This book tackles the challenging issues raised by the growth of large megacities from diverse perspectives and approaches. The central question raised by the growth of megacities is what effect their growth will have on the ability of the global population to live in sustainable, livable, and safe societies. In Part I, important issues on the relationships between megacities and sustainability of the global environment are specified. Part II shows what can be learned from the history and diversity of megacities to solve challenging issues of the present. We present practical approaches that can solve the issues of megacities particularly focusing on human activities that seek the more harmonious relationship between life amenities and the natural environment: population density and urban built environment; production and trade; and environmental education and enlightenment. Part III aims to answer the question, what aspects of megacities should be measured and assessed? Barometers are necessary to control human activities in megacities. We consider how to measure and assess performances of megacities, reviewing some cases of indicators that authors have developed. This publication highlights the challenging issues of the relationships between megacities and sustainability of the global environment and related issues that have accrued from them, based on the following three scales: long-term time scale from the past to the present and future; a vast spatial scale that links global space with local spaces; and the scale of various aspects of human socio-economic activities in megacities.
This book tackles the challenging issues raised by the growth of large megacities from diverse perspectives and approaches.
Author: Shin Muramatsu
Publisher: Springer Nature
With cities rapidly encroaching onto surrounding lands, the notion of eco-city proposes an innovative yet pragmatic approach to designing, building and operating cities in a way that the destructive impact of human urban activity upon nature will be significantly reduced. This book comprises of papers from a workshop organized by the East Asian Institute on Eco-cities in East Asia on 27 February 2009 in Singapore. Contributed by scholars, officials and environmental specialists from Japan, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, the papers focus on how individual governments in these countries undertake eco-city projects. The book also highlights best practices that are useful to policy makers and anyone else who seeks to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to reduce their ecological footprints.
England at the time was in the throes of economic development, people were concentrated in cities, urban air pollution was worsening, and water quality was deteriorating in the Thames and other rivers. Poor workers lived in deplorable ...
Author: Liang Fook Lye
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Business & Economics
As the global population continues to increase, it has become necessary to find ways to handle this increase through various policy tools that address population growth and urbanization problems. The urbanization process has both potential issues and opportunities that need to be exploited to move societies forward. Megacities and Rapid Urbanization: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice examines trends, challenges, issues, and strategies related to population growth and rapid urbanization and its impact on urban environments. The book also explores the use of different governance approaches in addressing challenges and different tools and systems of appropriate allocation to address issues. This publication is an ideal reference source for academicians, students, practitioners, professionals, managers, urban planners, and government officials.
Taking the European Union (EU) as an example, a large majority of European citizens live in an urban environment, ... Action Plan on Urban Mobility of 2009 to accelerate the take-up of a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) in Europe, ...
Author: Management Association, Information Resources
Publisher: IGI Global
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book focuses on the socio-economic and sustainability challenges facing megacities in dealing with the dramatic population increases of informal areas and settlements (or slums), especially when coupled with the impacts and risks of climate change. The authors examine informal urban areas globally and in developing countries utilizing strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a tool to solve the sequence of upgrading steps concerning slums and shanty towns, and also establish essential guidelines for local governments and stakeholders to create a balance and quality of life for slums dwellers, particularly in the age of the COVID-19 pandemic, through applying sustainability indicators that enhance the upgrading process. Coverage includes recent statistics and mapping of informal areas worldwide and assessment of the GIZ and Sir Norman Foster models in terms of energy demands and consequential emission of CO2 and air pollution from slums. Three models of Maspero’s Triangle are also studied and assessed. The book is essential reading for a wide range of researchers, students, policymakers, governments, and professionals as well as a good source for research centers and academicians working in energy, climate change, urban environments, and sustainable urban development.
This book focuses on the socio-economic and sustainability challenges facing megacities in dealing with the dramatic population increases of informal areas and settlements (or slums), especially when coupled with the impacts and risks of ...
Author: Mohsen M. Aboulnaga
The urban environment – buildings, cities and infrastructure – represents one of the most important contributors to climate change, while at the same time holding the key to a more sustainable way of living. The transformation from traditional to sustainable systems requires interdisciplinary knowledge of the re-design, construction, operation and maintenance of the built environment. Sustainable Urban Environments: An Ecosystem Approach presents fundamental knowledge of the built environment. Approaching the topic from an ecosystems perspective, it shows the reader how to combine diverse practical elements into sustainable solutions for future buildings and cities. You’ll learn to connect problems and solutions at different spatial scales, from urban ecology to material, water and energy use, from urban transport to livability and health. The authors introduce and explore a variety of governance tools that support the transformation process, and show how they can help overcome institutional barriers. The book concludes with an account of promising perspectives for achieving a sustainable built environment in industrialized countries. Offering a unique overview and understanding of the most pressing challenges in the built environment, Sustainable Urban Environments helps the reader grasp opportunities for integration of knowledge and technologies in the design, construction and management of the built environment. Students and practitioners who are eager to look beyond their own fields of interest will appreciate this book because of its depth and breadth of coverage.
and to 70% by 2050, resulting in megacities and hypercities of more than 20 million inhabitants (UN-HABITAT 2009). ... Of the three billion city dwellers in the world approximately one billion live in slums, and this figure is expected ...
