Flame Retardants for Textile Materials

This book focuses on flame retardants (FR) for textile materials.

Author: Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429629679

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 414

View: 714

Download →

This book focuses on flame retardants (FR) for textile materials. It discusses basics of flame retardancy and flammability and covers various types of flame retardants and materials, including natural FRs, halogen, phosphorous, and nanomaterial-based FRs. This book also discusses methods of applications of FRs and discusses FRs and the environment. Covers a variety of interdisciplinary applications in the textile industry Emphasizes environmental aspects Reports on a large number of FR compounds studied globally Discusses in detail recent developments in halogen-free eco-friendly flame retardants Extensively describes basic aspects of flame retardancy and their measurements Aimed at the practitioner and textile engineering professional this work aims to ensure development of safe textile materials for various uses, including apparel, protective wear, floor coverings, upholstery, drapery, and others.
Posted in:

Fire Retardant Materials

The book discusses the fundamental issues that determine whether or not a material is flammable and how flame retardancy may be conferred both mechanistically and by means of established flame retardant systems and explores emerging methods ...

Author: A. Richard Horrocks

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 1855734192

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 429

View: 825

Download →

The editors and contributors provide a comprehensive source of information on all aspects of fire retardancy, emphasizing the burning behavior and flame retarding properties of polymetric materials. They combine combustion, flame retardants, smoke and toxic products and material-specific aspects of combustion in relation to textiles, composites, and bulk polymers. The contributors include the latest research in the nanocomposites, making it an essential source for anyone working with, studying, and developing fire retardant materials. The text considers material properties first; why materials may need to be fire retarded; how this may be undertaken; and the consequences. It highlights the juxtaposition of increased demands for safety and increased concerns about the risks to health and the environment caused by using flame retardants and fire retardant materials. The book discusses the fundamental issues that determine whether or not a material is flammable and how flame retardancy may be conferred both mechanistically and by means of established flame retardant systems and explores emerging methods and anticipated changes for performance-based tests.
Posted in:

Flame Retardants for Plastics and Textiles

This updated edition provides an overview of flame retardants that are in commercial use, were recently used, or are in development.

Author: Edward D. Weil

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 9781569905791

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 398

View: 464

Download →

This updated edition provides an overview of flame retardants that are in commercial use, were recently used, or are in development. The book is organized polymer-by-polymer and provides a guide to advantages, limitations, and patented and patent-free formulations, with insight into favorable and unfavorable combinations. The targeted readership is the plastics or textile finish compounder and the plastic additives R&D worker, as well as market development and sales. This edition contains, besides a compendium of current flame retardants, updated information relevant to performance testing, mode of action, and safety and regulatory aspects. Industrial or academic researchers will find useful a discussion of unsolved problems with possible new approaches. Both authors have extended, productive experience in both basic and applied research on a wide range of flame retardancy topics.
Posted in:

Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

On the basis of the chemical structure and properties, textile fibers and fabrics are endowed with flame retardancy by the use of FRs containing halogen, phosphorus, nitrogen, boron, etc. (Malucelli 2016; Weil and Levchik 2008).

Author: Yuan Hu

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351586153

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 549

Download →

Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the field, from basic properties and mechanisms of action for flame retardants to emerging methods, materials, and industrial applications. With over 120 black and white images, Hu and Wang cover the latest in the development of novel polymer nanocomposites such as graphene, CNTs, LDHs, POSS, and techniques such as layer-by-layer assembly. These expert authors also include discussions on the important flame-retardant systems based on phosphorus, silicon, and boron. In doing so, they highlight the use of flame-retardants in varying industries, for example, construction, textiles, and aviation. This comprehensive handbook is an essential read for students and academics of physics with a particular interest in flame-retardant materials. It would also be recommended for professionals within the materials science and engineering fields.
Posted in:

Flame Retardants

In: Flame—Retardant Polymeric Materials, pp. 43–61. ... Apparel 13(3), 10–26 (2009) Barker, R.H., Hendrix, J.E.: Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials. ... Marcel Dekker, New York (1979) Little, R.W.: Flame Proofing Textile Fabrics.

Author: P. M. Visakh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319034676

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 314

View: 898

Download →

This book summarizes comprehensively many recent technical research accomplishments in the area of flame retardant research. It presents mainly flame retardant studies of polymer blends, composites and nano composites such as rubber, thermosets and thermoplastics. This book discusses different types of flame retardant using in polymers especially nano composites, as well as the role and chemistry. Leading researchers from industry, academy, government and private research institutions across the globe contribute to this book. Academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and students in research and development will benefit from an application-oriented book that helps them to find solutions to both fundamental and applied problems.
Posted in:

Update on Flame Retardant Textiles

Not surprisingly, textile materials that achieve the desired fire performance criteria will be similar to those in aircraft, and include flame-retardant wool and blends for seatings, flame-retardant polyester for curtains, and polyamide ...

