriage and family experiences of African-Americans differs from those of white ...

Author: Donna L. Franklin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190463649

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 878

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There is a crisis today in the American family, and this crisis has been particularly severe in the African American community. Black women are more likely than ever to bear children as teenagers, to remain single, and to raise their children in poverty. As a result, a staggering number of African-American children are growing up without fathers and living in destitution. In this insightful new book, Donna L. Franklin offers an in depth account of the history and development of the African American family, revealing why the marriage and family experiences of African-Americans differs from those of white America, and highlighting the cultural and governmental forces that have combined to create this divide and to push the black family to the edge of catastrophe. In Ensuring Inequality, Franklin traces the evolution of the black family from slavery to the present, showing the cumulative effects of centuries of historical change. She begins with a richly researched account of the impact of slavery on the black family, finding that slavery not only caused extreme instability and suffering for families, but established a lasting pattern of poverty which made the economic advantages of marriage unattainable. She provides a sharp critique of the policies of the Freedmen's Bureau during Reconstruction, and demonstrates the mixed impact of the new pattern of sharecropping. On one hand, tenant farming allowed greater autonomy than the older gang labor system, and tended to consolidate two parent families; on the other hand, it reinforced male authority, and bound African Americans in debt peonage. The twentieth century brought a host of changes for black families, and Franklin incisively examines their effects. First, black women began to move to cities in search of jobs as domestic servants, while men stayed behind to work the fields, dividing the families. Then, two world wars sparked the great migration north, as African Americans pursued employment in booming factories. When the white soldiers returned home, however, many blacks found themselves out of work, shunted to the least desirable, lowest paying jobs. Roosevelt's New Deal offered limited help: in the North, it tolerated the red lining of urban neighborhoods, making it difficult for blacks to obtain home mortgages; in the South, blacks found that, as agricultural laborers, they were exempted from most labor laws, while agricultural subsidies were administered in favor of white farmers. And the distinction made between programs paid for by beneficiaries (such as social security) and those based on need (such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children) stigmatized the poor. Most blacks found themselves living an ever more tenuous, socially isolated existence. Franklin brings her comprehensive, nuanced study right up to the present, showing the impact on the urban poor of changes in the economy and society, from the dramatically shrinking pool of good jobs to the rise of the new right. "The increasing reliance on welfare by young black mothers," she writes, "corresponded to the erosion of opportunities for young black males." More important, she offers new approaches to solving the crisis. Not only does she recommend federal intervention to create new economic opportunity in urban ghettos, but she also stresses the importance of black self-help and proposes a plan of action. In addition, she outlines social interventions that can stabilize and strengthen poor, mother-only families living in ghetto neighborhoods. Exhaustively researched and insightfully written, Ensuring Inequality makes an important contribution to the central debate in American politics today.
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Punishment Property and Justice

Rights, by their definition, are rights of inequality, tools of oppression. In his famous criticism of ... rights play: it is used to make a claim to equality, while all the while ensuring inequality. Although it is couched in moral ...

Author: Corey Lang Brettschneider

Publisher: Ashgate Pub Limited

ISBN: UOM:39015049989703

Category: Law

Page: 156

View: 631

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12. Furman vs. Georgia.
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What s Love Got to Do With It

Focuses on the subject of gender relations in black America, taking a look at domestic violence, divorce rates, and damaging gender stereotypes.

Author: Donna Franklin

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9780743203210

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 254

View: 863

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Focuses on the subject of gender relations in black America, taking a look at domestic violence, divorce rates, and damaging gender stereotypes.
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Hierarchical Matrices Algorithms and Analysis

[] Since m-admissibility (4.9a) implies that diam(X) < n dist(X, Y) so m dist(y, X) for all ye Y. the next theorem follows ensuring inequality (4.15). Theorem 4.19. In addition to the assumptions in Lemma 4.18, ...

Author: Wolfgang Hackbusch

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662473245

Category: Mathematics

Page: 511

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This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists in computational mathematics, physics, chemistry and engineering.
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Economic Inequality Third Edition

How do I reduce the effort in the Economic inequality work to be done to get problems solved? How can I ensure that plans of action include every Economic inequality task and that every Economic inequality outcome is in place?

