Immigrant entrepreneurs in a changing institutional context

Immigrant entrepreneurs are known to be heterogeneous in terms of available resources and entrepreneurial outcomes.

Author: Aliaksei Kazlou

Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press

ISBN: 9789179299897

Category:

Page: 83

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Immigrant entrepreneurs are known to be heterogeneous in terms of available resources and entrepreneurial outcomes. However, this heterogeneity, as well as immigrant entrepreneurs’ embeddedness in social networks and the institutional context of high-income welfare states such as Sweden, remains understudied. Sweden represents an interesting case as a popular immigration destination which liberalized its migration policy for entrepreneurs and changed other regulations, encouraging immigrant entrepreneurship after 2008. Theoretically, the dissertation contributes to the mixed embeddedness approach to immigrant entrepreneurship by considering three stages of the entrepreneurial process – entry, performance, and potential exit – in a changing institutional environment. Methodologically, the dissertation operationalizes the mixed embeddedness approach by studying these three stages – entry (propensity to start a business), performance (entrepreneurial incomes), and potential exit (duration in business) – among different categories of immigrants. Explanatory factors are drawn from three levels of analysis: institutional change (macro), social, ethnic and family networks (meso), and the individual’s human capital (micro). A range of statistical tools is used for empirical analyses: Difference-in-difference methods in combination with Coarsened Exact Matching and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition are used to investigate the influence of institutional change on entrepreneurial entry and performance. Survival models based on Cox regression are applied to investigate the influence of social and family ties on the likelihood of entrepreneurial exit. A combination of clustering and association analysis allows heterogeneity to be approached via the categorization of immigrant entrepreneurs. Empirically, based on rich data from Swedish registers, the dissertation reveals that the propensity to start businesses in expanding ICT industries among labour immigrants was increased, and performance in terms of income among new immigrant entrepreneurs was improved after institutional change, compared to earlier. It also stresses that family networks mitigate a lack of other resources for refugee entrepreneurs, allowing them to stay in business longer. Two main categories of new immigrant entrepreneurs were distinguished in the overall heterogeneous population. The dissertation consists of four papers and an introductory chapter. Invandrarföretagare uppvisar stor heterogenitet när det gäller tillgängliga resurser och framgång i sitt företagande. Denna heterogenitet, liksom invandrarföretagens inbäddning i sociala nätverk och i den svenska välfärdsstatens institutionella kontext, är emellertid understuderad. Sverige utgör ett intressant fall eftersom det är ett land med relativt stor invandring som efter 2008 liberaliserade migrationspolitiken för företagare och på olika sätt uppmuntrade invandrares företagande. Teoretiskt bidrar avhandlingen till mixed embeddedness-perspektivet genom att analysera tre stadier i entreprenörsprocessen: uppstart, utveckling och eventuell avveckling, i förhållande till institutionell förändring. Mixed embeddedness operationaliseras i avhandlingen genom att olika kategorier invandrare studeras vid olika steg i entreprenörsprocessen; uppstart (benägenhet att starta ett företag), utveckling (företagarinkomster) samt eventuell avveckling (varaktighet i företaget) och genom att förklarande faktorer studeras på tre analysnivåer: institutionell förändring (makro), sociala, etniska och familjenätverk (meso) samt individens humankapital (mikro). En rad statistiska verktyg används för de empiriska analyserna; Difference-in-difference-metoder i kombination med Coarsened Exact Matching och Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition används för att undersöka hur institutionella förändringar påverkar uppstart och utveckling. Överlevnadsmodeller baserade på Cox-regression tillämpas för att undersöka hur sociala nätverk och familjeband påverkar sannolikheten för avveckling. Med en kombination av klusteranalys och associationsanalys undersöks mönster i heterogeniteten bland invandrarföretagarna genom kategorisering. Empiriskt, baserat på detaljerade data från svenska register, visar avhandlingen att benägenheten att starta verksamhet inom IKT-branschen ökade bland arbetskraftsinvandrare, samt att inkomsterna bland nya invandrarföretagare förbättrades efter en period av institutionell förändring. Avhandlingen visar även att familjenätverk motverkar bristen på andra resurser för företagare med flyktingbakgrund, vilket gör att de kan stanna i verksamheten längre. Två huvudkategorier går att urskilja i den heterogena gruppen av företagare. Avhandlingen är en sammanläggning av fyra artiklar och en inledande kappa.
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Immigrant Entrepreneurship

Despite some changes in this area, comparative studies are still scarce or insufficiently thorough. ... including the impact of regulations and of the institutional context, immigrant entrepreneurship analysed in the historical context, ...

Author: Beata Glinka

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000096958

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 200

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Immigration is currently one of the most vivid challenges the European Union faces. Ways of introducing new migrants to society and economy pose significant challenges, thus some guidelines for the policy design towards migrations are in need. This book points out patterns of approaches leading to entrepreneurial activities, implemented by the immigrants from the Far East: China, Vietnam, South Korea, India, and Philippines. At these stage comparisons with other countries are both possible and necessary, as many countries all over the world face challenges connected with defining migration policies. From the studies included in the book, readers will gain first-hand knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Poland against the Western European or USA background of similar processes described by researchers in other countries. The areas covered in the studies include the main reasons for starting new ventures and the sources of opportunities, processes of defining customers and factors influencing the choice between an ethnic and local business, immigrants' approaches to building market position, defining success and development, as well as the issues of cultural, institutional, legal and economic differences. The studies show that significant differences in entrepreneurial activities appear between the first and second generations of immigrants. They also depict how entrepreneurial activities help in assimilation processes, as well as in building ties between the immigrants and host societies. Moreover, the study will deepen the understanding of entrepreneurial activities of immigrants in countries that are traditionally considered to be less attractive targets for migration. Thus, the processes of migration will be not only better understood and described but will also allow to provide some guidelines both for policymakers and future researchers
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Handbook of Research on Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship

Immigrant. entrepreneurs. and. the. Israeli. welfare. state: institutional. support. and. institutional ... Differentiating the roles of economic and institutional contexts is also difficult, because legal–institutional characteristics ...

Author: Leo Paul Dana

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781847209962

Category: Social Science

Page: 835

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Professor Dana and his colleagues have carefully and successfully put together a collection of chapters on ethnic minority entrepreneurship from all parts of the world. The book comprises eight parts and 49 chapters. Undoubtedly, given the massive size and content of a 835-page book, it is fair to ask, is it value for money? The answer is unequivocally yes! A further comment on the content of the book should probably reassure potential readers and buyers of the book. . . This collection is undoubtedly rich, creative and varied in many respects. Therefore, it will be of great benefit to researchers and scholars alike. . . I will strongly recommend this book to researchers, students, teachers and policy-makers. Aminu Mamman, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research The volume presents an impressive panorama of studies on ethnic entrepreneurships ranging from Dalits in India to Roma entrepreneurs in Hungary. B.P. Corrie, Choice From a focus on middle-man minorities in the 1950s, the study of minority ethnic entrepreneurship has evolved into a vast undertaking. A major ingredient in this expansion is the massive population movements of the past thirty years that have created ethnic minority communities in almost all advanced economies. From New York to San Francisco, from Birmingham to Hamburg, from the Chinese in Canada, to the Turks in Finland, to the Ghanians in South Africa to the Lebanese in New Zealand, more than twenty chapters in this volume treat small-scale ethnic entrepreneurship and the cultural and institutional resources which support it. At the other end of the spectrum, the ethnic Chinese have created ever larger multi-divisional enterprises in the host societies of Southeast Asia. At the mid-point of the spectrum, analyzed in an elegant paper by Ivan Light, is the recently identified transmigrant entrepreneur accultured in two societies but assimilated in neither whose special endowments have provided the lynchpin for for much of the international trade expansion in the global economy over the past decade. And Dana and Morris provide us with much more Afro-American entrepreneurship, caste and class, the theory of clubs, women ethnic entrepreneurs, minority ethnicity and IPOs. In the quality of its contributions and in the reach of its coverage, this Handbook attains a very high standard. Peter Kilby, Wesleyan University, US The new Handbook of Research on Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship, edited by Léo-Paul Dana, constitutes a major contribution to the literature on ethnic enterprise. Unlike previous work, which tended to focus on one country or one region of the world, this book is global in scope. You will find chapters on America, Europe, and Asia, as well as integrative essays that review important principles and concepts from the literature on ethnic entrepreneurship. I particularly appreciate the historical and evolutionary framework within which the contributions are situated. This book belongs on the shelf of everyone who has an interest in immigration and entrepreneurship or ethnic entrepreneurship more generally. Howard Aldrich, University of North Carolina, US This exhaustive, interdisciplinary Handbook explores the phenomena of immigration and ethnic minority entrepreneurship in light of marked changes since the mid-twentieth century and the advent of easier, more affordable travel and more open and integrated national economies. The international contributors, key experts in their respective fields, illustrate that myriad ethnic minorities exist across the globe, and that their entrepreneurship can and does significantly influence national economies. The contributors go on to promote our understanding of which factors make for successful entrepreneurship, and, perhaps more importantly, how negative political consequences that members of successful entrepreneurial ethnic minorities might face can be minimized. This extensive collection of current research on entrepr
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Entrepreneurship and the Market Process

If innovative immigrant entrepreneurship is the future, identifying precisely what types of policies or institutional changes are necessary to attract creative immigrant entrepreneurs and capture the gains from foreign-born ...