Author: Jenny Alongi

Publisher: Smithers Rapra

ISBN: 9781909030183

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 739

Download →

This book describes the progress in flame retardancy of both natural and synthetic fibres/fabrics moving from the traditional approaches (back-coating techniques), current chemical solutions (P-, N-, S-, B- based flame retardants) to the novel up-to-date strategies (deposition and/or assembly of architectures, plasma treatments, sol-gel processes, ...). More specifically, the fundamental aspects, the chemistry of current flame retardant textile technologies including back-coating process and the obtained improvements are thoroughly reviewed, taking into account the detrimental environmental effects due to the use of halogen-based additives such as bromine derivatives. Then, an overview of the chemical development of flame retardant strategies based on halogen-free compounds is summarized. The third part of the book is devoted to a description of the up-to-date innovative solutions, based on nanotechnology. The surface deposition of coatings having a different chemical structure, is highlighted in detail. To this aim, the effect of (nano)architectures derived from (nano)particle adsorption, plasma deposition/grafting, layer by layer assembly, sol-gel treatments on fibres/fabrics is thoroughly discussed.
Posted in:

Flame Retardants

degradation of cellulose textile materials proceeded earlier than the ones with functionality substance present on the cellulosic textiles . In the textile domain , flame retardants are incorporated into baby clothing , strollers , car ...

Author: Johannes Karl Fink

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119750611

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 302

Download →

This book focuses on the chemistry and applications of flame retardants for polymers and other materials. It starts with a description and types of flame retardants, as well as their properties and chemical structures, to include chlorine- and bromine-containing flame retardants, phosphorus-based flame retardants, nitrogen-based flame retardants, and silicones. Inorganic materials that serve as flame retardants, such as boron-based additives, graphenes, and others are discussed in detail. In addition, the following subjects are discussed in detail: Flame retardant polymers The mechanisms of flame retardants, such as flame cooling, synergetic effects, degradation of flame retardants, and others Other flame retardant compositions, such as dripping inhibitors and smoke suppressants Testing methods for flame retardants, international standards, human health hazards, such as smoke toxicity and problems with wastes Synthesis and fabrication methods, as well as recycling methods The application of flame retardants to the coating material using 3D printing, reactive coating, and bulk addition methods Non-burning comonomers, foams, nanocomposites and bio-based materials Flame retardants with other textiles, such as wool and electrical applications such as batteries.
Posted in:

Wellington Sears Handbook of Industrial Textiles

Flame Retardant Finishes A limitation of many textile fibers , especially cellulosics , is their tendency to burn readily . Flammability of textile products is regulated by federal and state governments . The federal Flammable Fabrics ...

Author: Sabit Adanur

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1566763401

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 832

View: 128

Download →

The Wellington Sears Handbook of Industrial Textiles has been a widely used textile industry reference for more than 50 years. Now a completely updated new edition has been published. It was prepared by a team of industrial textile specialists at Auburn University to provide both technical and management personnel with a comprehensive resource on the current technology and applications of today's industrial textiles. All aspects of industrial textiles are covered: man-made and natural materials, manufacturing and finishing methods, and all applications. There are also sections on properties, testing, waste management, computers and automation, and standards and regulations. The appendices provide extensive reference data: properties, specifications, manufacturers and trade names, mathematical equations and measurement units. The text is organized for easy reference, and well illustrated with hundreds of schematics and photographs.
Posted in:

Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials

Koenig, N. H., and Friedman, M., Process for simultaneously flameproofing and shrinkproofing wool, U.S. Pat. ... B., Decomposition of combustion gases and fumes from untreated textile materials and their flame-retardant versions, ...

