Biochemical Sites of Insecticide Action and Resistance

The authors of this book report up-to-date methodologies relating to isolation, identification and use of various enzymes and receptor systems that serve as targets for insecticide action or as sites for resistance development.

Author: Isaac Ishaaya

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642595493

Category: Science

Page: 343

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In recent years many of the conventional methods of insect control by broad spectrum synthetic chemicals have come under scrutiny because of their unde sirable effects on human health and the environment. In addition, some classes of pesticide chemistry, which generated resistance problems and severely affected the environment, are no longer used. It is against this background that the authors of this book present up-to-date findings-relating to biochemical sites that can serve as targets for developing insecticides with selective prop erties, and as the basis for the elucidation of resistance mechanisms and countermeasures. The book consists of eight chapters relating to biochemical targets for insec ticide action and seven chapters relating to biochemical modes of resistance and countermeasures. The authors of the chapters are world leaders in pesti cide chemistry, biochemical modes of action and mechanisms of resistance. Biochemical sites such as chitin formation, juvenile hormone and ecdysone receptors, acetylcholine and GABA receptors, ion channels, and neuropeptides are potential targets for insecticide action. The progress made in recent years in molecular biology (presented in depth in this volume) has led to the iden tification of genes that confer mechanisms of resistance, such as increased detoxification, decreased penetration and insensitive target sites. A combina tion of factors can lead to potentiation of the resistance level. Classifications of these mechanisms are termed gene amplification, changes in structural genes, and modification of gene expression.
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Insecticide Action

To understand the toxicological action on animals or humans, it is not sufficient to know the action at each level only. The actions at various levels must be integrated to construct a picture of the toxic effect on the intact organism.

Author: J.E. Chambers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1468413260

Category: Medical

Page: 284

View: 716

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Intoxication of humans and animals has become increasingly important in recent years as has contamination of the environment by a variety of chemicals. In order to develop effective means by which such intoxication and contamination can be properly handled, it is imperative to know how these environmental agents act in humans and animals. Despite studies conducted by various investigators, the mechanisms of action of these environmental agents have not been fully elucidated. Insecticides are by no means an exception in terms of the seriousness of the problem and of the urgency of the need for such information. In order to complete a picture of the effects of any particular insecticide, it is of utmost importance that its actions at various levels ranging from those of molecules to whole animals be analyzed and synthesized. To understand the toxicological action on animals or humans, it is not sufficient to know the action at each level only. The actions at various levels must be integrated to construct a picture of the toxic effect on the intact organism. However, in spite of the large body of information that has been accumulated during the past few decades, little or no attempt has been made to integrate experimental data obtained at the molecular, cellular, organ, and animal levels together in order to define the whole picture of insecticidal action.
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Insecticide Action

Narahashi, T, 1986, Mechanisms of action of pyrethroids on sodium and calcium channel gating, in: "Neuropharmacology and Pesticide Action," Ford, M. G., Lunt, G. G., Reay, R. C., and Usherwood, P. N. R., eds., Ellis Horwood, Ltd., ...

Author: J.E. Chambers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468413243

Category: Medical

Page: 284

View: 647

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Intoxication of humans and animals has become increasingly important in recent years as has contamination of the environment by a variety of chemicals. In order to develop effective means by which such intoxication and contamination can be properly handled, it is imperative to know how these environmental agents act in humans and animals. Despite studies conducted by various investigators, the mechanisms of action of these environmental agents have not been fully elucidated. Insecticides are by no means an exception in terms of the seriousness of the problem and of the urgency of the need for such information. In order to complete a picture of the effects of any particular insecticide, it is of utmost importance that its actions at various levels ranging from those of molecules to whole animals be analyzed and synthesized. To understand the toxicological action on animals or humans, it is not sufficient to know the action at each level only. The actions at various levels must be integrated to construct a picture of the toxic effect on the intact organism. However, in spite of the large body of information that has been accumulated during the past few decades, little or no attempt has been made to integrate experimental data obtained at the molecular, cellular, organ, and animal levels together in order to define the whole picture of insecticidal action.
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Insect Neurobiology and Pesticide Action Neurotox 79

... cited below serve only as selected illustrations of the effects of pharmacokinetic processes on insecticide action. Penetration Rates of insecticide penetration through the insect integument show a dependence on lipophilicity '» and ...

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Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:31951000108680I

Category: Entomology

Page: 517

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Insecticide Mode of Action

Octopamine-Iike actions of formamidines in the firefly light organ. In “Insect Neurobiology and Insecticide Action (Neurotox '79)” pp. 415—422. Soc. Chem. lnd., London. Nagata, T., and Moriya, S. (1975). Effect of chlordimeform on the ...