Author: Gerardus Blokdyk

Publisher: 5starcooks

ISBN: 0655302778

Category:

Page: 124

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Do you monitor the effectiveness of your Economic inequality activities? Will Economic inequality deliverables need to be tested and, if so, by whom? How does the Economic inequality manager ensure against scope creep? Meeting the challenge: are missed Economic inequality opportunities costing us money? Is Supporting Economic inequality documentation required? This easy Economic inequality self-assessment will make you the entrusted Economic inequality domain veteran by revealing just what you need to know to be fluent and ready for any Economic inequality challenge. How do I reduce the effort in the Economic inequality work to be done to get problems solved? How can I ensure that plans of action include every Economic inequality task and that every Economic inequality outcome is in place? How will I save time investigating strategic and tactical options and ensuring Economic inequality costs are low? How can I deliver tailored Economic inequality advice instantly with structured going-forward plans? There's no better guide through these mind-expanding questions than acclaimed best-selling author Gerard Blokdyk. Blokdyk ensures all Economic inequality essentials are covered, from every angle: the Economic inequality self-assessment shows succinctly and clearly that what needs to be clarified to organize the required activities and processes so that Economic inequality outcomes are achieved. Contains extensive criteria grounded in past and current successful projects and activities by experienced Economic inequality practitioners. Their mastery, combined with the easy elegance of the self-assessment, provides its superior value to you in knowing how to ensure the outcome of any efforts in Economic inequality are maximized with professional results. Your purchase includes access details to the Economic inequality self-assessment dashboard download which gives you your dynamically prioritized projects-ready tool and shows you exactly what to do next. Your exclusive instant access details can be found in your book.
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Social Welfare Policy

Ensuring inequality: The structural transformation of the African American family. New York: Oxford University Press. Franklin, D. L. (2001). What's love got to do with it? Understanding and healing the rift between Black men and women.

Author: Jerome H. Schiele

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 9781412971034

Category: Political Science

Page: 380

View: 150

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This book examines the conceptual, historical and practical implications that various social policies in the United States have had on ethnic minorities.
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Engaging and Working with African American Fathers

Invisibility syndrome: A clinical model of the effects of racism on African American males. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(1), 33–41. Franklin, D.L. (1997). Ensuring inequality: The structural transformation of the African ...

Author: Latrice S Rollins

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000264784

Category: Social Science

Page: 152

View: 711

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Engaging and Working with African American Fathers: Strategies and Lessons Learned challenges traditional and historic practices and policies that have systematically excluded fathers and contributed to social and health disparities among this population. With chapters written primarily by African American women – drawing on years of research, interviews, and practical experience with this demographic – each section explores current evidence on engagement approaches, descriptions of agencies/programs addressing specific issues fathers face, and case studies documenting typical clients and approaches to addressing their diverse needs. Offering an expansive overview of issues affecting African American fathers, the book explores such important topics as public, child and mental health, education, parenting, employment, and public initiatives among others. Engaging and Working with African American Fathers is a key resource for social work, public health, education students, researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and members of communities who are challenged by meeting the diverse needs of African American fathers.
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Chance Merit and Economic Inequality

... inequality and (2) undeserved inequality—and it is only the latter that we object to18 because only the latter is unjust.19 The principle of desert, properly implemented, completely eliminates undeserved inequality by ensuring that ...

Author: Joseph de la Torre Dwyer

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030211264

Category: Philosophy

Page: 248

View: 142

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This book develops a novel approach to distributive justice by building a theory based on a concept of desert. As a work of applied political theory, it presents a simple but powerful theoretical argument and a detailed proposal to eliminate unmerited inequality, poverty, and economic immobility, speaking to the underlying moral principles of both progressives who already support egalitarian measures and also conservatives who have previously rejected egalitarianism on the grounds of individual freedom, personal responsibility, hard work, or economic efficiency. By using an agnostic, flexible, data-driven approach to isolate luck and ultimately measure desert, this proposal makes equal opportunity initiatives both more accurate and effective as it adapts to a changing economy. It grants to each individual the freedom to genuinely choose their place in the distribution. It provides two policy variations that are perfectly economically efficient, and two others that are conditionally so. It straightforwardly aligns outcomes with widely shared, fundamental moral intuitions. Lastly, it demonstrates much of the above by modeling four policy variations using 40 years of survey data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.
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The Political Economy of Nation Building

Hence, there is an institutional basis for ensuring that inequality is not extreme and that the polity believes that the outcomes treat them fairly. The best known proponent of this connection was the philosopher John Rawls.68 To be ...

Author: Mack Ott

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412847421

Category: Political Science

Page: 392

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Donor nations may advise and counsel, but the creation of a liberal nation state falls to its own people. They must create laws, exercise their liberties, provide freedom of belief and expression, and protect individual property rights. No nation becomes or remains free unless its people build, use, and defend these institutions, and protect them with understanding, vigilance, and effort. The Political Economy of Nation Building reviews the effects of political structures on the evolution and stability of liberalism in developing nations and considers the outlook for their success. Discussing the origins and applications of the modern liberal state from an explicitly Anglo- and Euro-centric view, Mack Ott addresses the origins of the rule of law and innovations that led to the rise of a market economy, separation of faith and governance, and the autonomy of finance—key components of the liberal state. He then addresses the emergence of sustained economic growth, a bridge between the liberal infrastructure and its application during the construction of a nation. Ott examines budget policy and laws, and accurate and timely economic and financial statistical reporting that assure donors that the recipient government is operating within the constraints of law. He addresses the beneficial effects of privatization of state-owned industry, examines the costs and benefits of nurturing non-governmental associations, and concludes with a review of transparent fiscal and monetary policies and the importance of non-interference in financial markets by the state.
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Inequality and Organizational Practice

... aims to explore whether, in challenging and changing times like ours, the talent management approach can (a) identify hidden inequalities and (b) help mitigate or avoid them, ensuring that employees' progress is not impeded.

