Evolution and Speciation in Animals

This book represents the first attempt to quantify environmental factors and life history traits that accelerate or decelerate species diversity in animals.

Author: T. J. Pandian

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000405606

Category: Nature

Page: 346

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This book represents the first attempt to quantify environmental factors and life history traits that accelerate or decelerate species diversity in animals. About 15%, 8% and 77% of species are distributed in marine (70% of earth’s surface), freshwater (terra firma fosters more diversity. The harsh hadal, desert and elevated montane habitats restrict diversity to 0.5-4.2%. Costing more time and energy, osmotrophic and suspension modes of food acquisition limit diversity to Selfing hermaphrodites (0.9%), parthenogens ( Incidence of heterogamety is four-times more in males than in females. Hence, evolution is more a male-driven process. Egg size is determined by environmental factors, but lecithality is genetically fixed. In poikilotherms, sex is also determined by gene(s), but differentiation by environmental factors. The extra-ovarian vitellogenesis (> 96%), spermatozoan (81%) rather than spermatophore mechanism of sperm transfer, promiscuity and polygamy over monogamy, iteroparity (99.6%) over semelparity and internal fertilization (84%) are preferred, as they accelerate diversity. Body size and egg size determine fecundity. Indirect life cycle (82%) and incorporation of feeding larval stages accelerate diversity. Brooding and viviparity (6.4%) decelerate it. Parasitism extends life span and liberates fecundity from eutelism. Evolution is an ongoing process, and speciation and extinction are its unavoidable by-products. The in-built conservation mechanism of reviving life after a sleeping duration has been reduced from a few million years in microbial spores to a few thousand years in plant seeds and a few hundred years in dormant eggs in animals. Hence, animal conservation requires priority. The existence of temperature-resistant/insensitive individuals, strains and species shall flourish during the ongoing global warming and earth shall continue with such burgeoning species, hopefully inclusive of man.
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Evolution and the Recognition Concept of Species

In new introductions prepared especially for this volume, Paterson comments on each paper and describes its reception by other scientists.

Author: H. E. H. Paterson

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822016268773

Category: Science

Page: 234

View: 354

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Hugh E. H. Paterson's ideas on species and speciation--the process of evolutionary "branching" by which new species are formed--have become increasingly important to an understanding of evolution. Over the last 35 years Paterson has presented his research in a variety of scientific journals published around the world, many of which are not easily available in North America. Edited by Shane McEvey, Evolution and the Recognition Concept of Species brings together for the first time all of Paterson's work on species and speciation. In new introductions prepared especially for this volume, Paterson comments on each paper and describes its reception by other scientists. From 1956 to the present Paterson has developed a widely known and respected research program on how speciation occurs. Paterson contends that speciation is not an adaptive process, but a passive consequence of the adaptation of intraspecific bonding mechanisms to a new environment. The conceptual basis of his research has come to be called the Recognition Concept of Species involving the Specific-Mate Recognition System. Evolution and the Recognition Concept of Species provides not only a collection of original source material, but also an annotated history of thedevelopment of a scientific idea. "Evolutionary biologists, behavioral ecologists, ethnologists, animal behaviorists, ecologists, and systematists will want to read Evolution and the Recognition Concept of Species. Paterson's writings represent an interesting, original, and useful viewpoint on the species concept, but have been almost impossible to find until the publication of this book."--John Endler, University of California, Santa Barbara. "Speciesconcepts are central to all biology. Everyone interested in species and speciation should read Paterson's articles, and this book is a convenient place to start, because it brings together publications that may not be readily obtained in many libraries."--BioScience. "The book is well-produced and its value is enhanced by the introductory Preface and notes to each of the chapters provided by Hugh Paterson himself."--Heredity
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Animal Species and Evolution

Comprehensive evaluation and study of man's theories and knowledge of genetical characteristics and the evolutionary processes

Author: Ernst Mayr

Publisher: Belknap Press

ISBN: UOM:39015015585386

Category: Science

Page: 797

View: 107

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Comprehensive evaluation and study of man's theories and knowledge of genetical characteristics and the evolutionary processes
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Animal Species and Their Evolution

These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions.

Author: Arthur J. Cain

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400863273

Category: Science

Page: 210

View: 701

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Long before Charles Darwin undertook his first voyage, animal taxonomists had begun the scientific classification of animals, plants, and minerals. In the mid-1950s, taxonomist A. J. Cain summarized the state of knowledge about the structure of the living world in his major book Animal Species and Their Evolution. His work remains remarkably current today. Here Cain explains each of the terms by which scientists now classify all animals--from species through genus, family, order, class, and phylum. The work of the modern taxonomist is dependent on the work of paleontologists, field biologists, ecologists, and other specialists who help piece together the puzzle of nature. This seminal text will interest students in each of these areas. It will also appeal to historians of science and to all amateur scientists with an interest in the animal kingdom. Originally published in 1993. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
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Endless Forms

This volume presents the newest research findings on speciation bringing readers up to day on species concepts, modes of speciation, and the nature of reproductive barriers.