Author: Joel R. Coats

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780323140515

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 467

View: 666

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Insecticide Mode of Action presents significant research on the biological activity of insecticides. The book is organized into three sections encompassing 13 chapters that summarize three major groups of insecticides, including neurotoxic, formamidine, and developmental insecticides. The first section of the book presents studies on groups of conventional neurotoxic insecticides: chlorinated hydrocarbons, pyrethroids, carbamates, and organophosphorus chemicals. This text discusses their structure, poisoning property, structure-activity relationships, and stereoselectivity. The subsequent section discusses the biochemical, biological, and neurotoxic actions of formamidines, a group of pesticides that exhibit an unusual spectrum of activity. Several modes of action of pharmacological significance as well as some important behavioral effects are included in this section. The third section addresses groups of insecticides that affect insect growth and development. Such chemicals typically demonstrate marked selectivity and represent more sophisticated strategies in the chemical control of insect pests. This book is of value to researchers, teachers, and regulatory personnel concerned with the biological activity of insecticides.
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Insecticides with Novel Modes of Action

This book conveys a wealth of information on pesticide chemistry, biochemical modes of action, biological activity, and theory of pesticide application for management programs.

Author: Isaac Ishaaya

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: STANFORD:36105022954890

Category: Science

Page: 289

View: 357

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This book conveys a wealth of information on pesticide chemistry, biochemical modes of action, biological activity, and theory of pesticide application for management programs. Emphasis is placed on novel biological insecticides which block certain stages in the development of pest insects. Special attention is given to insecticides with selective properties. Their role in integrated pest management programs and in insecticide resistance management strategies is discussed. The data and concepts presented are essential in establishing new technologies and developing novel groups of compounds which will determine our future agricultural practices. Everybody involved in crop protection and developing new insecticide chemistry from universities to chemical industries will benefit from this volume.
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Insecticides

This book discusses the toxicology of insecticides. Organized into 17 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the mechanisms whereby toxicants exert their effects.

Author: R. D. O'Brien

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9781483270685

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 344

View: 310

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Insecticides: Action and Metabolism provides a comprehensive review of the action of insecticides and a survey of their metabolism. This book discusses the toxicology of insecticides. Organized into 17 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the mechanisms whereby toxicants exert their effects. This text then discusses the insecticidal action of organophosphates, which is described as the toxic organic compounds containing phosphorus. Other chapters consider the mode of action of organophosphates by inhibiting cholinesterase with consequent disruption of nervous activity caused by accumulation of acetylcholine at nerve endings. This book discusses as well the erratic patterns of selective toxicity to insects of the carbamates. The final chapter deals with the real hazard to human health as well as the effects upon wild life of insecticides and chlorinated pesticides. This book is a valuable resource for organic and agricultural chemists, as well as biologists, agriculturists, neurophysiologists, environmental scientists, and research workers.
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Pesticides in Crop Production

This important book: Offers a comprehensive guide to the use of the diversity of pesticides and the pertinent social and environmental issues Explores the impact of pesticides from morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical ...

Author: Prabhat Kumar Srivastava

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119432203

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 312

View: 966

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A guide to the diversity of pesticides used in modern agricultural practices, and the relevant social and environmental issues Pesticides in Crop Production offers an important resource that explores pesticide action in plants; pesticide metabolism in soil microbes, plants and animals; bioaccumulation of pesticides and sensitiveness of microbiome towards pesticides. The authors explore pesticide risk assessment, the development of pesticide resistance in pests, microbial remediation of pesticide intoxicated legumes and pesticide toxicity amelioration in plants by plant hormones. The authors include information on eco-friendly pest management. They review the impact of pesticides on soil microorganism, crops and other plants along with the impact on other organisms like aquatic fauna and terrestrial animals including human beings. The book also contains an analysis of pesticide by GC-MS/MS (Gas Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry) a reliable method for the quantification and confirmation of multiclass pesticide residues. This important book: Offers a comprehensive guide to the use of the diversity of pesticides and the pertinent social and environmental issues Explores the impact of pesticides from morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical perspectives Shows how pesticides affects soil microorganisms, crops and other plants along with the impact on other organisms like aquatic fauna and animals Critically examines whether chemical pesticides are boon or bane and whether they can be replaced by environmental friendly pesticides Written for students, researchers and professionals in agriculture, botany, entomology and biotechnology, Pesticides in Crop Production examines the effects of chemical pesticides and the feasibility of using bio-pesticides.
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Chemistry and Mode of Action of Insecticides

L. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE MODE OF ACTION OF INSECTICIDES Studies on the action of insecticides on insects were carried out at two levels . First , the poisoning process of known insecticides was studied by recording motor ...

Author: T. R. Fukuto

Publisher:

ISBN: CORNELL:31924084744642

Category: Insecticides

Page: 650

View: 109

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Molecular Action of Insecticides on Ion Channels

Documents ongoing research into the molecular understanding of insecticide action, including the action of insecticides on major ion channel families, voltage-sensitive channels, ligand-gated channels, and biopesticide-induced channels.

Author: John Marshall Clark

Publisher: Amer Chemical Society

ISBN: UOM:39015034433741

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 285

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Documents ongoing research into the molecular understanding of insecticide action, including the action of insecticides on major ion channel families, voltage-sensitive channels, ligand-gated channels, and biopesticide-induced channels. Presents recent advances in how researchers envision molecular binding sites of insecticides on ion channels and the molecular alterations of these sites resulting in site-insensitive resistance mechanisms. Describes new receptor-ion channels and mosaic receptor organizations as novel sites of insecticide action.
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Pesticide Data Program

CHEMICAL ACTION OF PESTICIDES DETECTED BY PDP PESTICIDE CHEMICAL ACTION 2,4 - D Pre- and Post - Harvest Herbicide ACEPHATE Insecticide , weak Cholinesterase Inhibitor ( the metabolite is Methamidophos ) ANILAZINE Fungicide , leaf action ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:30000003302829

Category: Pesticide residues in food

Page:

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Double Action of Insecticides in Environment

A detailed study includes some field and laboratory experiments of certain insecticides i. e. insect growth regulators and plant extracts considered as alternative compounds in controlling cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) ...

Author: Mohamad Khedr

Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

ISBN: 3847321595

Category:

Page: 156

View: 973

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A detailed study includes some field and laboratory experiments of certain insecticides i. e. insect growth regulators and plant extracts considered as alternative compounds in controlling cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in both Egyptian clover and cotton fields in Egypt and their side effects on non-target organisms such as honey bees and predators associated with certain pest, such knowledge may help in integrated pest management strategies of S. littoralis.
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Neurotox 91

This volume contains the text of invited papers read at the meeting and presents the dramatic developments which so excited those who attended.

Author: I.R. Duce

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401128988

Category: Medical

Page: 362

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NEUROTOX '91 was the fourth meeting in a series which started in 1979. The '91 meeting, like its predecessors, was held under the patronage of the Society of Chemical Industry, and despite the unfortunate proximity of hostilities in the Arabian Gulf attracted a truly international mix of industrial and academic pesticide scientists. This volume contains the text of invited papers read at the meeting and presents the dramatic developments which so excited those who attended. The potential of molecular neurobiology for gaining knowledge of target sites for neurotoxicants is now starting to be realised. These studies, in conjunction with developments in molecular imaging and modelling, provide new oppor tunities for chemists and biologists to gain insights into molecular interactions underlying intoxication. Molecular techniques have also enabled rapid ad vances on a second front, where the cloning of genes controlling pesticide resistance should have a profound impact on our understanding of this commercially important problem. The understanding of molecular events will undoubtedly be vital in future developments in chemical control of pests; however, the value of understand ing the way in which the nervous system controls behaviour and how behaviour can be modified by chemicals of bath synthetic and natural origins was highlighted. Natural products and their synthetic analogues have continued to provide new and interesting molecules which are already proving their worth as tools for the neuroscientist and may offer leads for commercial synthesis.
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Pesticide analytical methodology

based on a symposium jointly sponsored by the Divisions of Pesticide Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry at the 178th ... However, from experience it has been found that the knowledge of (1) the action of the pesticidal poison under ...

Author: John Harvey

Publisher:

ISBN: 0841205817

Category:

Page: 406

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Extension of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act

The cancellation and suspension action last October against aldrin and dieldrin was not an orderly decision from the Office of Pesticide Programs based on scientific , economic , and other considerations . It came from the Office of ...

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Agriculture and Forestry Committee

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105119544166

Category:

Page: 208

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Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act and Pesticide Import and Export Act of 1985

We further believe that FIFRA should be amended to make clear that EPA has statutory authority to set pesticide action levels as well as the tolerances . We strongly oppose any amendment to insert a so - called " private right - of ...

Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105006332360

Category: Foreign trade regulation

Page:

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Research Awards Index

... rats ) Human milk nutrients and contaminants POIES - 00044-14 0007 Mechanisms of pesticide action - RO1 ES ... 14143-02 Mode of action of insecticides-** ROLES - 01831-01 Factors affecting pesticide toxicity ( rats ) Action of ...

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Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:30000008789962

Category: Medicine

Page:

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