Iran, before and after Khomeini

a study in the dialectics of Shi'ism and modernity
Author: S. M. A. Sayeed
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 340
View: 4170
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Navigating Iran

From Carter to Obama
Author: O. Seliktar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137010886
Category: Political Science
Page: 228
View: 1901
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This book provides the first full account of America's relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran from Jimmy Carter's presidency to Barack Obama's. It discusses all major facets of Iranian policy of interest to the United States: nuclear proliferation, revolutionary export and support for international terrorism, efforts to undermine the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, and violations of human rights. It compares developments in Iran to their perception in Washington, providing the clearest picture available yet of the discrepancies between the complex and elusive Iranian reality and its understanding in the United States.

Die Vernetzung der Welt

Ein Blick in unsere Zukunft
Author: Eric Schmidt,Jared Cohen
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644030618
Category: Political Science
Page: 448
View: 7300
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Welche Konsequenzen wird es haben, wenn in Zukunft die überwiegende Mehrheit der Weltbevölkerung online ist? Wenn Informationstechnologien so allgegenwärtig sind wie Elektrizität? Was bedeutet das für die Politik, die Wirtschaft – und für uns selbst? Diese Fragen beantwortet ein außergewöhnliches Autorenduo: Eric Schmidt, der Mann, der Google zu einem Weltunternehmen gemacht hat, und Jared Cohen, ehemaliger Berater von Hillary Clinton und Condoleezza Rice und jetzt Chef von Googles Denkfabrik. In diesem aufregenden Buch führen sie uns die Chancen und Gefahren jener eng vernetzten Welt vor Augen, die die meisten von uns noch erleben werden. Es ist die sehr konkrete Vision einer Zukunft, die bereits begonnen hat. Und ein engagiertes Plädoyer dafür, sie jetzt zu gestalten – weil Technologie der leitenden Hand des Menschen bedarf, um Positives zu bewirken.

Social Origins of the Iranian Revolution


Author: Misagh Parsa
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 9780813514123
Category: History
Page: 348
View: 887
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Misagh Parsa develops a structural theory of the causes and outcomes of revolution, applying the theory in particular to Iran. He focuses on the ends and means of various groups of Iranians before, during, and after the revolution. For Parsa, revolution is not a direct result of ideologies, which may be less important than structural factors such as the nature of the state and the economy, as well as each group's interests, capacity for mobilization, autonomy, and solidarity structures. Existing theories of revolution explain earlier revolutions better than the Iranian revolution. In Iran most of the protest was in urban areas, the peasants never played a major role, and power was transferred to the clergy, not to an intelligentsia. In the 1970s, oil revenues increased, the economy developed rapidly but unevenly, and the state's expanded intervention undermined market forces and politicized capital accumulation. Systematic repression of workers, aid to the upper class, and attacks on secular and religious opposition showed that the state was serving the interests of particular groups. When the state tried to check high inflation by imposing price controls on bazaaris (merchants, shopkeepers, artisans), their protests forced the state to introduce reforms, providing an opportunity for industrial workers, white-collar workers, intellectuals, and the clergy to mobilize against the state. Thus, structural features rendered the state vulnerable to challenge and attack. Parsa's thorough explanation of the collective actions of each major group in Iran in the three decades prior to the revolution shows how a coalition of classes and groups, using mosques as safe gathering places and led by a segment of the clergy, brought down the monarch of 1979. In the years since the revolution, the conflicts that existed before the revolution seem to be reemerging, in slightly altered form. The clergy now has control, and the state has become centrally and powerfully involved in the economy of the country.

Ways to Survive, Battles to Win

Iranian Women Exiles in the Netherlands and United States
Author: Halleh Ghorashi
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781590335529
Category: Social Science
Page: 279
View: 8576
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Contemporary debates in social sciences are replete with metaphors of displacement such as diaspora, exile, hybridity, and nomadism. Halleh Ghorashi explores the cultural and political implications of such terms and demonstrates how the social and political contexts of the host countries play a crucial role in influencing the experiences of diasporic communities. Focusing on the life stories of Iranian women whose leftist political activism has led them to exile in the West, she offers at once powerful narratives of cultural dislocation and a compelling critique of social theories that privilege ethnicity over social location. Addressing a wide range of theoretical positions and social discourses, Ghorashi shows how a community of women in exile with the same cultural and political background differ markedly in the way they come to define themselves in the Netherlands and the United States. Through interviews with Iranian women exiles in Amsterdam and Southern California, Ghorashi shows the dynamic and complex process of cultural identification. In presenting the stories of politically leftist women who became homeless in their own country, this book touches upon the question of how people in exile position themselves in space and time. The Iranian women's narratives of both internal and external exile contribute to a new understanding of home that is far more complex and multi-layered than is often assumed. The extensive presence of the author throughout the book as she conveys her own emotional reactions to the research and the women's narratives also contributes to an exceptional work about what women refugees go through before and after they find their place in the new world. In Ways to Survive, Battles to Win, Ghorashi travels with the women of her book as they tell of their lives past and present. A cultural anthropologist, the author carefully balances her personal perspective with a scientific framework that brings past memories and present challenges in a way that will not be forgotten.

After Khomeini

The Iranian Second Republic
Author: Anoushiravan Ehteshami
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134838859
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 1771
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For Iran the years since Ayatollah Khomeini's death have been dominated by the need for political consolidation and economic reconstruction. The book assesses the critical dilemmas of the regime both previous to and since the demise of its first spiritual leader. The vital issues of political succession and constitutional reform are addressed, contributing to an analysis of the structures and politics of power. How these have reflected upon economic policy is considered with close atttention being given to the reform policies of Rafsanjani. Foreign policy and security issues are discussed in both regional and global terms and include a study of Iranian defence strategy and its controversial re-armament drive. The final chapter examines the direction and context of all of these major policy areas, providing an analysis of whether the Islamic Republic truly represents a revolutionary alternative for the Third World or whether in fact it has developed in time to fall within a similar mould to other notable revolutions, casting by the wayside any uniquely Islamic agenda and alternatives. At the heart of this study is the belief that the Islamic regime has, since the cease-fire with Iraq, but more specifically since Ayatollah Khomeini's death passed into a new stage of development, referred to in the book as the `Second Republic'.

Islam und Kapitalismus


Author: Maxime Rodinson
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783518281840
Category:
Page: 365
View: 8272
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Mein Iran

Ein Leben zwischen Hoffnung und Revolution
Author: Shirin Ebadi
Publisher: Piper ebooks
ISBN: 3492975437
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 304
View: 5273
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Seit Jahrzehnten setzt sich Shirin Ebadi für Menschenrechte und eine Reform der iranischen Gesellschaft ein. In »Mein Iran« erzählt die Friedensnobelpreisträgerin von den frühen Jahren ihres politischen Engagements, ihrer Zeit als Richterin, den Demütigungen und Schikanen durch die islamische Revolution bis hin zu ihrer Verhaftung und ihrem dennoch fortwährenden Kampf. Ein beeindruckendes Zeugnis politischen Muts und ein tiefer Einblick in die Strukturen eines gespaltenen Landes.

Iran and Christianity

Historical Identity and Present Relevance
Author: Mark Bradley
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 144111114X
Category: Religion
Page: 210
View: 8566
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In this enlightening study Mark Bradley looks at the growing underground church in Iran. Given the hostility of the regime, it is often assumed that Christianity is withering in Iran, but in fact more Iranian Muslims have become Christians in the last 25 years than since the seventh century, when Islam first came to Iran. Beginning with an in-depth look at the historical identity of Iran, religiously, culturally and politically, Bradley shows how this identity makes Iranians inclined towards Christianity. He goes on to look at the impact of the 1979 revolution, an event which has brought war, economic chaos and totalitarianism to Iran, and its implications for Iranian faith. The study concludes with an analysis of church growth since 1979 and an examination of the emerging underground church. This is a fascinating work, guaranteed to improve any reader's knowledge of not only Iranian faith and church growth, but of Iranian culture and history as a whole thanks to the thorough treatment given to the country's background.

Beyond the Islamic Revolution

Perceptions of Modernity and Tradition in Iran before and after 1979
Author: Amir Sheikhzadegan,Astrid Meier
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110399881
Category: History
Page: 188
View: 1951
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The volume contributes to a better understanding of Iranian history since 1953, with a focus on societal change and its reflection in intellectual discourse. The papers explore the attitudes of Iranians toward modernity and tradition before and after the Revolution of 1979. With insights from Oriental studies, history, sociology, literature and social anthropology, the volume offers a cross-disciplinary perspective on the intellectual, political, and social history of Iran.

Iran After the Revolution

Crisis of an Islamic State
Author: Saeed Rahnema,Sohrab Behdad
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781860641282
Category: History
Page: 292
View: 3206
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In this work writers on Iran explore the ideological and political divisions within the Islamic movement and explain the post-revolutionary period in terms of economic policy, education, attitudes to women, and national and religious policies.

The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution

Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution
Author: Fereydoun Hoveyda
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0313039194
Category: History
Page: 136
View: 9378
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Twenty-two years after Ayatollah Khomeini's ascent to power in Iran many aspects of his 1979 Islamic revolution remain obscure if not baffling. For instance, in November 1978 an offer was made to him in his Paris exile to return to Iran with international guarantees of freedom of speech and action. He refused and demanded the departure of the Shah. Americans put pressure on the monarch to leave the country. Khomeini arrived in Tehran in early February 1979, and he immediately demanded the return of the Shah and his trial before an Islamic tribunal! No one could give a valid explanation of this contradiction in Khomeini's conduct and demands. Many other mysteries in the unfolding of the revolution and the policies of the Islamic republic which replaced the monarchy have gone unexplained up to now. Scholars and experts in the West have offered the usual explanations for the Islamic revolution-corruption, deepening gaps between the rich and the poor, rapid industrialization, sky-rocketing inflation, westernizing policies that offended traditions, lack of democratic institutions, authoritarian rule, and on and on. But such characteristics which exist in other Muslim countries, especially in the Arab world, fail to clairify the particularities of the Iranian revolution. Indeed, as Ambassador Hoveyda points out, Iran is not an Arab country. It has kept alive its ancient mythological heritage which is not Islamic. It is an Indo-European nation with a recorded history of three thousand years! To understand the real causes of the 1979 revolution one must refer to the deep-rooted beliefs of Iranians and to their very rich mythology. One must also take into account the kind of Islam-shiism-Iranians have created and nurtured. In fact, Iran is a powerful example of how mythologies remain alive and can account for the conduct of a whole nation. Hoveyda shows the influence of myths in history-in-the-making. Indeed, he has found in the Iranian revolution many points that can be clarified only by the impact of old mythology and mindsets. He provides a very original explanation of the events that led to the fall of the Shah and the ascent of Khomeini, changing the political and diplomatic situation in the Middle East, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea region. As such it will be of great interest to scholars, students, researchers, and foreign policy makers involved with the Middle East and Islamic fundamentalism.

Democratic Transition and Human Rights

Perspectives on U.S. Foreign Policy
Author: Sara Steinmetz
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791414347
Category: Political Science
Page: 284
View: 3978
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This book analyzes U.S. foreign policy in relation to human rights and democratic development abroad. Its purpose is to determine if, and how, human rights policies, or their neglect, have led to Realpolitik successes for the United States. In addition, it addresses the issue of how Washington might best respond to challenges in which a choice apparently must be made between support for democracy and preservation of U.S. national interests. Through a comparative analysis of Iran under the Shah, Nicaragua under the Somozas, and the Philippines under Marcos, Steinmetz evaluates the effectiveness of American priorities in authoritarian states that were perceived to protect U.S. interests. Rejecting the policy prescriptions of the neoconservative and neorealist schools, she concludes that protection of human rights abroad is desirable, not because of its moral implications per se, but because of its positive contributions to the preservation of U.S. national interests.

Iran under the Ayatollahs (Routledge Revivals)


Author: Dilip Hiro
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135043817
Category: History
Page: 438
View: 3490
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First published in 1985, this is a comprehensive study of the Middle East's most strategic country, set against the background of the Islamic heritage of Iran and the rise and fall of the Pahlavi dynasty. Dilip Hiro describes the various phases through which the Islamic revolution has passed, gives an incisive account of the first Gulf War, and provides an historical survey of Iran's relations with the West, the Soviet bloc, and other countries of the region.

Iran and the Shia


Author: Janey Levy
Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
ISBN: 1435852826
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 80
View: 3337
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Discusses the history of the Shia community in Iran, inclusing its rise to power during the Islamic Revolution and how it influences both political and daily life in the nation.

Iran and Its Place Among Nations


Author: Alidad Mafinezam,Aria Mehrabi
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780275999261
Category: History
Page: 141
View: 1417
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Moves beyond simplistic dichotomies by taking up the issue of Iran's national identity and contending sources of its identity.

Die satanischen Verse

Roman
Author: Salman Rushdie
Publisher: btb Verlag
ISBN: 3641112672
Category: Fiction
Page: 720
View: 6136
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Bejubelt und verdammt: Das Buch weltweit Aufsehen erregte Über der englischen Küste wird ein Flugzeug in die Luft gesprengt. Die einzigen Überlebenden dieses Terroranschlags sind Gibril Farishta und Saladin Chamcha, zwei indische Schauspieler, die buchstäblich vom Himmel fallen und wie durch ein Wunder unversehrt bleiben. Doch nach dem Absturz gehen seltsame Dinge mit ihnen vor: Der Muslim Gibril zeigt immer mehr Ähnlichkeit mit dem Erzengel Gabriel, während sich Saladin, der stets seine Herkunft verleugnete, zu einem Abbild des Teufels entwickelt. Doch das ist erst der Beginn einer überwältigenden Odysee zwischen Gut und Böse, zwischen Fantasie und Realität.

Religion and Politics in Modern Iran

A Reader
Author: Lloyd Ridgeon
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781845110734
Category: Political Science
Page: 279
View: 9308
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Covering the last century of Iranian history, this book introduces students to some of the most crucial political and religious texts of the period. Each chapter is preceded by an introduction discussing the significance of the piece and placing each writer in their historical context.

Persepolis

Eine Kindheit im Iran & Jugendjahre
Author: Marjane Satrapi
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783866158719
Category:
Page: 347
View: 7131
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The Hojjatiyeh Society in Iran

Ideology and Practice from the 1950s to the Present
Author: R. Cohen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137304774
Category: Political Science
Page: 194
View: 5134
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This book analyzes the evolution of the Hojjatiyeh movement in Iran, a semi-clandestine movement which emerged in the 1950s as an anti-Baha'i movement, went underground in the 1960s, and re-emerged openly after Iran's 1979 revolution with its members coming to occupy some of the highest echelon posts in Iranian politics