Higgs Discovery

The Power of Empty Space
Author: Lisa Randall
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1448161169
Category: Science
Page: 64
View: 5550
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On July 4th, 2012, one of physics' most exhilarating results was announced: a new particle – and very likely a new kind of particle – had been discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, the huge particle accelerator designed to reproduce energies present in the universe a fraction of a second after the Big Bang. The particle's existence had been speculated on for nearly fifty years: here, finally, was proof. Professor Lisa Randall of Harvard University is one of the world's most influential theoretical physicists, and author of the bestselling Knocking on Heaven's Door and Warped Passages. In Higgs Discovery she deftly explains both this epochal discovery and it's startlingly beautiful implications.

The Higgs Boson

Searching for the God Particle
Author: Scientific American Editors
Publisher: Scientific American
ISBN: 1466824131
Category: Science
Page: 231
View: 804
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The Higgs Boson: Searching for the God Particle by the Editors of Scientific American Updated 2017 Edition! For the fifth anniversary of one of the biggest discoveries in physics, we’ve updated this eBook to include our continuing analysis of the discovery, of the questions it answers and those it raises. As the old adage goes, where there’s smoke, there’s fire. Where there is effect, there must be cause. The planet Neptune was found in 1846 because the mathematics of Newton's laws, when applied to the orbit of Uranus, said some massive body had to be there. Astronomers eventually found it, using the best telescopes available to peer into the sky. This same logic is applied to the search for the Higgs boson. One consequence of the prevailing theory of physics, called the Standard Model, is that there has to be some field that gives particles their particular masses. With that there has to be a corresponding particle, made by creating waves in the field, and this is the Higgs boson, the so-called God particle. This eBook chronicles the search – and demonstrates the power of a good theory. Based on the Standard Model, physicists believed something had to be there, but it wasn't until the Large Hadron Collider was built that anyone could see evidence of the Higgs – and finally in July 2012, they did. A Higgs-like particle was found near the energies scientists expected to find it. Now, armed with better evidence and better questions, the scientific process continues. This eBook gathers the best reporting and analysis from Scientific American to explain that process – the theories, the search, the ongoing questions. In essence, everything you need to know to separate Higgs from hype.

Discovery of the Higgs Boson


Author: Aleandro Nisati,Vivek Sharma
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 981442546X
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 6970
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The recent observation of the Higgs boson has been hailed as the scientific discovery of the century and led to the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics. This book describes the detailed science behind the decades-long search for this elusive particle at the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN and at the Tevatron at Fermilab and its subsequent discovery and characterization at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Written by physicists who played leading roles in this epic search and discovery, this book is an authoritative and pedagogical exposition of the portrait of the Higgs boson that has emerged from a large number of experimental measurements. As the first of its kind, this book should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in particle physics.

The Search and Discovery of the Higgs Boson

As a brief introduction to particle physics
Author: Luis Roberto Flores Castillo
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1681741423
Category: Science
Page: 75
View: 3953
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This book provides a general description of the search for and discovery of the Higgs boson (particle) at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. The goal is to provide a relatively brief overview of the issues, instruments and techniques relevant for this search; written by a physicist who was directly involved. The Higgs boson mat be the one particle that was studied the most before its discovery and the story from postulation in 1964 to detection in 2012 is a fascinating one. The story is told here while detailing the fundamentals of particle physics.

Supersymmetry After the Higgs Discovery


Author: Ignatios Antoniadis,Dumitru Ghilencea
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662441721
Category: Science
Page: 175
View: 6897
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Supersymmetry (SUSY) is a new symmetry that relates bosons and fermions, which has strong support at both the mathematical and the physical level. This book offers a comprehensive review, following the development of SUSY from its very early days up to present. The order of the contributions should provide the reader with the historical development as well as the latest theoretical updates and interpretations, and experimental constraints from particle accelerators and dark matter searches. It is a great pleasure to bring together here contributions from authors who initiated or have contributed significantly to the development of this theory over so many years. To present a balanced point of view, the book also includes a closing contribution that attempts to describe the physics beyond the Standard Model in the absence of SUSY. The contributions to this book have been previously published in The European Physical Journal C - Particles and Fields.