Author: Stefanos Nachmias

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030116446

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 291

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Bringing together international authors, this edited collection addresses the need for greater inclusivity within organizational policy and practice, in order to tackle both visible and invisible inequalities amongst employees. Evidence suggests that more positive employment relationships can be brought about by tackling diversity issues, yet there are still ‘grey areas’ existing in the current legislative framework. Volume I explores the way that these hidden inequalities can be used to identify an individual as ‘other,’ and how this ultimately affects their wellbeing and welfare at work. Analysing social justice and stigma, as well as nuanced issues within the workplace, this book is a thought-provoking read for scholars of HRM, practitioners and policy-makers.
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Development in Turbulent Times

This open access book explores the most recent trends in the EU in terms of development, progress, and performance.

Author: Paul Dobrescu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030113612

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 197

View: 937

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This open access book explores the most recent trends in the EU in terms of development, progress, and performance. Ten years after the 2008 economic crisis, and amidst a digital revolution that is intensifying the development race, the European Union, and especially Central and Eastern Europe, are ardently searching for their development priorities. Against this background, by relying on a cross-national perspective, the authors reflect upon the developmental challenges of the moment, such as sustainable development, reducing inequality, ensuring social cohesion, and driving the digital revolution. They particularly focus on the relation between the less-developed Eastern part of the EU and its more developed Western counterpart, and discuss the consequences of this development gap in detail. Lastly, the book presents a range of case studies from different areas of governance, such as economy and commerce, health services, education, migration and public opinion in order to investigate the trends most likely to impact the European Union's medium and long-term development.
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Gender Inequalities and Development in Latin America During the Twentieth Century

... from the cepalstat website. the undp human development reports are another useful source for gender-inequality data. ... ensuring their consistency over time. as can be seen from the preceding discussion, in general the information ...

Author: María Magdalena Camou

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317130215

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 195

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This book presents evidence of the evolution of the gender inequalities in Latin America during the twentieth century, using basic indicators of human development, namely education, health and the labour market. There are very few historical studies that centre on gender as the main analytical category in Latin America, so this book breaks new ground. Using case-studies from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Uruguay, the authors show that there is evidence of a correlation between economic growth and the decrease in gender inequality, but this process is also not linear. Although the activity rate of women was high at the beginning of the twentieth century, female participation in the labour market diminished, until the 1970s, when it began to increase dramatically. Since the 1970s, fertility reduction and education improvements and worsening labour market conditions are associated to the steadily increase of women participation in the labour market. By gauging the extent to which gender gaps in the formation of human capital, access to resources, quality of life and opportunities may have operated as a restriction on women’s capabilities and on economic growth in the region, this book demonstrates that Latin America has lagged behind in terms of gender equality.
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Development in Turbulent Times

This open access book explores the most recent trends in the EU in terms of development, progress, and performance.

Author: Paul Dobrescu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3030113604

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 197

View: 821

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This open access book explores the most recent trends in the EU in terms of development, progress, and performance. Ten years after the 2008 economic crisis, and amidst a digital revolution that is intensifying the development race, the European Union, and especially Central and Eastern Europe, are ardently searching for their development priorities. Against this background, by relying on a cross-national perspective, the authors reflect upon the developmental challenges of the moment, such as sustainable development, reducing inequality, ensuring social cohesion, and driving the digital revolution. They particularly focus on the relation between the less-developed Eastern part of the EU and its more developed Western counterpart, and discuss the consequences of this development gap in detail. Lastly, the book presents a range of case studies from different areas of governance, such as economy and commerce, health services, education, migration and public opinion in order to investigate the trends most likely to impact the European Union's medium and long-term development.
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Ensuring Poverty

In Ensuring Poverty, Felicia Kornbluh and Gwendolyn Mink assess the gendered history of welfare reform.