Author: Menachem Lewin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468469738

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 334

View: 427

Download →

Flammability has been recognized as an increasingly important social and scientific problem. Fire statistics in the United States (Report of the National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control, "America Burning," 1973) emphasized the vast devastation to life and property--12,OOO lives lost annually due to fire, and these deaths are usually caused by inhaling smoke or toxic gases; 300,000 fire injuries; 11.4 billion dollars in fire cost at which 2.7 billion dollars is related to property loss; a billion dollars to burn injury treatment; and 3.3 billion dollars in productivity loss. It is obvious that much human and economic misery can be attributed to fire situations. In relation to this, polymer flammability has been recognized as an in creasingly important social and scientific problem. The development of flame-retardant polymeric materials is a current example where the initia tive for major scientific and technological developments is motivated by sociological pressure and legislation. This is part of the important trend toward a safer environment and sets a pattern for future example. Flame retardancy deals with our basic everyday life situations-housing, work areas, transportation, clothing and so forth-the "macroenvironment" capsule within which "homosapiens" live. As a result, flame-retardant polymers are now emerging as a specific class of materials leading to new and diversified scientific and technological ventures.
Posted in:

Frontiers of Textile Materials

Multifunction fabricated e-textiles are also successfully integrated into the electronic fabric for 2D strength mapping. 3.5.2 Flame Retardant Flame-retardant finishes provide a good fire performance for both natural and chemical fibers ...

Author: Mohd Shabbir

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119620365

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 297

Download →

The book “Frontiers and Textile Materials will deal with the important materials that can be utilized for value-addition and functionalization of textile materials. The topics covered in this book includes the materials like enzymes, polymers, etc. that are utilized for conventional textile processing and the advanced materials like nanoparticles which are expected to change the horizons of textiles. The futuristic techniques for textile processing like plasma are also discussed.
Posted in:

Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials

... DSE 9.4.2 UV Protective Textile Materials Using Sterculia Foetida FSE 9.4.3 UV Protective Textile Materials Using Waste Green CSE 9.5 Sustainable Green Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Natural Resources 9.5.1 Flame Retardancy ...

Author: Shakeel Ahmed

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119407096

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 575

Download →

Sustainable development is a very prevalent concept of modern society. This concept has appeared as a critical force in combining a special focus on development and growth by maintaining a balance of using human resources and the ecosystem in which we are living. The development of new and advanced materials is one of the powerful examples in establishing this concept. Green and sustainable advanced materials are the newly synthesized material or existing modified material having superior and special properties. These fulfil today’s growing demand for equipment, machines and devices with better quality for an extensive range of applications in various sectors such as paper, biomedical, textile, and much more. Volume 1 gives overviews on a variety of topics of characterization of green and sustainable advanced materials including biopolymers, biocomposites, nanomaterials, polymeric materials, green functional textiles materials and hybrid materials, as well as processing chapters on the design and process aspects of nanofabrication.
Posted in:

Flame Retardant and Thermally Insulating Polymers

with significant researches with a focus on alternate flame retardant chemistries and methodologies, ... General combustion behaviors of textiles and strategies of flame retardant mechanism In general, combustion of a typical polymer ...

Author: Yanfei Xu

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9781839687143

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 130

View: 890

Download →

Polymers have infiltrated almost every aspect of modern technology, as they have wide applications ranging from building insulation and firefighter uniforms to the Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft and electronics packaging. However, common polymers are flammable. Inflammability and thermal insulation properties in polymers are important for specific applications. This book discusses recent advances in developing eco-friendly, flame-retardant, and thermally insulative polymer-based materials. It not only focuses on developments of high-performance flame retardants, but also examines flame retardant behaviors in polymers. Eco-friendly polymers with superior flame retardancy, extraordinary thermal insulation, and excellent mechanical strength will provide new opportunities for existing and future applications.
Posted in:

Handbook of Fire Resistant Textiles

II Chemical Processing of Fibers and Fabrics, New York, Marcel Dekker, 79–91. Lewin, M. (2011), 'Unsolved problems and unanswered questions in flame retardants of polymers', Polym. Degrad. Stab., 96, 377–392. Lewin, M. and Sello, ...

Author: F. Selcen Kilinc

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780857098931

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 704

View: 756

Download →

Given its importance to consumer safety, fire resistant textiles are one of the fastest growing sectors in industrial textiles. Handbook of fire resistant textiles provides a comprehensive review of the considerable advances that have occurred in the field of fire resistant textiles in recent years. It draws together scientific and technical expertise from around the world to produce an important source of current knowledge on fire resistant textiles and their use for protection in hostile environments. Part one provides an overview of fire resistant textiles. Chapters discuss burning and combustion mechanisms of textile fibers, chemical modification of natural and synthetic fibers to improve flame retardancy, multi-component flame resistant coating techniques for textiles, care and maintenance of fire resistant textiles, along with the safety, health and environmental aspects of flame retardants. Part two covers different types of fire resistant fibers and fabrics, including flame retardant cotton, wool, ceramic fibers and blends, composites and nonwovens. Part three reviews standards, regulations, and characterization of fire resistant textiles. Part four includes case studies of major applications of fire resistant textiles. The Handbook of fire resistant textiles is an invaluable resource for a broad spectrum of professionals in the textiles and apparel industries, including textile and garment manufacturers, engineers, researchers, designers, developers and buyers. Provides a comprehensive review of the considerable advances that have occurred in the field of fire resistant textiles in recent years Discusses burning and combustion mechanisms of textile fibers and chemical modification of natural and synthetic fibers to improve flame retardancy Covers different types of fire resistant fibers and fabrics, including flame retardant cotton, wool, ceramic fibers and blends, composites and nonwovens
Posted in:

Evaluation of Commercially Available Flame Retardants for Production of Carbon Fabric

This book compared the use of flame retardant chemicals known as pyroset TPO and TKC in the production of carbon fabrics from cotton precursors.

