Einheit der Muslime? Die Einheitsidee von Ayatollah Khomeini vor dem Hintergrund der Sunna-Shia-Differenzen und die Folgen für die Außenpolitik des Iran


Author: Jan Oswald
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3640844858
Category:
Page: 68
View: 8297
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2005 im Fachbereich Politik - Internationale Politik - Region: Naher Osten, Vorderer Orient, Note: 2.0, Freie Universitat Berlin, 19 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Anmerkungen: ca. 7000 Worter, Abstract: 1. Einleitung Um auch heute noch die aussenpolitische Stellung des Iran im Gefuge der muslimischen Welt verstehen zu konnen, kommt man nicht umhin, sich mit einer seiner wichtigsten theoretischen Grundlagen zu beschaftigen: der Einheitsidee Khomeinis und dem Revolutionsexport. In dieser Arbeit sollen dementsprechend Erklarungsmuster gesucht werden, um die Isolation Irans gegenuber seinen muslimischen Nachbarlandern des Nahen und Mittleren Ostens verstehen zu konnen. Dabei spielen die Differenzen zwischen Sunniten und Schiiten eine zentrale Rolle, da in der historischen und religiosen Entwicklung der muslimischen Welt die immanenten Grunde fur die Spaltung und bisherige Nichtuberwindung dieses latenten" Konfliktes liegen. Wohl kam es nie zu einem Konflikt, der dem christlichen Aquivalent des 30-jahrigen Krieges nahe kame, dennoch handelt es sich um ein disparates Verhaltnis, welches sich heute in den Lebenswirklichkeiten von Muslimen meist in Nichtbeachten und Ignorieren ausdruckt, in jungerer Vergangenheit aber auch in Unterdruckung, z.B. in Irak und Saudi-Arabien. Dieses Verhaltnis ist von daher interessant, als dass man nicht von einem offenen Konflikt zwischen Sunniten und Schiiten ausgehen kann, der z.B. in eine Form des Burgerkrieges gefuhrt hatte, sondern von einem Nebenher der beiden Religionsgruppen, welches sich zwischen den Polen der gegenseitigen Nichtbeachtung und gewalttatigen Auseinandersetzungen und zwischen okumenischen Tendenzen und theologischer Verscharfung der Graben bewegt. Es wird hier die These vertreten, dass ein tieferes Verstandnis der Spaltung zwischen den beiden Gruppen notwendig ist, um die Bedeutung der Einheitsidee bei Khomeini genauso wie die Folgen fur die aussenpolitischen Bezieh

Khomeini

Life of the Ayatollah
Author: Baqer Moin
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781850431282
Category: Heads of state
Page: 352
View: 4876
DOWNLOAD NOW »
This biography examines the process which saw an old Muslim theologian overthrow the Shah of Iran and become the leader of a militant Islamic regime. It examines the background and early life of the Ayatollah and the ideas and beliefs that lay behind his opposition to the Shah and formed the foundation of the new Islamic state.

Khomeini und der Islamische Gottesstaat

Eine große Idee. Ein großer Irrtum?
Author: Luise Rinser
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 3105612017
Category: Reference
Page: 228
View: 6104
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Inmitten der Wirren der Islamischen Revolution besuchte Luise Rinser den Iran und legte hiermit einen Gegenentwurf zur Berichterstattung der internationalen Medien vor. Sie beschreibt ihre Eindrücke aus einer von großer Unsicherheit geprägten Zeit stets mit besonderem Blick auf die Situation des Einzelnen. Im Rückblick wissen wir heute, dass sich die islamischen Machthaber schnell durchsetzten und linke Oppositionsgruppen sukzessive ausschalteten. Die Einwohnerzahl des Landes hat sich seit 1979 verdoppelt, das Land sich geöffnet, doch das komplexe, jahrhundertealte Machtgefüge und die daraus resultierenden Spannungen bleiben bestehen. (Dieser Text bezieht sich auf eine frühere Ausgabe.)

