Human Placental Trophoblasts

It also reviews the role of fatty acids, folic acids, and specific vitamins in this aspect. The book highlights the critic

Author: Asim K. Duttaroy

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781482254297

Category: Medical

Page: 426

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Human Placental Trophoblasts: Impact of Maternal Nutrition explores the vital roles of trophoblasts play in fetal growth and pregnancy, giving you new insight into the modulation of placental trophoblast functions by nutrients. It also reviews the role of fatty acids, folic acids, and specific vitamins in this aspect. The book highlights the critical role of nutrients on human placental development and its' in utero programming effects on the development of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and obesity in later life. The book begins with discussions of the central process of placentation and its regulation on size and growth of the fetus. It also covers the effects of key macronutrients on placental growth, metabolism, transport, and secretory function. The text details important vitamins and few micronutrients and their roles in the feto-placental growth and development. It includes information on the influence of maternal lifestyle and environmental factors on regulation of the growth, metabolism and gene expression in the feto-placental unit. A review of the genes linked to the process of placentation rounds out the coverage. An examination of a broad range of evidence in the areas of placental growth, function, and its impact on feto-placental outcome, the book presents new knowledge on nutrition and its relevance with early human development. This includes not only the effects of maternal nutrients on possible neonatal growth and development but also their regulation by maternal lifestyle associated factors. A fine blending of epidemiology, clinical nutrition, perinatal and neonatal medicine, and biochemistry and molecular biology areas of research activities, the book helps you to understand the impact of maternal nutrition on placentation and its relevance with pregnancy outcome and fetal programming of adult health and disease.
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Cholesterol and Oxysterol Transport in Human Placental Trophoblasts

[Truncated abstract] Cholesterol is an essential nutrient which plays a vital role in fetal development.

Author: Irving Lin Min Htwe Aye

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:816406377

Category: Cholesterol

Page: 452

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[Truncated abstract] Cholesterol is an essential nutrient which plays a vital role in fetal development. Early in pregnancy, fetal cholesterol levels rise in concert with maternal cholesterol. However, by around 12 and 20 weeks of gestation, changes in fetal cholesterol no longer reflect maternal cholesterol levels, indicating that fetal and maternal cholesterol levels are differentially regulated. As the interface between maternal and fetal circulations, it is hypothesised that the placenta plays an integral role in the regulation of maternal-fetal cholesterol transport. However, the transport mechanisms involved in placental cholesterol transport are poorly understood. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 are found on the plasma membranes of cells where they mediate the efflux of cholesterol and other sterols. These proteins are expressed ubiquitously, and are responsible for preventing the cellular accumulation of sterols. Through their cholesterol efflux function, ABCA1 and ABCG1 participate, in vivo, in a process known as reverse cholesterol transport, whereby cholesterol from non-hepatic peripheral tissues is trafficked to the liver via the blood stream for elimination. While both of these transporters are expressed highly in the placenta, their function in this organ remains unknown. I hypothesised that placental ABCA1 and ABCG1 play a role in the maternal-fetal cholesterol transport pathway. In the first study of this thesis, I explored the function of placental ABCA1 and ABCG1 by investigating their ability to efflux cholesterol in cultured primary trophoblast cells. Knockdown of ABCA1 expression in trophoblast cells using siRNA mediated transfections, or pharmacological antagonism using glyburide, decreased cholesterol efflux to the cholesterol acceptor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) compared to controls. Using siRNA, silencing of ABCG1 expression also reduced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from trophoblast cells. In contrast, treatment with a synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) a/b agonist (T0901317) increased both apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, through increased transcription of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Immunolocalisation of these transport proteins in term placental sections identified ABCA1 protein expression predominantly in the apical face of the syncytiotrophoblast membrane suggestive of cholesterol transport towards the maternal circulation...
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Placenta and Trophoblast

Techniques presented in the text range from comprehensive descriptions of experimental animal models, animal and human placental organ and cell culture systems, and morphological, biochemical, and molecular strategies for assessing ...

Author: Michael J. Soares

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781592599837

Category: Medical

Page: 492

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Placenta Methods and Protocols represents a collection of detailed methodologies used in contemporary placental research. Techniques presented in the text range from comprehensive descriptions of experimental animal models, animal and human placental organ and cell culture systems, and morphological, biochemical, and molecular strategies for assessing trophoblast/placental growth, differentiation, and function.
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Placenta and Trophoblast

In Placenta and Trophoblast: Methods and Protocols, Volumes 1 & 2, internationally recognized investigators describe cutting-edge laboratory techniques for the study of the trophoblast and placental biology.