Author: Lilly O. Iwuchukwu BS. MSC

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 9781524578053

Category: Science

Page: 68

View: 136

Download →

This book compared the use of flame retardant chemicals known as pyroset TPO and TKC in the production of carbon fabrics from cotton precursors. Information about the chemical was collected from the American Cyanamid company, textile and chemical division. Data was also furnished by the test fabric incorporated for the two fabrics it manufacturedmercerize 100 percent cotton sheeting, style #409 and unmercerized 100 percent cotton sheeting, style #409. The percentage of carbon remaining from each sample in all the categories was obtained through carbon analysis conducted by Galbraith Laboratories Incorporated. Percent char data were calculated from data obtained before and after pyrolysis. The results are presented and discussed with the aid of a 2(5) factorial design pattern used for the overall design of the experiment. Personal reflections on how to save the lives of infants and children, even our geriatric parents that are trapped in a burning home, with much higher statistics for rescuing them to safety. More safety resulting in having flame retardant nightwear, even home furnishings and more as time goes on. Common sense, logic, and sensible ideology in our twenty-first century. Creating safety living all around should be a right and our responsibilitya value that we should be well invested in. Research funding in the textile industry and for educators has been seriously almost nonexistent that humanity is still struggling for a safe technology for utilizing materials for public safety. Public trust must be secured by specifying performance of treated fabrics safe from fire and the extinguishing of flames, less toxic to protect and enhance our democratic ideals of freedom living in the western hemisphere. The world is in need of safe discovery for flame retardants, material to be used in active wears, home furniture, establish standard of assessments and accountability measures to be the research for the future. More and continued research is required for the textile industry. Research and more and ongoing research and funding is desperately needed. This is to empower readers and educators and students to bring great and creative ideas and ideals tog textile research back and be fully funded; to encourage companies to give funding for creating perpetual workforce for the future, economic stability, safety, and security without end.
Posted in:

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials Second Edition

More than just an update of previously covered topics, this edition discusses: additional fire retardant chemistry developments in regulations and standards new flame retardant approaches fire safety engineering modeling and fire growth ...

Author: Charles A. Wilkie

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420084003

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 853

View: 510

Download →

When dealing with challenges such as providing fire protection while considering cost, mechanical and thermal performance and simultaneously addressing increasing regulations that deal with composition of matter and life cycle issues, there are no quick, one-size-fits-all answers. Packed with comprehensive coverage, scientific approach, step-by-step directions, and a distillation of technical knowledge, the first edition of Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials broke new ground. It supplied a one-stop resource for the development of new fire safe materials. The editors have expanded the second edition to echo the multidisciplinary approach inherent in current flame retardancy technology and put it in a revised, more user-friendly format. More than just an update of previously covered topics, this edition discusses: additional fire retardant chemistry developments in regulations and standards new flame retardant approaches fire safety engineering modeling and fire growth phenomena The book introduces flame retardants polymer-by-polymer, supplemented by a brief overview of mode of action and interaction, and all the other ancillary issues involved in this applied field of materials science. The book delineates what, why, and how to do it, covering the fundamentals of polymer burning/combustion and how to apply these systems and chemistries to specific materials classes. It also provides suggested formulations, discusses why certain materials are preferred for particular uses or applications, and offers a starting point from which to develop fire-safe materials.
Posted in:

Textile Based Advanced Materials

Functional Textiles with Nanomaterials In the following section, we discuss nanomaterial included different functional textiles, such as flame-retardant textiles, UV Protective textiles, antimicrobial and antibacterial textiles, ...