Reinventing Khomeini

The Struggle for Reform in Iran
Author: Daniel Brumberg
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226077581
Category: History
Page: 306
View: 9612
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Reinventing Khomeini offers a new interpretation of the political battles that paved the way for reform in Iran. Brumberg argues that these conflicts did not result from a sudden ideological shift; nor did the election of President Mohammad Khatami in 1997 really defy the core principles of the Islamic Revolution. To the contrary, the struggle for a more democratic Iran can be traced to the revolution itself, and to the contradictory agendas of the revolution's founding father, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. A complex figure, Khomeini was a fervent champion of Islam, but while he sought a Shi'ite vision of clerical rule under one Supreme Leader, he also strove to mesh that vision with an implicitly Western view of mass participatory politics. The intense magnetism and charisma of the ayatollah obscured this paradox. But reformers in Iran today, while rejecting his autocratic vision, are reviving the constitutional notions of government that he considered, and even casting themselves as the bearers of his legacy. In Reinventing Khomeini, Brumberg proves that the ayatollah is as much the author of modern Iran as he is the symbol of its fundamentalist past.

Die Herrschaft des Ayatollah Khomeini als eine charismatische nach Max Weber?


Author: Christopher Rerrer
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 366845552X
Category: Social Science
Page: 17
View: 4915
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2017 im Fachbereich Soziologie - Individuum, Gruppe, Gesellschaft, Note: 1,0, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Veranstaltung: Grundprobleme der Soziologie: Macht & Herrschaft, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: In dem ersten theoretischen Teil dieser Arbeit wird auf die Grundbegriffe der Herrschaftssoziologie nach Max Weber eingegangen, wobei der Schwerpunkt insbesondere auf die charismatische Herrschaft und die Veralltäglichung des Charismas gelegt wird. Nach einem kurzen Exkurs in die religiös-historischen Hintergründe der Herrschaft im Schiismus, der für das grundlegende Verständnis der Debatte um Herrschaft im Iran notwendig ist, wird anhand der Lepsius Interpretation eine Analyse und Einordnung des Falls Ayatollah Khomeini durchgeführt. Der Anspruch dieser Arbeit ist es, herauszufinden, inwiefern die Herrschaft des Ayatollah Khomeinis eine charismatische gemäß der Kriterien nach Max Weber ist. Ziel ist es, die Weber'sche Theorie mit weiteren Fallbeispielen zu unterfüttern, um somit ein besseres Bewusstsein über die soziale Beziehung zwischen „Beherrschten“ und „Herrschenden zu erlangen. Besonders in Zeiten, in denen die „(..)Staatskunst großer Männer“ unter dem Deckmantel der Religion wieder auf dem Vormarsch zu sein scheint, ist diesem Bewusstsein eine hohe Bedeutung zu zumessen. „Politik ist die Staatskunst großer Männer.“, mit dieser heutzutage recht eigenartig anmutenden Definition von Politik zeigt der im 19. Jahrhundert lebende Historiker Heinrich von Treitschke auf, in welchem Maße es Einzelpersonen waren, die bereits die vorhergehenden Jahrhunderte der Menschheitsgeschichte wesentlich geprägt hatten. Die Ereignisse des 20. Jahrhunderts und insbesondere die beiden Weltkriege, in denen es einzelne Männer waren, die für den Auf- und Abstieg ganzer „Nationen“ verantwortlich waren, sollen ihm in seiner Feststellung recht geben. Auch Hume stellt in seinem Zitat „Nothing apperas more suprising to those who consider human affairs with a philosophic eye than the easiness with which the many are governed by a few.“, mit philosophischem Blick verwundert fest, wie das zahlenmäßige Verhältnis zwischen Herrschern und Beherrschten festgelegt ist und mit welcher Selbstverständlichkeit eben dieses passiert. Man mag meinen, dass all dies Tatbestände der Vergangenheit sind, doch autoritäre Charismaträger wie Jaroslav Kaczynski oder sogar Abu Bakhr-al Baghdadi zeigen, dass trotz der der universellen Gleichheit aller Menschen, es doch wenige sind, die unsere Welt zu formen scheinen und hierfür zunehmend religiöse Motive eine Rolle spielen.

Ayatollah Khomeini


Author: Edward Willett
Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
ISBN: 9780823944651
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 112
View: 1262
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Examines the life and leadership skills of Ayatollah Khomeini, who established the "ideal Islamic state" in Iran and encouraged Muslims worldwide to demonstrate against non-Islamic nations.

