"Fills a void in the literature by presenting the basic concepts of microemulsions, essential to understanding their industrial significance, and comprehensive descriptions of the most useful commerical applications. Discusses important issues related to enzymatic reactions and nanoparticle formation. Charts the enormous advances that have occurred in the field over the past decade."
Discusses important issues related to enzymatic reactions and nanoparticle formation. Charts the enormous advances that have occurred in the field over the past decade."
Author: Conxita Solans
Publisher: CRC Press
Surfactants were and still are our inconspicuous companions at macroscopic but more often at microscopic scale. Many technologies are only possible due to surfactant applications, which are of constantly growing scientific and industrial interest for approximately 100 years . Hence, since its definition ‘micro emulsion’ by Schulman  optically isotropic surfactant formulations and their variations have become a significant part in today’s society. In nowadays’ most popular sector of nanomaterials surfactants are utilised for productions of such via template strategies [3–10]. Organic synthesis benefits from the immensely huge interfacial area of microemulsions resulting in bigger yields which were not possible before [11–21]. Closely related to organic synthesis, pharmaceutical industries enjoy the benefits of drug delivery via e.g. vesicels which play a major role during drug transport into the blood stream [22–27]. Simpler application of surfactants were reported 1984 where cationic surfactants were utilised as stabiliser for antibiotics . Concerning healthier and conscious nutrition microemulsions are applied for reduction of the caloric value of food [29–39]. Also, to contribute to environmental protection exhaust emissions can be reduced by introducing water and surfactants into fuels [40–42]. Surfactant systems or in most cases microemulsions are very adaptable and can therefore be utilised in their most different states. This chapter gives an insightful introduction into the world of microemulsions.
 T. F. Tadros in Industrial Applications of Microemulsions, (Eds.: C. Solans, H. Kunieda), Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997, p. 199.  S. R. Dungan in Industrial Applications of Microemulsions, (Eds.: C. Solans, ...
Author: Anna Klemmer
Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag
The effective use of microemulsions has increased dramatically during the past few decades as major industrial applications have expanded in a variety of fields. Microemulsions: Properties and Applications provides a complete and systematic assessment of all topics affecting microemulsion performance and discusses the fundamental characteristics, theories, and applications of these dispersions. Thoroughly encompassing the significant developments of the past ten years, this book describes a wide range of topics, including interactions at microemulsion interfaces, new types of surfactants, and the fundamentals of nanotechnology. It outlines experimental and traditional measurement techniques in a variety of microemulsified systems and provides reliable coverage of applicable techniques. Theory and Characterization Methods The initial chapters cover theoretical aspects of microemulsion formulation, with particular focus on methodologies for preparation. The book also addresses characterization methods, including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), light scattering, and small-angle neutron scattering. It includes discussions of viscosimetry, conductivity, ultrasonic velocity, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Practical Applications The remainder of the coverage focuses on current and potential applications of microemulsions. The book examines commercial uses, including biocatalysis and enzymatic reactions, nutrition, the extraction of contaminated solids, pollution control, dispersion of drugs, and oil recovery. The contributors also discuss the use of microemulsions as a reaction medium for the formation of polymeric and inorganic nanoparticles, and applications in electrokinetic chromatography. Comprising the work of an international community of colloid scientists, this book explains why microemulsions are used for the intended application, how they are made, and how they react. Each chapter contains a description of the fundamental phenomena and principles involved in microemulsion processes, emphasizing the mechanism of microemulsion formation and deformation. A summary of recent research, the book eliminates the need to search through dozens of arcane online journal articles for critical information.
The effective use of microemulsions has increased dramatically during the past few decades as major industrial applications have expanded in a variety of fields.
Author: Monzer Fanun
Publisher: CRC Press
The book contains six sections. The first section covers general articles; then there is a section concentrating on novel systems and applications. This is followed by one that deals with a range of applications of polymers, surfactants and liquid crystals. This is followed by a section on advances in fundamental understanding. Then there is one on biological systems, and finally there is a section on micelle and vesicle systems, with particular emphasis on dynamic aspects. The contributors, including Physicists, Chemists, Biologists and Chemical Engineers, variously chose to write review-type articles, summaries of their own recent work in the field and its relevance in the general concept of self-assembly, specific short papers related to their particular presentation, or their own thoughts concerning the future development of their particular interest area. All these aspects are addressed in the book. The book covers research at the forefront of the subject, and it is expected to be a very useful addition to the literature in this important field.
References [ 1 ] S.R. Dungan , In : Industrial Applications of Microemulsions , Vol . 66 , p . 148 , C. Solans and H. Kunieda ( Eds . ) , Marcel Dekker , New York ( 1997 ) . [ 2 ] K. Holmberg , In : Micelles , Microemulsions , and ...
Author: Brian H. Robinson
Publisher: IOS Press
Colloid and surface science research spans a wide range of topics including biological interactions at surfaces, molecular assembly of selective surfaces, role of surface chemistry in microelectronics and catalysis, tribology, and colloidal physics in the context of crystallisation and suspensions; fluid interfaces; adsorption; surface aspects of catalysis; dispersion preparation, characterisation and stability; aerosols, foams and emulsions; surfaces forces; micelles and microemulsions; light scattering and spectroscopy; nanoparticles; new material science; detergency and wetting; thin films, liquid membranes and bilayers; surfactant science; polymer colloids; rheology of colloidal and disperse systems; electrical phenomena in interfacial and disperse systems. This book presents research in this dynamic field.
In : Kunieda , H .; Solans , C. , Eds . Industrial Applications of Microemulsions , Marcel Dekker , Inc .: New York , 1996 ; 175-198 . [ 24 ] Sarciaux , J.M .; Acar , L .; Sado , P.A. Using microemulsion formulations for drug delivery ...
Author: Peter A. Fong
Publisher: Nova Publishers
Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable, macroscopically isotropic, nano structured mixtures of at least three components. They excel due to their multifarious nanostructure and ultra low interfacial tension which goes hand in hand with a high solubilisation capacity. Despite their obviously high application potential, they are not appealing for industry, as their formation requires compared to marco emulsions high surfactant loads. About 15 years ago it was found that the solubilization capacity can be strongly increased by the addition of amphiphilic block copolymers. In this thesis the effect of polymers of the structure motive poly(ethylenebutylene) poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEBx PEOy) on oil rich microemulsions and in particular the closed loop was studied. Surprisingly, it was found that the closed loop diminishes through the addition of polymers. Thus, although the polymer increases the solubilization capacity of surfactants strongly, the phase behaviour in the oil rich part of the phase diagram resembles that of microemulsions containing inefficient short-chain surfactants like C6E2. An essential drawback of the polymer addition is the stabilization of various mesophases that cover large parts of the phase space. In this thesis prove was given that newly derived so called tapered diblock copolymers increase the efficiency significantly, while simultaneously suppressing the formation of lamellar phases. Parallel to the elucidation of the influence of amphiphilic polymers on the equilibrium properties of microemulsions, the structural formation kinetics of oil-rich non-ionic microemulsions and the influence of amphiphilic polymers thereupon were studied. Therefore an ultra-fast stopped flow setup was upgraded with the possibility to monitor the formation of microemulsions by transmitted light, scattered light and small angle scattering. Utilizing time resolved small angle neutron scattering measurements it was found that after already 20 ms the microstructure (water in oil micelles) exists and undergoes and aspect ratio change to more elongated micelles resulting in the final microstructure. Detailed analysis of the scattering data revealed that the addition of amphiphilic polymers increases the nevertheless still very fast formation times. Though not all trends observed in neutron scattering could be detected by transmitted and scattered light, in general they confirmed the observed phenomena and formation rates. Mikroemulsionen sind thermodynamisch stabile, makroskopisch isotrope, nanostrukturierte Mischungen aus mindestens drei Komponenten. Sie zeichnen sich durch ihre vielfältige Nanostruktur und ultraniedrige Grenzflächenspannung aus, die Hand in Hand mit ihrem Solubilisationsvermögen geht. Trotz ihres offensichtlich großen Anwendungspotentials sind sie doch für die Industrie wenig ansprechend, da ihre Bildung im Vergleich zu der der Makroemulsionen große Tensidmengen benötigt. Vor ungefähr 15 Jahren stellte es sich heraus, dass das Solubilisationsvermögen durch die Zugabe von amphiphilen Diblockcopolymeren dramatisch vergrößert werden kann. In dieser Arbeit wurde daher der Effekt von Polymeren des Strukturtyps Poly(ethylenbutylene) - Poly(ethylenoxid) (PEBx - PEOy) auf ölreiche Mikroemulsionen und im Speziellen auf den closed loop untersucht. Überraschenderweise konnte festgestellt werden, dass der closed loop als Folge der Polymerzugabe verschwindet. Obwohl diese Polymere das Solubilisationsvermögen deutlich verbessern, ähnelt hier das Phasenverhalten dem eines kurzkettigen, schwachen Tensides wie C6E2. Einen essentiellen Nachteil der Polymerzugabe stellt die Stabilisierung verschiedener Mesophasen, die einen großen Teil des Phasenraumes überdecken, dar. In dieser Arbeit wurde daher gezeigt, dass neu entwickelte, sogenannte getaperte Diblockcopolymere das Solubilisationsvermögen deutlich verbessern und gleichzeitig die Ausbildung lamellarer Phasen unterdrücken. Parallel zur Aufklärung des Effektes amphiphiler Polymere auf die Gleichgewichtszustände von Mikroemulsionen wurde die strukturelle Bildungskinetik von ölreichen Mikroemulsionen und der Einfluss amphiphiler Polymere darauf untersucht. Hierzu wurde eine überdurchschnittlich schnelle Stopped-Flow Basiseinheit um die Möglichkeit zur Detektion der Mikroemulsionsbildung mittels Durchlicht, Streulicht und Kleinwinkelstreuungstechniken erweitert. Unter Anwendung zeitaufgelöster Kleinwinkelneutronenstreuungsmessungen stellte sich heraus, dass bereits nach 20 ms eine Mikrostruktur (Wasser-in-Öl Mizellen) existiert. Unter Änderung des Radius-zu-Längenverhältnisses wachsen diese dann zu elongierten Mizellen an. Aus einer detaillierten Analyse der Streudaten folgte, dass die Zugabe von amphiphilen Polymeren die trotz allem noch sehr kurzen Bildungszeiten verlängert. Obwohl sich nicht alle in der Neutronenstreuung detektierten Trends mit Durchlicht und Streulicht aufzeigen lassen, bestätigen sich doch alle Methoden im Allgemeinen hinsichtlich der beobachteten Phänomene und der Größenordnung der Zeitkonstanten.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 1990. 16(6): p. 899-920. 23. ... Tadros, T.F., in Industrial Applications of Microemulsions, C. Solans and H. Kunieda, Editors. 1997, Marcel Dekker: New York. p. 199. 29.
Author: Helge F.M. Klemmer
Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag
The rapidly increasing number of applications for microemulsions has kept this relatively old topic still at the top point of research themes. This book provides an assessment of some issues influencing the characteristics and performance of the microemulsions, as well as their main types of applications. In chapter 1 a short introduction about the background, various aspects and applications of microemulsions is given. In Part 2 some experimental and modeling investigations on microstructure and phase behavior of these systems have been discussed. The last two parts of book is devoted to discussion on different types of microemulsion's applications, namely, use in drug delivery, vaccines, oil industry, preparation of nanostructured polymeric, metallic and metal oxides materials for different applications.
Some applications of microemulsions 7.1 Industrial applications Microemulsions play a great role in the everyday life of human body. There are many final products which, in principle based on the microemulsions and/or they are somehow ...
Author: Reza Najjar
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Volume 4 of the Handbook of Colloid and Interface Science is a survey into the applications of colloids in a variety of fields, based on theories presented in Volumes 1 and 2. The Handbook provides a complete understanding of how colloids and interfaces can be applied in materials science, chemical engineering, and colloidal science. It is ideally suited as reference work for research scientists, universities, and industries.
A microemulsion with small size (in the region of 10 nm) may appear translucentif the difference in refractive index ... The best definition of microemulsions is based on the application of thermodynamics by consideration of the energy ...
Author: Tharwat F. Tadros
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Active ingredients in foods must remain fully functional for as long as necessary and be transported and discharged appropriately to have the desired nutritional effect. Delivery and controlled release systems are an essential way to achieve these aims. This important book reviews how to optimise these systems to maximise the health-promoting properties of food products. Opening chapters review factors affecting nutrient bioavailability and methods to test delivery system efficacy. Part two addresses materials used and specific techniques for delivery and release. The benefits and drawbacks of structured lipids, micro- and nano-emulsions, food-protein-derived materials, complexes and conjugates of biopolymers, and starch as an encapsulation material for delivery of functional food ingredients, are all considered. Part three discusses the delivery and controlled release of particular nutraceuticals such as antioxidants and vitamins, folic acid, probiotics, fish oils and proteins. Part four covers regulatory issues and future trends in bioactives and nutraceuticals. Edited by a leading expert in the field, Delivery and controlled release of bioactives in foods and nutraceuticals is a valuable reference for those working in the food industry and particularly those developing nutraceuticals. Reviews techniques to optimise the delivery and release of bioactives in food Discusses the factors that affect nutrient bioavailability and methods to test delivery system efficacy Addresses materials used and specific techniques for delivery and release
SOLANS C, PON R, KUNIEDA H, In: Solans C, Kunieda H, Eds, Industrial Applications of Microemulsions. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997. ZANA R, Heterogeneous Chem. Rev., 1994, 1, 145±157. 10. GARTI N., ASERIN A, In Benita, ...
Author: Nissim Garti
Category: Technology & Engineering
From anti-aging creams to make-up, surfactants play a key role as delivery systems for skin care and decorative cosmetic products. Surfactants in Personal Care Products and Decorative Cosmetics, Third Edition presents a scientific basis in surfactant science and recent advances in the industry necessary for understanding, formulating, and te
Various other molecules, such as aromas, flavors, and antioxidants, can be solubilized in microemulsions. ... In Industrial Applications of Microemulsions, Solans, C., Kunieda, H., Eds., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997, Vol. 66, pp. 1–17.
Author: Linda D. Rhein
Publisher: CRC Press