Author: Thomas Bechtold

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783036504209

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 608

Download →

Developments in the science and technology of textiles are not only limited to apparel and fashion. Certainly, there are research efforts aimed at improving the construction and processing of textiles for clothing—such as studies on cleaner production to reduce environmental impact, increasing the utilization of fibers and process chemicals from renewable resources, and on the recycling of materials from post-consumer waste apparel back into the manufacturing of new clothing articles. In addition, technological concepts developed for the creation of clothing over the centuries are now being investigated for use in a diverse array of fields—such as in the manufacture of engineering composites, personal protective equipment, and medicine. Further, developments in other fields—such as electronics, nanotechnology, and information and communication technologies—are being investigated for their incorporation into apparel and clothing to create “smart textiles”. The aim of this Special Issue is to put together a collection of scientific reports on such efforts to highlight the range of scientific and technological issues that are being targeted and the ingenuity of the methodologies employed to find answers. It is hoped that readers of this issue will come away with an appreciation of the research being conducted in this area, and perhaps gain inspiration for their own scientific endeavors.
Posted in:

Green Chemistry for Sustainable Textiles

[5] Horrocks AR, Price D. Fire retardant materials. Cambridge: WoodHead Publishing; 2006. [6] Weil ED, Levchik SV. Flame retardants for plastics and textiles: practical applications. Mu ̈nchen: Hanser Publications; 2009.

Author: Nabil Ibrahim

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 9780323853651

Category: Science

Page: 520

View: 523

Download →

Green Chemistry for Sustainable Textiles: Modern Design and Approaches provides a comprehensive survey of the latest methods in green chemistry for the reduction of the textile industry’s environmental impact. In recent years industrial R&D has been exploring more sustainable chemicals as well as eco-friendly technologies in the textile wet processing chain, leading to a range of new techniques for sustainable textile manufacture. This book discusses and explores basic principles of green chemistry and their implementation along with other aspects of cleaner production strategies, as well as new and emerging textile technologies, providing a comprehensive reference for readers at all levels. Potential benefits to industry from the techniques covered in this book include: Savings in water, energy and chemical consumption, waste minimization as well as disposal cost reduction, and production of high added value sustainable textile products to satisfy consumer demands for comfort, safety, aesthetic, and multi-functional performance properties. Innovative emerging methods are covered as well as popular current technologies, creating a comprehensive reference that facilitates comparisons between methods Evaluates the fundamental green chemistry principles as drivers for textile sustainability Explains how and why to use renewable green chemicals in the textile wet processing chain
Posted in:

Nanofinishing of Textile Materials

Flame-retardant. textile. nanofinishes. 11.1 INTRODUCTION The desire for textiles with reduced flammability has a long ... to a group of protective technical textiles that protect the wearers and textiles material from flame and heat.

Author: Majid Montazer

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 9780081012505

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 542

Download →

Nanofinishing of Textile Materials provides thorough coverage of existing, current and future developments in the field. Sections cover a wide range of nanofinishing mechanisms for improving the fundamental properties of textiles, such as bleaching, scouring, softening and surface activation. Other sections discuss high-performance properties and conventional attributes, such as waterproofing, fire-retardancy and novel applications, including conductivity and magnetism. With two highly regarded and experienced authors bringing together the latest information on nanofinishing technology, this book is essential reading for scientific researchers, engineers and R&D professionals working on the development of finishes for improving the properties of textiles. Explains nanofinishing mechanisms and processes with a view to their use in developing high-performance apparel and technical textiles Focuses on how nanofinishing can be used to confer important characteristics, such as self-cleaning, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, magnetic and conductive attributes Explores novel techniques and methods for readers who require cutting-edge knowledge of developments in nanofinishing
Posted in:

Sustainable Textiles

with low flammability or the use of flame retardants in certain high risk areas such as domestic furnishings, ... In fact, the decomposition temperature of a flame-retardant textile material is lowered compared with that of untreated ...

Author: Richard Blackburn

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781845696948

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 483

Download →

Environmental issues are playing an increasingly important role in the textile industry, both from the point of view of government regulation and consumer expectations. Sustainable textiles reviews ways of achieving more sustainable materials and technologies as well as improving recycling in the industry. The first part of the book discusses ways of improving sustainability at various points in the supply chain. Chapters discuss how sustainability can be integrated into textile design, ensuring more sustainable production of both natural and synthetic fibres, improving sustainability in processes such as dyeing as well as more environmentally-friendly technologies including enzyme and plasma technologies. The second part of the book reviews consumer perceptions of recycled textiles, eco-labelling, organic textiles and the use of recycled materials in textile products. With a distinguished editor and an impressive range of international contributors, Sustainable textiles is an important reference for the textile industry and those researching this important topic. Reviews government regulations and consumer expectations about environmental impact on the textiles industry Discusses ways of achieving more sustainable materials and technologies as well as textiles recycling Examines how sustainability can be integrated into textile design, production and processes
Posted in: