This book provides translations of most of the letters that have survived reasonably intact from the Old Kingdom through the Twenty-first Dynasty of ancient Egypt. An introduction provides information relating to ancient Egyptian epistolography and discussion regarding the transmission of letters. The organization of the book is basically chronological, with separate sections devoted to royal letters and letters sent by and to the vizier. Also included are several model letters that were used in the education of the Egyptian scribe.--Publisher description.
This book provides translations of most of the letters that have survived reasonably intact from the Old Kingdom through the Twenty-first Dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Author: Edward Frank Wente
The private letters of ancient women in Egypt from Alexander the Great to the Arab conquest
The private letters of ancient women in Egypt from Alexander the Great to the Arab conquest
Author: Roger S. Bagnall
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
This book investigates how ancient Egyptians expressed questions, requests, information and complaints in letters from the Late Ramesside Period. Correspondents formulated their contributions in reply to their addressee's letter and/or in anticipation of their next, thus creating a dialogue over time and space. Extracts from earlier letters were often quoted when replying or reacting to them, so we can detect how different Egyptians replied to questions and complaints, reacted to information, agreed to undertake commissions or attempted to avoid them. These replies and responses from correspondence are compared and contrasted with the replies to questions, requests, information and complaints preserved in the summaries of conversations in legal texts and other contemporary non-legal documents.The final chapter deals with courtesy in ancient Egyptian letter-writing, exploring how it was maximised and minimised between correspondents of equal or unequal social standing, of varying degrees of intimacy, and in situations where greater or lesser concessions were required from the addressee.
This book investigates how ancient Egyptians expressed questions, requests, information and complaints in letters from the Late Ramesside Period.
Author: Deborah Sweeney
Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz
This is the long-awaited 5th volume in the Amarna Letters series from the publisher of Kmt, A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt. It contains 14 essays by 10 authors on ancient Egypt covering the period ca. 1390-1310 BC, from the reign of Amenhotep III to that of Horemheb. All of the essays have been previously published in Kmt over the past decade. Two hundred & thirty-six pages long, it contains 283 illustrations, most in full color.
This is the long-awaited 5th volume in the Amarna Letters series from the publisher of Kmt, A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt.
Author: Dennis C Forbes Editor
Author: Savary (M., Claude Etienne)
The relationship between the sequence of the creation cycle and the Egyptian 28 ABGD alphabet. This book focus on the relationship between the sequence of the creation cycle and the Egyptian ABGD alphabets; the principles and principals of Creation; the cosmic manifestation of The Egyptian Alphabets ; the three Primary Phases of the Creation Cycle and their numerical values; the creation theme of each of the three primary phases, as well as an individual analysis of each of the 28 ABGD alphabetical letters that covers each' s role in the Creation Cycle, its sequence significance ,its sound and writing form significance, its numerical significance, its names & meanings thereof, as well as its peculiar properties and nature/impact/influence. This book is divided into five parts containing a total of 35 chapters. Part I. Egyptian Alphabetical Letters of Creation Cycle has four chapters: Chapter 1: Historical Deception of the (Ancient) Egyptian Linguistics will clear the intended confusion to hide the alphabetical form of writing in Ancient Egypt—as being the archetype of all languages throughout the world. Chapter 2: The Principles and Principals of Creation covers the basic components of the creation cycle in the Ancient Egyptian accounts. Chapter 3: The Cosmic Manifestation of the Egyptian Alphabets covers the natural orderly progression of the emanated divine energy, and the its manifestation in the monthly lunar mansion changes; the correlations between the sequence of the ABGD letters and their numerical values. Chapter 4: The Three Primary Phases of the Creation Cycle covers the nature of the creation cycle consisting of three phases, as found in the Ancient Egyptian accounts and later on duplicated in Sufi (and other) writings. Part II. The Conceiving Phase/Ennead has ten chapters—5 through 14: Chapter 5: The Theme of the First Phase/Ennead covers the theme of the First Phase/Ennead (1-9 'A' -'T.' ) as the objectification of a circumscribed area of undifferentiated energy/matter, wherein the world will be manifested. It consists of the establishment of order and the co-factors of life-forms as the foundation for the world. Phase One consists basically of three consecutive groups. Each of which consists of 3 stages/letters/numbers. Chapters 6 through 14 cover the first nine letters—each covering its role in the Creation Cycle, its sequence significance, its sound and writing form significance, its numerical significance, its names and meanings thereof, as well as its peculiar properties and nature/impact/influence. Part III. The Orderly Manifestation Phase/Ennead has ten chapters—15 through 24: Chapter 15: The Theme of the Second Phase/Ennead covers the theme of the Second Phase/Ennead, the orderly manifestation of creation. This Second Phase deals with the creation of the noumenal and phenomenal planes—the two grand subdivisions of the manifested world. The letters of this Phase are therefore arranged in two groups of four letters and the middle letter 'N' overlaps the two planes: 'Y', 'K', 'L', 'M' 'N' 'S', 'A.' , 'F', 'S.' Chapters 16 through 24 cover the second nine letters—each covering same topics as in the prior group of nine letters. Part IV. The Reunification Phase/Ennead has ten chapters—25 through 34: Chapter 25 covers the theme of the Third Phase/Ennead which is the Ascending and Reunification Phase that leads to a NEW Alpha—Heru-Akhti of The Two Horizons. Chapters 26 through 34 cover the third nine letters—each covering same topics as in the other two groups of nine letters. Part V being chapter 35 covers the 28th Mansion/Letter 'Gh'—representing The New Alpha. To learn about the linguistic features [words and sentences formations, etc.] of the Egyptian Alphabetical language, refer to other books by same author, namely: 1. The Ancient Egyptian Universal Writing Modes 2. The Musical Aspects of The Ancient Egyptian Vocalic Language
This book focus on the relationship between the sequence of the creation cycle and the Egyptian ABGD alphabets; the principles and principals of Creation; the cosmic manifestation of The Egyptian Alphabets ; the three Primary Phases of the ...
Author: Moustafa Gadalla
Publisher: Moustafa Gadalla
Letters & Sounds Book 9 Phase 5 Non-Fiction
Letters & Sounds Book 9 Phase 5 Non-Fiction
Author: Anna Kirschberg
Offering fascinating insights into the people and politics of the ancient near Eastern kingdoms, Trevor Bryce uses the letters of the five Great Kings of Egypt, Babylon, Hatti, Mitanni and Assyria as the focus of a fresh look at this turbulent and volatile region in the late Bronze Age. Numerous extracts from the letters are constantly interwoven into the fabric of narrative and discussion, and this lively approach allows us to witness history through the eyes of the people who lived it, revealing the personalities and reactions of kings, queens, princes, princesses and royal officials more than 3500 years ago to the current events of the day.
Offering fascinating insights into the people and politics of the ancient near Eastern kingdoms, Trevor Bryce uses the letters of the five Great Kings of Egypt, Babylon, Hatti, Mitanni and Assyria as the focus of a fresh look at this ...
Author: Trevor Bryce
"In Ancient Egyptian Letters to the Dead: the Realm of the Dead through the Voice of the Living Julia Hsieh investigates the beliefs and practices of communicating with the dead in ancient Egypt through close lexical semantic analysis of extant Letters. Hsieh shows how oral indicators, toponyms, and adverbs in these Letters signal a practice that was likely performed aloud in a tomb or necropolis, and how the senders of these Letters demonstrate a belief in the power and omniscience of their deceased relatives and enjoin them to fight malevolent entities and advocate on their behalf in the afterlife. These Letters reflect universals in beliefs and practices and how humankind, past and present, makes sense of existence beyond death"--
"In Ancient Egyptian Letters to the Dead: the Realm of the Dead through the Voice of the Living Julia Hsieh investigates the beliefs and practices of communicating with the dead in ancient Egypt through close lexical semantic analysis of ...
Author: Julia Hsieh
This Festschrift in honor of Prof. Edward F. Wente contains contributions by forty-three of his colleagues and friends. Contents: Publications and Communications of Edward F. Wente ( C. E. Jones ); A Monument of Khaemwaset Honoring Imhotep ( J. P. Allen ); Feuds or Vengeance? Rhetoric and Social Forms ( J. Baines ); Theban Seventeenth Dynasty ( J. von Beckerath ); Inventory Offering Lists and the Nomenclature for Boxes and Chests in the Old Kingdom ( E. Brovarski ); A Case for Narrativity: Gilt Stucco Mummy Cover in the Graeco-Roman Museum, Alexandria, Inv. 27808 ( L. H. Corcoran ); Opening of the Mouth as Temple Ritual ( E. Cruz-Uribe ); A Letter of Reproach ( R. J. Demaree ); Creation on the Potter's Wheel at the Eastern Horizon of Heaven ( P. F. Dorman ); The Border and the Yonder Side ( G. Englund ); Enjoying the Pleasures of Sensation: Reflections on a Significant Feature of Egyptian Religion ( R. B. Finnestad ); Some Comments on Khety's Instruction for Little Pepi on His Way to School (Satire on the Trades) ( J. L. Foster ); On Fear of Death and the Three bwts Connected with Hathor ( P. J. Frandsen ); Two Inlaid Inscriptions of the Earliest Middle Kingdom ( H. Goedicke ); Historical Background to the Exodus: Papyrus Anastasi VIII ( S. I. Groll ); The Mummy of Amenhotep III ( J. E. Harris ); Fragmentary Quartzite Female Hand Found in Abou-Rawash ( Z. Hawass ); Two Stelae of King Seqenenre Djehuty-aa of the Seventeenth Dynasty ( H. Jacquet-Gordon ); A Marital Title from the New Kingdom ( J. J. Janssen ); Remarks on Continuity in Egyptian Literary Tradition ( R. Jasnow ); Ethnic Considerations in Persian Period Egypt ( J. H. Johnson ); The nfrw-Collar Reconsidered ( W. R. Johnson ); The Wealth of Amun of Thebes under Ramesses II ( K. A. Kitchen ); Wie jung ist die memphitische Philosophie auf dem Shabaqo-Stein? ( R. Krauss ); 'Listening' to the Ancient Egyptian Woman: Letters, Testimonials, and Other Expressions of Self ( B. S. Lesko ); Some Further Thoughts on Chapter 162 of the Book of the Dead ( L. H. Lesko ); Royal Iconography of Dynasty 0 ( T. J. Logan ); The Auction of Pharaoh ( J. G. Manning ); Semi-Literacy in Egypt: Some Erasures from the Amarna Period ( P. Der Manuelian ); Vinegar at Deir el-Medina ( N. B. Millet ); Observations on Pre-Amarna Theology during the Earliest Reign of Amenhotep IV ( W. J. Murnane ); Zum Kultbildritual in Abydos ( J. Osing ); Sportive Fencing as a Ritual for Destroying the Enemies of Horus ( P. A. Piccione ); An Oblique Reference to the Expelled High Priest Osorkon? ( R. K. Ritner ); The Ahhotep Coffins: The Archaeology of an Egyptological Reconstruction ( A. M. Roth ); A Litany from the Eighteenth Dynasty Tomb of Merneith ( D. P. Silverman ); Nag-ed-Deir Papyri ( W. K. Simpson ); O. Hess = O. Naville = O. BM 50601: An Elusive Text Relocated ( M. J. Smith ); Celibacy and Adoption among God's Wives of Amun and Singers in the Temple of Amun: A Re-examination of the Evidence ( E. Teeter ); New Kingdom Temples at Elkab ( C. C. Van Siclen III ); Menstrual Synchrony and the 'Place of Women' in Ancient Egypt (OIM 13512) ( T. G. Wilfong ); Serra East and the Mission of the Middle Kingdom Fortresses in Nubia ( B. B. Williams ); End of the Late Bronze Age and Other Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause? ( F. J. Yurco ).
Rhetoric and Social Forms ( J. Baines ); Theban Seventeenth Dynasty ( J. von Beckerath ); Inventory Offering Lists and the Nomenclature for Boxes and Chests in the Old Kingdom ( E. Brovarski ); A Case for Narrativity: Gilt Stucco Mummy ...
Author: Edward Frank Wente
Publisher: Oriental Inst Publications Sales
Author: Alex Will Crawford Lord Lindsay
Author: Claude Étienne Savary
Author: בצלאל פורטן
Category: Aramaic language
The Egyptian Alphabetical language is the MOTHER and origin of all languages; and how it was diffused to become other 'languages' throughout the world. This book will show how the Egyptians had various modes of writings for various purposes , and how the Egyptian modes were falsely designated as "separate languages" belonging to others. ;the falsehood of having different languages on the Rosetta (and numerous other like) Stone; evaluation of the "hieratic' and "demotic" forms of writing. The book will also highlight how the Egyptian Alphabetical language is the MOTHER and origin of all languages (as confirmed by all writers of antiquities); and how this one original language came to be called Greek, Hebrew, Arabic and other 'languages' throughout the world—through deterioration of sound values via 'sound shifts', as well as foreign degradation of the original Egyptian writing forms. The book is divided into seven parts with a total of 24 chapters, as follows: Part I. Denial, Distortion and Diversion has 3 chapters—Chapters 1 to 3: Chapter 1: The Archetypal Primacy of The Egyptian Alphabet will show the role and remote history of alphabetical letter-forms writing in Ancient Egypt prior to any other place on earth. Chapter 2: The Concealment of The Supreme Egyptian Alphabet will show the incredible western academia scheme to conceal the Ancient Egyptian alphabetical letter-forms from its prominent position in the history of writing. Chapter 3: The Diversion of A Proto-Sinaitic "Phoenician Connection" will uncover all the facts about having "Phoenicians" as the inventor of alphabets on an Egyptian soil! Part II. Formation and Forms of Egyptian Alphabetic Writings has 6 chapters—Chapters 4 to 9: Chapter 4: Genesis of Egyptian Alphabetic Letters/Writing will refute the unfounded obsession that alphabetical letter-forms were derived from pictures; and the differences between ideograms, signs and alphabetical writing. Chapter 5: The Egyptian Sound Organization of Letters will cover the primary three vowels as the originators of all vowel sounds and associated consonants. Chapter 6: The Egyptian Alphabetic Writing Styles will sort out present common confusion of Ancient Egyptian styles of writing and set the two primary styles as uncials and cursive. Chapter 7: The Profession of Egyptian Scribes will cover the range of Egyptian writings; the profession of scribes; writing surfaces & instruments; and documentations of official missions by Egyptian scribes. Chapter 8: Multiple Writing Forms of a Single Document will cover the commonality of have several styles of same language on a single document; and examples of multiple writing forms on Egyptian magical divination papyri as well as on Egyptian stelae. Chapter 9: Multiple Writing Forms of The Rosetta Stone will expose the total misrepresentation of the three Egyptian writing forms on the Rosetta Stone as incorrectly being Egyptian and "Greek"! Part III. How The One World Language Became The Many has five chapters—Chapters 10 to 14: Chapter 10: The Beacon of the Ancient World will cover Egyptian settlements throughout the world; Ancient Egypt and The Seven Seas; Ancient Egypt as the World economic engine; the dominant Egyptian language; and the Egyptian Mother language of all language families. Chapter 11: Common Characteristics of Ancient Egyptian Alphabetic Writing System will detail such characteristics. Chapter 12: Letter-forms Divergence of World Alphabets From Its Egyptian Origin will cover the apparent variations of alphabetical letter-forms in world alphabets from its Egyptian origin; as well as an overview of the archetypal 28 Egyptian alphabetical letter-forms and their divergence into other regions of the world. Chapter 13: Sound Divergence of World Alphabets From Its Egyptian Origin will cover the systematic sound variations; as well as causes and effects of sound divergence from its Egyptian origin into other world alphabets. Chapter 14: Cavalier Designations of New Languages will cover how a new language has been awarded as a symbol of identity for winners of wars and new religions; as well as how "new" languages were fabricated from Egyptian scripts. Part IV. The Primary Linguistic Characteristics of The Egyptian Language has one chapter—Chapter 15: Chapter 15: The Primary Linguistic Characteristics of The Egyptian Language will cover the four pillars of a language; as well as an overview of the Egyptian prototypal interconnected lexicon, grammar and syntax. Part V. Out of Egypt—Diffusion Patterns To Asia and Africa has 5 chapters—Chapters 16 to 20: Chapter 16: Hebrew and Moses of Egypt will show the Egyptian origin of Hebrew and the absence of any linguistic distinction between Hebrew and the Ancient Egyptian language. Chapter 17: The Ancient Egyptian Hegemony of Asiatic Neighbors will discuss the found scripts in North and South Arabia; and clear up all apparent differences between them and the Ancient Egyptian writing system. Chapter 18: The African Connections will discuss the history and details of the Ethiopic language(s) and clear up all apparent differences between them and the Ancient Egyptian writing system. Chapter 19: From Egypt To India and Beyond will cover the two primary inscription styles in the Indian Sub-Continent; and clear up all apparent differences between them and the Ancient Egyptian writing system. Chapter 20: From Egypt to The Black Sea Basin [Georgia & Armenia] will cover affinities of languages from Central Asia To the Black Sea Basin; Ancient Egyptian settlements in the Black Sea Basin; Pre-existence of "Armenian/Georgian" alphabets in Ancient Egypt; and sameness of Ancient Egyptian alphabetical writing system in later "Georgian & Armenian Languages". Part VI. Out of Egypt—Diffusion Patterns To Europe has two chapters—Chapters 21 & 22: Chapter 21: Greek: A Shameless Linguistic Heist will cover role of Greeks in Ancient Egypt as hired security guards; pre-existence of the proclaimed "Greek" alphabetical letter-forms in the Ancient Egyptian system; robbing and postdating Egyptian scripts to rename them as "Greek"; and the absence of any linguistic distinction between Greek and the Ancient Egyptian language. Chapter 22: The European Languages will cover Etruscan, Latin and Hispanic languages; and the absence of any linguistic distinction between them and the Ancient Egyptian language. Part VII. The Ancient Future of The Universal Language has two chapters—Chapters 23 & 24: Chapter 23: Egyptian Alphabetical Vocalic Language [Past, Present & Future] will cover the state of the vocalic and written language in Egypt and the minor changes that occurred over thousands of years. Chapter 24: Renaissance & Seeking the Universal Language—The Ancient Future will cover an overview of the English language's inconsistent phonetic writing system; Renaissance search for a Universal Language; and how such a language, by all accounts is the [Ancient] Egyptian Language.
This book will show how the Egyptians had various modes of writings for various purposes , and how the Egyptian modes were falsely designated as "separate languages" belonging to others. ;the falsehood of having different languages on the ...
Author: Moustafa Gadalla
Publisher: Moustafa Gadalla
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
There has been considerable interest in ancient Egyptian letters, but the methodology of the research has resulted in a “compartmentalisation” of attention. Rather than considering a wide range of extant personal correspondence from a societal perspective across the various periods of ancient Egyptian history, the focus has been on individual letters, or on specific collections or letters within collections. This study will look at a selection of private letters from the Old Kingdom to the Twenty-first Dynasties under the topic headings of Complaints, Religious affairs and personnel, Military and police matters, Daily Life. By analysing the content, personalising the writers and recipients, indicating differences in style and modes of address, defining historical context, it will show how such private letters can provide insight into aspects of lifestyle, belief, social behaviour and the issues and customs of daily life. It will also identify any similarities and changes that may have occurred over the timeframe. This study will show the important contribution such personal correspondence can provide as a primary source of social history in ancient Egypt.
There has been considerable interest in ancient Egyptian letters, but the methodology of the research has resulted in a "compartmentalisation" of attention.
Author: Susan Thorpe
The Student Study Guides are important and unique components that are available for each of the books in The World in Ancient Times series. Each of the Student Study Guides is designed to be used with the main text at school or sent home for homework assignments. The activities in the Student Study guide will help students get the most out of their history books. Each student study guide includes a chapter-by-chapter two-page lesson that uses a variety of interesting activities to help a student master history and develop important reading and study skills.
Each of the Student Study Guides is designed to be used with the main text at school or sent home for homework assignments. The activities in the Student Study guide will help students get the most out of their history books.
Author: Eric H. Cline
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
First published in 1844 and 1846, The Englishwoman in Egypt is the collected observations of Sophia Poole, who lived in Cairo from 1842 until 1849 with her brother, the well known Orientalist Edward Lane, and her two children. During her residence, Poole learned Arabic and adopted Egyptian clothing that enabled her not only to observe day-to-day life in the streets and markets but also to enter hammams and harems and interact on an intimate level with Egyptian women of different classes. Poole ultimately had access, in fact, to the highest levels of society, including the family of the viceroy, Mohamed 'Ali Pasha, and recorded her experiences there with the same eye for detail and understanding of underlying customs as she brought to bear in the marketplace. She moves effortlessly from situation to situation - the pasha's daughter smoking her jewel-encrusted pipe, the homesick slave-girl, the occupation of ladies of leisure - one scene after another is unfolded in her writing that reveals not only a mind that observes and records but a human being who attempts to feel and understand a different culture. In contrast to her brother's dense works of research, Sophia Poole's was cast in the form of letters to a friend. These letters cover her arrival in Alexandria and trip up the Nile to Cairo, as well as her life in Cairo, with its visits to surrounding villages. The Englishwoman in Egypt is at once entertaining and informative. If Edward Lane kept alive for posterity a post-medieval Cairo that has since disappeared, then his sister in her work no doubt complemented that great achievement by presenting the same world from a feminine perspective that he as a man could not have access to.
First published in 1844 and 1846, The Englishwoman in Egypt is the collected observations of Sophia Poole, who lived in Cairo from 1842 until 1849 with her brother, the well known Orientalist Edward Lane, and her two children.
Author: Sophia Poole
Publisher: American Univ in Cairo Press