Author: Felicia Kornbluh

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812295573

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 859

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In Ensuring Poverty, Felicia Kornbluh and Gwendolyn Mink assess the gendered history of welfare reform. They foreground arguments advanced by feminists for a welfare policy that would respect single mothers' rights while advancing their opportunities and assuring economic security for their families. Kornbluh and Mink consider welfare policy in the broad intersectional context of gender, race, poverty, and inequality. They argue that the subject of welfare reform always has been single mothers, the animus always has been race, and the currency always has been inequality. Yet public conversations about poverty and welfare, even today, rarely acknowledge the nexus between racialized gender inequality and the economic vulnerability of single-mother families. Since passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) by a Republican Congress and the Clinton administration, the gendered dimensions of antipoverty policy have receded from debate. Mink and Kornbluh explore the narrowing of discussion that has occurred in recent decades and the path charted by social justice feminists in the 1990s and early 2000s, a course rejected by policy makers. They advocate a return to the social justice approach built on the equality of mothers, especially mothers of color, in policies aimed at poor families.
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On Fairness and Efficiency

The message coming through is that societies which tolerate a wide distribution of what wealth and income they create do themselves more harm than those that ensure less inequality . Nations that minimise such inequalities in future by ...

Author: George Miller

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1861342217

Category: Social Science

Page: 470

View: 809

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This book offers a major new analysis of the political economy in Britain over the past 1,000 years. The author demonstrates an impressive and thorough knowledge of law, economics, politics, medicine and social history. The assessment of the privatisation of the public income and its consequences represents an astonishing tour-de-force.On fairness and efficiency: engages in a wide-ranging sweep of history from pre-Norman times to the present;gives a lucid explanation of the complex economic and political history of Britain that has given rise to the present state of Welfare Capitalism;has great contemporary relevance.- vbTab]The fundamental links between the distributions of health and wealth in society is of concern to the medical profession, public health professionals, welfare economists, political scientists/politicians, moralists and philosophers.
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Capitalism and Inequality

The authors in this book argue that increasing the role of markets and reducing the extent of regulation is the best way to lower inequality while ensuring greater material well-being for all sections of society.

Author: G.P. Manish

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000283884

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 236

View: 886

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Capitalism and Inequality rejects the popular view that attributes the recent surge in inequality to a failure of market institutions. Bringing together new and original research from established scholars, it analyzes the inequality inherent in a free market from an economic and historical perspective. In the process, the question of whether the recent increase in inequality is the result of crony capitalism and government intervention is explored in depth. The book features sections on theoretical perspectives on inequality, the political economy of inequality, and the measurement of inequality. Chapters explore several key questions such as the difference between the effects of market-driven inequality and the inequality caused by government intervention; how the inequality created by regulation affects those who are less well-off; and whether the economic growth that accompanies market-driven inequality always benefits an elite minority while leaving the vast majority behind. The main policy conclusions that emerge from this analysis depart from those that are currently popular. The authors in this book argue that increasing the role of markets and reducing the extent of regulation is the best way to lower inequality while ensuring greater material well-being for all sections of society. This key text makes an invaluable contribution to the literature on inequality and markets and is essential reading for students, scholars, and policymakers.
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Educational Inequalities

... interactions within these structures and the decline in processes and policies to ensure Black children are supported in school. ... 'Rethinking Assessment and Inequality: The Production of Disparities in Attainment in Early Years' ...

Author: Kalwant Bhopal

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134612178

Category: Education

Page: 288

View: 632

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While there is considerable literature on social inequality and education, there is little recent work which explores notions of difference and diversity in relation to "race," class and gender. This edited text aims to bring together researchers in the field of education located across many international contexts such as the UK, Australia, USA, New Zealand and Europe. Contributors investigate the ways in which dominant perspectives on "difference," intersectionality and institutional structures underpin and reinforce educational inequality in schools and higher education. They emphasize the importance of international perspectives and innovative methodological approaches to examining these areas, and seek to locate the dimensions of difference within recent theoretical discourses, with an emphasis on "race," class and gender as key categories of analysis.
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Happiness and Well Being

As a result economic inequality breeds discontent and unhappiness among those who have relatively low income. A man habitually looks at his neighbour and tries ... Democratic liberalism promotes economic inequality by ensuring individual's.

Author: Rajendra M. Chakrabarti

Publisher: Notion Press

ISBN: 9781684660445

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 362

View: 356

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The book seeks to answer the following main questions: What is meant by happiness? What are the sources of happiness? What is meant by the well-being of man? What is the end in human life? When can we say that a man is successful in life? How can he be happy and successful? It is argued that happiness is not pleasure; it does not come through high income and consumption; beyond certain levels income and consumption cause dissatisfaction, unhappiness and alienation. The book upholds the Aristotelian view that happiness means living well – living a life of excellence. It discusses how moral judgment and habituation help the development of good life. It analyses paths of spiritual liberation, the highest state of human happiness. It also argues for a liberal state where people enjoy different negative and positive freedoms making possible flourishing of human diversities
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