Author: Michael J. Soares

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN: 1627038132

Category: Medical

Page: 470

View: 405

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A collection of cutting-edge laboratory techniques for the study of trophoblast and placental biology. The techniques presented range from experimental animal models, to animal and human placental organ and cell culture systems, to morphological, biochemical, and molecular strategies for assessing trophoblast/placental growth, differentiation and function. Volume 1 provides readily reproducible protocols for studying embryo-uterine implantation, trophoblast cell development, and the organization and molecular characterization of the placenta. Highlights include strategies for the isolation and culture of trophoblast cells from primates, ruminants, and rodents, and precise guidance to the molecular and cellular analysis of the placental phenotype. A companion second volume concentrates on methods for investigating placental function.
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The Role of the Placenta in Health and Disease Investigations Into Siglec 6 and Exosomes

This work is the first to describe the complete miRNA profile of murine trophoblast-derived and pregnancy-associated exosomes, which is a necessary step in translating knowledge of human placental miRNAs to mouse models of pregnancy, ...

Author: Adrianne Lee Stefanski

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:956995706

Category:

Page: 182

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The placenta plays a critical role in the success and maintenance of pregnancy in eutherian mammals. During placental development, placental trophoblasts come into direct contact with maternal cells including those of the uterus, vasculature and immune system. The placenta also releases a wide variety of membrane-bound, trophoblast-derived cellular products including microvesicles and exosomes, which are present in the maternal circulation. In pregnancy, there are frequent and diverse opportunities for trophoblasts to functionally interact with the maternal system. This thesis focuses on three projects connected by their relevance to placentation or pregnancy. First, I investigate the function of the placentally expressed protein sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 6 (Siglec-6), whose aberrant expression is associated with two diseases of placental etiology: preeclampsia and gestation trophoblastic disease. Currently, the function of Siglec-6 and its role in placental pathologies is unknown. Using a in vitro model system, I demonstrate that src-family kinases phosphorylate Siglec-6, at both intracellular tyrosine residues, and that src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase is recruited to tyrosine phosphorylated Siglec-6. This represents the first evidence of the ability of Siglec-6 to participate in and likely modulate intracellular signal transduction. Next, this work establishes the SKG mouse as an in vivo model of pregnancy-associated inflammatory arthritis amelioration. Additionally, serum amyloid A 3 (SAA3) was identified as a serum biomarker associated with disease severity and pregnancy-associated arthritis amelioration. Finally, I performed the first comprehensive characterization of trophoblast-derived and pregnancy-associated mouse exosomal microRNAs. This work identifies the mmu-miR-322 cluster as a component of trophoblast-derived exosomes, and that mmu-miR-322 cluster abundance in exosomes increases with murine trophoblast differentiation in vitro as well with pregnancy in vivo. Interestingly, mmu-miR-322 targets Cul2, which plays an important role regulating T cell signaling and hypoxia-inducible factors in trophoblasts and endothelial cells. This work is the first to describe the complete miRNA profile of murine trophoblast-derived and pregnancy-associated exosomes, which is a necessary step in translating knowledge of human placental miRNAs to mouse models of pregnancy, placental function, and immune modulation.
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Vascular Biology of the Placenta

This book provides an up-to-date summary and synthesis of knowledge regarding placental vascular biology and discusses the relevance of this vascular bed to the functions of the human placenta.

Author: Yuping Wang

Publisher: Biota Publishing

ISBN: 9781615047512

Category: Medical

Page: 113

View: 961

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall, thereby allowing nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. Proper vascular development in the placenta is fundamental to ensuring a healthy fetus and successful pregnancy. This book provides an up-to-date summary and synthesis of knowledge regarding placental vascular biology and discusses the relevance of this vascular bed to the functions of the human placenta.
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Regulation of 11 hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 in the Human Placenta microform

The first set of experiments using cultured trophoblasts (JEG-3 cells) demonstrated that eicosanoids, namely prostaglandins and leukotriene B4, decreased 11beta-HSD2 activity without altering the steady-state levels of 11beta-HSD2 mRNA.

Author: Daniel B. (Daniel Barry) Hardy

Publisher: Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothèque et Archives Canada

ISBN: 0612966844

Category:

Page: 160

View: 936

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The first set of experiments using cultured trophoblasts (JEG-3 cells) demonstrated that eicosanoids, namely prostaglandins and leukotriene B4, decreased 11beta-HSD2 activity without altering the steady-state levels of 11beta-HSD2 mRNA. The next set of experiments utilizing both JEG-3 cells and human placental microsomes established that the prostaglandin-induced decrease in placental 11beta-HSD2 activity was mediated by increases in intracellular calcium, and that calcium decreased placental 11beta-HSD2 by a post-translational mechanism. The final set of experiments, conducted using cultured primary human placental trophoblasts, provided evidence that 11beta-HSD2 was induced during trophoblast differentiation. However, when the cells were exposed to hypoxic (1% oxygen) conditions, both the induction of 11beta-HSD2 and trophoblast differentiation were prevented.
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