Author: Arielle John

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030424084

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 206

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What is the significance of entrepreneurship in an economy? Scholars have argued that when the market is viewed as a process of perpetual adjustment to various forces, and not as a set of end-state prices and quantities simply arrived at, the role of the entrepreneur comes to the fore. What then are fruitful ways to conceive of the phenomenon of entrepreneurship? How do entrepreneurs both respond to and shape larger forces in the economy? In what ways can political institutions and government regulation shape the decisions made by entrepreneurs, and their responsiveness to consumers? How does the cultural environment influence the types of opportunities that an entrepreneur will notice and act on? Finally, is entrepreneurial behavior strictly limited to activity we see in the market? This edited volume—comprised of chapters by scholars and students studying from the disciplines of sociology and economics—examines entrepreneurship theoretically and applied to various cases. It provides an overview of the economic literature on entrepreneurship and puts forth a framework for understanding the market process, as well the policy implications of government intervention and cultural considerations in the market. It will be of use to any scholars, students, practitioners or policymakers interested in entrepreneurship.
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Entrepreneurial Processes in a Changing Economy

Context is, however, not a homogeneous construct, and four dimensions have been identified by Zahra and Wright (2011): temporal, institutional, social and spatial. The temporal dimension concerns the emergence of ventures over time ...

Author: Friederike Welter

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781781004739

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

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This insightful book presents leading-edge European research on entrepreneurial processes in a changing global world. The contributors take a closer look at what constitutes entrepreneurial processes; how entrepreneurs develop their businesses and access critical resources in times of crisis; and which roles knowledge and innovation play in continuous venture development. The chapters included in this volume give a flavour of the themes and approaches featuring in contemporary entrepreneurship and small business research in Europe. Entrepreneurial Processes in a Changing Economy will prove invaluable for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students of entrepreneurship and small business. Entrepreneurship and small business researchers and policy makers will also find plenty of relevant information in this important resource.
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ECIE2011 6th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Kloosterman 2010) that integrates the immigrant entrepreneur, the opportunity structure and the institutional context (market changes and public policies). These seminal contributions have provided support to the theoretical model and ...

Author: Alexandros Kakouris

Publisher: Academic Conferences Limited

ISBN: 9781908272140

Category:

Page: 579

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ECEI2011 6th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship

... 2010) that integrates the immigrant entrepreneur, the opportunity structure and the institutional context (market changes ... proposed by the GEM to analyze the entrepreneurial phenomenon among natives and immigrant entrepreneurs.

Author: Heather Fulford

Publisher: Academic Conferences Limited

ISBN: 9781908272157

Category: Entrepreneurship

Page: 1115

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Contextual Heterogeneity in Entrepreneurship Research

Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research Laveren, Eddy, Ben-Hafaïedh, Cyrine, Kurczewska, Agnieszka, Jiang, ... For example, entrepreneurship scholars study the institutional contexts of women's entrepreneurship and immigrant ...

Author: Laveren, Eddy

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781802200201

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 192

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This insightful book explores the importance and influence of contextual heterogeneity in the field of entrepreneurship research, illuminating the circumstances, conditions or environments that may enable or constrain entrepreneurship.
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Selected Studies in International Migration and Immigrant Incorporation

Using embeddedness in this circumscribed way, neglects the wider economic and institutional context in which immigrants are inevitably also ... In this view, the rise of immigrant entrepreneurship is, theoretically, primarily located at ...

Author: Marco Martiniello

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9789089641601

Category: Social Science

Page: 628

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"The editors have selected from both the grounding classics and the best new work to show how migration is transforming the rich democracies." Professor John Mollenkopf, The City University of New York --
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Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship

Therefore, in discussing entrepreneurship in this context, one has to take into account the complexities and ... of community networks in immigrant businesses, but also requires that the wider economic and institutional context be ...

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Page: 84

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