After Khomeini

Iran Under His Successors
Author: Said Amir Arjomand
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199745760
Category: Political Science
Page: 280
View: 8240
DOWNLOAD NOW »
For many Americans, Iran is our most dangerous enemy--part of George W. Bush's "axis of evil" even before the appearance of Ahmadinejad. But what is the reality? How did Ahmadinejad rise to power, and how much power does he really have? What are the chances of normalizing relations with Iran? In After Khomeini, Sa?d Amir Arjomand paints a subtle and perceptive portrait of contemporary Iran. This work, a sequel to Arjomand's acclaimed The Turban for the Crown, examines Iran under the successors of Ayatollah Khomeini up to the present day. He begins, as the Islamic Republic did, with Khomeini, offering a brilliant capsule biography of the man who masterminded the revolution that overthrew the Shah. Arjomand draws clear distinctions between the moderates of the initial phrase of the revolution, radicals, pragmatists, and hardliners, the latter best exemplified by Mahmud Ahmadinejad. Taking a chronological and thematic approach, he traces the emergence and consolidation of the present system of collective rule by clerical councils and the peaceful transition to dual leadership by the ayatollah as the supreme guide and the subordinate president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. He explains the internal political quarrels among Khomeini's heirs as a struggle over his revolutionary legacy. And he outlines how the ruling clerical elite and the nation's security forces are interdependent politically and economically, speculating on the potential future role of the Revolutionary Guards. Bringing the work up to current political events, Arjomand analyzes Iran's foreign policy as well, including the impact of the fall of Communism on Iran and Ahmadinejad's nuclear policy. Few countries loom larger in American foreign relations than Iran. In this rich and insightful account, an expert on Iranian society and politics untangles the complexities of a nation still riding the turbulent wake of one of history's great revolutions.

Imam Khomeini: Life, Thought and Legacy


Author: N.A
Publisher: The Other Press
ISBN: 9675062258
Category: Heads of state
Page: 203
View: 7332
DOWNLOAD NOW »


Factional Politics in Post-Khomeini Iran


Author: Mehdi Moslem
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
ISBN: 9780815629788
Category: Political Science
Page: 384
View: 2014
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Since President Mohammad Khatami's landslide victory in May 1997, the Islamic Republic of Iran has been a study in contradictions. Whilst Khatami condemned his nations's fanatical past, there still remains an opposing faction towards the West. This study analyses Iran's post-revolutionary politics.

Khomeini's Ghost

Iran since 1979
Author: Con Coughlin
Publisher: Pan Macmillan
ISBN: 0230743102
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 424
View: 3371
DOWNLOAD NOW »
On 1 February 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran to a tumultuous welcome and the Iranian revolution that that he masterminded has become one of the defining moments of the modern age. Today the challenge of radical Islam represents the greatest threat to world peace seen since the darkest days of the Cold War, and the legacy of Khomeini’s Islamic Revolution lies at the heart of many of the world’s most intractable conflicts. Khomeini’s Ghost is the definitive biographical account of how an impoverished young student from a remote area of southern Iran came to be the political and the spiritual leader of his country. Drawing on a wide variety of Iranian sources, including religious figures who knew and worked with Khomeini both in exile and in power, Con Coughlin examines in detail the principles of Khomeini’s Islamic Revolution and the impact of his legacy today, whether it is in Iran’s support for radical Islamic groups or Iran’s commitment to developing an atom bomb. Frighteningly topical, compellingly readable and written with authority and profound understanding of the subject, this is political biography at its best.

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini


Author: Daniel E. Harmon,Anne M. Todd
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438106564
Category: JUVENILE NONFICTION
Page: 123
View: 9975
DOWNLOAD NOW »
An Iranian cleric who criticized the modernization efforts of the Shah of Iran (Mohammed Reza Pahlavi), Khomeini called for a fundamentalist Islamic state in Iran.

A Critical Introduction to Khomeini


Author: Arshin Adib-Moghaddam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107012678
Category: History
Page: 346
View: 1775
DOWNLOAD NOW »
As the architect of the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini remains one of the most inspirational and enigmatic figures of the twentieth century. The revolution placed Iran at the forefront of Middle East politics and the Islamic revival. Twenty years after his death, Khomeini is revered as a spiritual and political figurehead in Iran and in large swathes of the Islamic world, while in the West he is remembered by many as a dictator and the instigator of Islamist confrontation. Arshin Adib-Moghaddam brings together distinguished and emerging scholars in this comprehensive volume, which covers all aspects of Khomeini's life and critically examines Khomeini the politician, the philosopher, and the spiritual leader, while considering his legacy in Iran and further afield in other parts of the Islamic world and the West. Written by scholars from varying disciplines, the book will prove invaluable to students and general readers interested in the life and times of Khomeini and the politics that he inspired.

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini


Author: EPUB 2-3
Publisher: Infobase Learning
ISBN: 1438147929
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 662
DOWNLOAD NOW »
CHBiographies

After Khomeini

The Iranian Second Republic
Author: Anoushiravan Ehteshami
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134838859
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 5669
DOWNLOAD NOW »
For Iran the years since Ayatollah Khomeini's death have been dominated by the need for political consolidation and economic reconstruction. The book assesses the critical dilemmas of the regime both previous to and since the demise of its first spiritual leader. The vital issues of political succession and constitutional reform are addressed, contributing to an analysis of the structures and politics of power. How these have reflected upon economic policy is considered with close atttention being given to the reform policies of Rafsanjani. Foreign policy and security issues are discussed in both regional and global terms and include a study of Iranian defence strategy and its controversial re-armament drive. The final chapter examines the direction and context of all of these major policy areas, providing an analysis of whether the Islamic Republic truly represents a revolutionary alternative for the Third World or whether in fact it has developed in time to fall within a similar mould to other notable revolutions, casting by the wayside any uniquely Islamic agenda and alternatives. At the heart of this study is the belief that the Islamic regime has, since the cease-fire with Iraq, but more specifically since Ayatollah Khomeini's death passed into a new stage of development, referred to in the book as the `Second Republic'.

The Position of Women from the Viewpoint of Imam Khomeini


Author: Ruhollah Khomeini
Publisher: Alhoda UK
ISBN: 9789643355043
Category: Muslim women
Page: 299
View: 8719
DOWNLOAD NOW »


Islamic Government

Governance of the Jurist
Author: N.A
Publisher: Alhoda UK
ISBN: 9789643354992
Category: Iran
Page: 139
View: 324
DOWNLOAD NOW »


Ujumbe wa Imam Khomeini Kwenye Maadhimisho ya Milenia ya Nahju ’l-Balãghah


Author: Sayyid Rouhullah Khomeini
Publisher: Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 5939
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Kijitabu hiki kimebeba ujumbe wa Ayatullah al-Uzma Imãm Khomeini. Ujumbe hii alipeleka kwenye Mkutano wa kusherehekea kupita miaka elfu moja ya mtungo ya Nahju 'l-Balaghah, uliofanyika mjini Tehran mwezi Mei, 1981.

Creating an Islamic State

Khomeini and the Making of a New Iran
Author: Vanessa Martin
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781860649004
Category: History
Page: 248
View: 4733
DOWNLOAD NOW »
Here is a major contribution to understanding notions of Political Islam.

The Spirit of Allah

Khomeini and the Islamic revolution
Author: Amir Taheri
Publisher: Adler & Adler Publishers
ISBN: N.A
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 349
View: 4007
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The former editor of Iran's largest-selling daily newspaper analyzes the personality of the Ayatollah Khomeini and examines the meaning of the Islamic revolution for Iran and the world at large

Khomeini's the Little Green Book


Author: Ayatollah Khomeini
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781541241541
Category:
Page: 76
View: 4649
DOWNLOAD NOW »
The Little Green Book is a collection of fatawah handed down by the most prominent and arguably one of the most influential Muslim clerics in modern history; the Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Mosavi Khomeini, commonly known as the Ayatollah Khomeini. Fatawah (the plural of fatwah) are Islamic religious decrees sent down by Muslim religious leaders. Since Islam demands that Muslims abide by Sharia - Islamic law as individuals and as a society, these fatawah are not simply religious insights or advice. They are legal pronouncements, and define the law of the land in an Islamic country. In his unrivaled role as Iran's Supreme Leader and the highest-ranking cleric for Shi'a Muslims, the Ayatollah Khomeini's fatawah guided the lives of more Shi'a Muslims than did any other Islamic leader throughout history