Higgs Potential and Naturalness After the Higgs Discovery


Author: Yuta Hamada
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811034184
Category: Science
Page: 102
View: 1922
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This thesis focuses on the theoretical foundation of the Standard Model valid up to the Planck scale, based on the current experimental facts from the Large Hadron Collider. The thesis consists of two themes: (1) to open up a new window of the Higgs inflation scenario, and (2) to explore a new solution to the naturalness problem in particle physics. In the first area, on the Higgs inflation scenario, the author successfully improves a large value problem on a coupling constant relevant to the Higgs mass in the Standard Model, in which the coupling value of the order of 105 predicted in a conventional scenario is reduced to the order of 10. This result makes the Higgs inflation more attractive because the small value of coupling is natural in the context of ultraviolet completion such as string theory. In the second area, the author provides a new answer to the naturalness problem, of why the cosmological constant and the Higgs mass are extremely small compared with the Planck scale. Based on the baby universe theory originally proposed by Coleman, the smallness of those quantities is successfully explained without introducing any additional new particles relevant at the TeV energy scale.

The Higgs Boson Discovery at the Large Hadron Collider


Author: Roger Wolf
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319185128
Category: Science
Page: 187
View: 4825
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of Higgs boson physics. It offers the first in-depth review of the complete results in connection with the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider and based on the full dataset for the years 2011 to 2012. The fundamental concepts and principles of Higgs physics are introduced and the important searches prior to the advent of the Large Hadron Collider are briefly summarized. Lastly, the discovery and first mensuration of the observed particle in the course of the CMS experiment are discussed in detail and compared to the results obtained in the ATLAS experiment.

Search for the Higgs Boson in the Vector Boson Fusion Channel at the ATLAS Detector


Author: Eric Ouellette
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319135996
Category: Science
Page: 106
View: 8033
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This Thesis describes the first measurement of, and constraints on, Higgs boson production in the vector boson fusion mode, where the Higgs decays to b quarks (the most common decay channel), at the LHC. The vector boson fusion mode, in which the Higgs is produced simultaneously with a pair of quark jets, provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the detailed properties of the Higgs, including the possibility of parity and CP violation, as well as its couplings and mass. It thus opens up this new field of study for precision investigation as the LHC increases in energy and intensity, leading the way to this new and exciting arena of precision Higgs research.

Higgs

The invention and discovery of the 'God Particle'
Author: Jim Baggott
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019165003X
Category: Science
Page: 304
View: 1022
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The hunt for the Higgs particle has involved the biggest, most expensive experiment ever. So exactly what is this particle? Why does it matter so much? What does it tell us about the Universe? Did the discovery announced on 4 July 2012 finish the search? And was finding it really worth all the effort? The short answer is yes. The Higgs field is proposed as the way in which particles gain mass - a fundamental property of matter. It's the strongest indicator yet that the Standard Model of physics really does reflect the basic building blocks of our Universe. Little wonder the hunt and discovery of this new particle produced such intense media interest. Here, Jim Baggott explains the science behind the discovery, looking at how the concept of a Higgs field was invented, how the vast experiment was carried out, and its implications on our understanding of all mass in the Universe.

Search for the Higgs Boson


Author: John V. Lee
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781594548611
Category: Science
Page: 143
View: 9142
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The Higgs boson is an undiscovered elementary particle, thought to be a vital piece of the closely fitting jigsaw of particle physics. Like all particles, it has wave properties akin to those ripples on the surface of a pond which has been disturbed; indeed, only when the ripples travel as a well defined group is it sensible to speak of a particle at all. In quantum language the analogue of the water surface which carries the waves is called a field. Each type of particle has its own corresponding field. The Higgs field is a particularly simple one - it has the same properties viewed from every direction, and in important respects in indistinguishable from empty space. Thus physicists conceive of the Higgs field being switched on, pervading all of space and endowing it with grain like that of a plank of wood. The direction of the grain in undetectable, and only becomes important once the Higgs' interactions with other particles are taken into account. which case they move easily for large distances and may be observed as photons - that is, particles of light that we can see or record using a camera; or against, in which case their effective range is much shorter, and we call them W or Z particles. These play a central role in the physics of nuclear reactions, such as those occurring in the core of the sun. The Higgs field enables us to view these apparently unrelated phenomenon as two sides of the same coin; both may be described in terms of the properties of the same vector bosons. When particles of matter such as electrons or quarks (elementary constituents of protons and neutrons, which in turn constitute the atomic nucleus) travel through the grain, they are constantly flipped head-over-heels, this forces them to move more slowly than their natural speed, that of light, by making them heavy.