Author: Sukumar Raman

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195109015

Category: Science

Page: 470

View: 999

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Speciation is one of the great themes of evolutionary biology. It is the process through which new species are born and diversity generated. In this volume, thirty authors at the forefront of research into speciation present the newest findings from their studies and bring readers up to date on species concepts, modes of speciation, the nature of reproductive barriers, the forces that drive divergence of populations, the genetic control of reproductive isolation, andthe role played by hybrid zones and hybridization in speciation.
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Animal Species and Evolution

Evolutionary biology.

Author: Ernst Mayr

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:220763710

Category: Animals

Page: 797

View: 346

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Evolutionary biology. Species concepts and their application. Morphological species characters and sibling species. Biological properties of species. Isolating mechanisms. The breakdown of isolating mechanisms (Hybridization). The population, Its variation and genetics. Factors reducing the genetic variation of populations. Storage and protection of genetic variation. The unity of the genotype. Geographic variation. The polytypic species of the taxonomist. The population structure of species. Kinds of species. Multiplication of species. Geographic speciation. The genetics of speciation. The ecology of speciation. Species and transpecific evolution. Man as a biological species.
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Behaviour and Evolution

This book, written by experts in this area, illustrates how the profound changes in our understanding of evolution have influenced behavioural research.

Author: Peter J. B. Slater

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521429234

Category: Psychology

Page: 348

View: 428

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Some of the most exciting recent advances in animal behaviour have occurred at the interface between that subject and the study of evolution. This book, written by experts in this area, illustrates how the profound changes in our understanding of evolution have influenced behavioural research. Its chapters span both studies of how behaviour itself has evolved, dealing with topics such as comparative studies, the genetics of behaviour, speciation and the evolution of sociality and of intelligence, and also the adaptiveness which this evolution has brought about, with treatment of mating and fighting strategies, and theories of kinship and altruism.Behaviour and Evolution will be invaluable to senior undergraduate and graduate students of biology and psychology, especially those studying animal behaviour, behavioural ecology, sociobiology, evolution, ecology and environmental biology.
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Evolution and Speciation

The authors have all been associated with Professor M. J. D. White, who was the world authority on chromosomal evolution and speciation, to whom this volume was presented on his seventieth birthday.

Author: William R. Atchley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521238236

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 411

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This 1981 collection focuses on a wide range of topics in the general field of evolutionary biology. The authors have all been associated with Professor M. J. D. White, who was the world authority on chromosomal evolution and speciation, to whom this volume was presented on his seventieth birthday.
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Evolutionary Patterns and Processes

Evolution is the central theme of all biology. Researcarcch in the many branches of evolutionary study continues to flourish. This book, based on a symposium of the Linnean Society, discusses the diversity in currentevolutionary research.

Author: D. R. Lees

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: UCSD:31822016450629

Category: Science

Page: 325

View: 926

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Evolution is the central theme of all biology. Researcarcch in the many branches of evolutionary study continues to flourish. This book, based on a symposium of the Linnean Society, discusses the diversity in currentevolutionary research. It approaches the subject ambitiously and from several angles, bringing ttogether eminent authors from a variety of disciplines paleontologists traditionally with a macroevolutionary bias, neontologists concentrating on microevolutionary processes, and those studying the very essence ofsses and those studying the very essence of evolution the process of speciation in living organisms. Evolutionary Patterns and Processes will appeal to a broad spectrum of professional biologistsworking in such fields as paleontology, population biology, and evolutionary genetics. Biologists will enjoy chapters by Stephen J. Gould, discovering in the much earlier work of Hugo de Vries parallels with his ideas on punctuational evolution; Guy Bush,considering why there are so many small animals; Peter Sheldon, examining detailed fossil trilobite sequences for evidence of microevolutionary processes and considering models of speciation; as well as others dealing with cytological, ecological, and behavioral processes leading to the evolution of new species. None
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Mosaic Evolution of Subterranean Mammals

This book draws together the burgeoning literature about all aspects of the biology of subterranean mammals.

Author: Eviatar Nevo

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198575726

Category: Nature

Page: 413

View: 820

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Subterranean life exists within an extraordinary environment and has evolved among different groups of mammals all over the globe. With relatively constant temperature, few opportunities to meet organisms other than the immediate family, and a completely different sensory environment, the evolution of such life is fascinating. Locomotion, communication, food-finding, navigation, circadian rhythms, and indeed the whole of the animals' physiology may be specialized to cope with life underground. And from burrowing to blindness, magnetic communication to the weird bee-like eusociality of blind mole rats, specialization has been extreme and has led to speciation in a whole range of new contexts. That the subterranean way of life occurs in different species of mammals across the globe has provided scientists with one of nature's best studied global evolutionary demonstrations of adaptive radiation and speciation. The revolution in molecular biology that has occurred over the last ten years has massively expanded these horizons, allowing scientists to explore, map, and clone the genes underlying the basis of adaptation and speciation and translate their fascinating structural and functional evolution into genes and genomic language. This book draws together the burgeoning literature about all aspects of the biology of subterranean mammals. Beginning with their evolutionary history and the processes that led to the subterranean way of life, the author reviews ecology, behavior, and physiology within the context of the highly stressful subterranean context, considers the specialization that has evolved in response, and then compares the eleven families of extant subterranean mammals. The incredible circumstances surrounding subterranean mammals present a unique, global, 'natural experiment' in evolution that has implications throughout biology. As such, this broad survey will stand as an invaluable reference to evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and molecular biologists for years to come.
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