Inside Cern's Large Hadron Collider: From The Proton To The Higgs Boson


Author: Campanelli Mario
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814656674
Category: Science
Page: 112
View: 1769
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The book aims to explain the historical development of particle physics, with special emphasis on CERN and collider physics. It describes in detail the LHC accelerator and its detectors, describing the science involved as well as the sociology of big collaborations, culminating with the discovery of the Higgs boson. Readers are led step-by-step to understanding why we do particle physics, as well as the tools and problems involved in the field. It provides an insider's view on the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider.

Massive

The Higgs Boson and the Greatest Hunt in Science: Updated Edition
Author: Ian Sample
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 0753549034
Category: Science
Page: 352
View: 2473
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In the early 1960s, three groups of physicists, working independently in different countries, stumbled upon an idea that would change physics and fuel the imagination of scientists for decades. That idea was the Higgs boson – to find it would be to finally understand the origins of mass – the last building block of life itself. Now, almost 50 years later, that particle has finally been discovered. Award-winning science writer Ian Sample weaves together the personal stories and intense rivalries of the teams of scientists behind the Higgs boson. Massive is a tale of grand ambition, trans-Atlantic competition, clashing egos and occasionally spectacular failures. From the giant particle colliders built to further the scientists' quest to the political fallout of budget blowouts, debates over whether the search might even destroy the universe, to the incredible discovery of the particle itself, this is an epic story of imagination, personal ambition, sub-atomic exploration and global significance. Whichever way you look at it, this story is massive.

Observation of a New State in the Search for the Higgs Boson at CMS


Author: Giovanni Petrucciani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8876424822
Category: Science
Page: 200
View: 4191
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This book describes the searches that lead to the discovery of a Higgs boson performed at CMS, one of the two main experiments at the CERN LHC. After an overview of the theory and of the CMS experiment, all search channels are described, with emphasis on the ones with the best sensitivity. The statistical methodology used to analyse and the outcomes of the searches and the discovery results are then presented in detail.

The Large Hadron Collider

The Extraordinary Story of the Higgs Boson and Other Stuff That Will Blow Your Mind
Author: Don Lincoln
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421413515
Category: SCIENCE
Page: 240
View: 9924
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Details the history of the Large Hadron Collider and the scientific breakthroughs it helped to discover, including the Higgs boson.

Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in the H → ZZ → l + l - qq Decay Channel at CMS


Author: Francesco Pandolfi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319009036
Category: Science
Page: 128
View: 5993
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The theoretical foundations of the Standard Model of elementary particles relies on the existence of the Higgs boson, a particle which has been revealed for the first time by the experiments run at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012. As the Higgs boson is an unstable particle, its search strategies were based on its decay products. In this thesis, Francesco Pandolfi conducted a search for the Higgs boson in the H → ZZ → l + l - qq Decay Channel with 4.6 fb -1 of 7 TeV proton-proton collision data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The presence of jets in the final state poses a series of challenges to the experimenter: both from a technical point of view, as jets are complex objects and necessitate of ad-hoc reconstruction techniques, and from an analytical one, as backgrounds with jets are copious at hadron colliders, therefore analyses must obtain high degrees of background rejection in order to achieve competitive sensitivity. This is accomplished by following two directives: the use of an angular likelihood discriminant, capable of discriminating events likely to originate from the decay of a scalar boson from non-resonant backgrounds, and by using jet parton flavor tagging, selecting jets compatible with quark hadronization and discarding jets more likely to be initiated by gluons. The events passing the selection requirements in 4.6 fb -1 of data collected by the CMS detector are examined, in the search of a possible signal compatible with the decay of a heavy Higgs boson. The thesis describes the statistical tools and the results of this analysis. This work is a paradigm for studies of the Higgs boson with final states with jets. The non-expert physicists will enjoy a complete and eminently readable description of a proton-proton collider analysis. At the same time, the expert reader will learn the details of the searches done with jets at CMS.