Author: Ellen M. van Bueren
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This interdisciplinary proceedings book addresses highly relevant topics in urbanization and its environmental impacts and presents case studies revealing the negative environmental consequences of the anthropogenic and technogenic pressures. Urbanization is an important trend in current land-use change, with up to 70% of the world population projected to live in cities by 2050. How will this rapid urbanization alter the face of Europe? What are the environmental consequences of the expansion of megacities? These and other important questions are addressed in the Megacities 2050 Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Landscape Architecture to Support City Sustainable Development. Megapolises are complex ecosystems, and their air and water quality, vegetation and soils are exposed to anthropogenic influences. The book discusses advanced approaches and techniques to monitor, model and assess environmental consequences and risks in megapolises and offers solutions to the environmental problems of modern megapolises. It also presents successful, sustainable urban-development projects from Europe and beyond, including the management and design of green infrastructure, waste management, run-off purification and remediation of urban soils. Focusing on urban soils and ecosystems, the book is intended for experts in various fields of geography, urban studies and planning, and environmental sciences, including those in the scientific and research community, municipal services, environmental protection agencies, stakeholders working in urban management and greenery, landscape architects, civil engineers and policy-makers.
MEGACITIES 2050: From Urbanization Risks Towards Sustainable Urban Development V.I. Vasenev1,3(&), Z. Cheng2, ... urban areas grow rapidly with more than two thirds of the world population expected to live in cities by 2050 [1, 11].
Author: Viacheslav I. Vasenev
This collection of edited papers forms part of the Compact City Series, creating a companion volume to The Compact City (1996) and Achieving Sustainable Urban Form (2000) and extends the debate to developing countries. This book examines and evaluates the merits and defects of compact city approaches in the context of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Issues of theory, policy and practice relating to sustainability of urban form are examined by a wide range of international academics and practitioners.
This collection of edited papers forms part of the Compact City Series, creating a companion volume to The Compact City (1996) and Achieving Sustainable Urban Form (2000) and extends the debate to developing countries.
Author: Rod Burgess
For the first time in human history, more than half the world’s population is urban. A fundamental aspect of this transformation has been the emergence of giant cities, or megacities, that present major new challenges. This book examines how issues of megacity development, urban form, sustainability, and unsustainability are conceived, how governance processes are influenced by these ideas, and how these processes have in turn influenced outcomes on the ground, in some cases in transformative ways. Through 15 in-depth case studies by prominent researchers from around the world, this book examines the major challenges facing megacities today. The studies are organized around a shared set of concerns and questions about issues of sustainability, land development, urban governance, and urban form. Some of the main questions addressed are: What are the most pressing issues of sustainability and urban form in each megacity? How are major issues of sustainability understood and framed by policymakers? Is urban form considered a significant component of sustainability issues in public debates and public policy? Who are the key actors framing urban sustainability challenges and shaping urban change? How is unsustainability, risk, or disaster imagined, and how are those concerns reflected in policy approaches? What has been achieved so far, and what challenges remain? The publication of this book is a step toward answering these and other crucial questions.
What has been achieved so far, and what challenges remain? The publication of this book is a step toward answering these and other crucial questions.
Author: Andre Sorensen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Political Science
The aim of this thesis is to analyze the role that environmental technology plays in the solution of environmental problems in cities, and discuss models and conditions that can facilitate the processes of selection, implementation and use of environmental technologies in and by cities. The technological component is perhaps one of the most important characteristics of modern cities. The dependence of humans on technology is in most cases a given, something that is not ignored in the sustainability debate. The development and implementation of new, “better” technologies is however hindered by the inertia that modern societies have and the influence of the dominant systems (e.g. economic systems based on growth, extraction of natural resources and environmental disturbance). So-called environmental technologies are not always able to efficiently compete against other technologies that are embedded in societies by lock-in mechanisms, e.g. learning by doing and using, scale economies, subsidies, and network externalities. Even with the “right” technologies, an exclusively techno-centered approach to sustainability can result in other problems, and it might reduce the sustainability debate and the cities’ role in it to discussions of an administrative nature. The actual role of local actors and their agency must be also considered in the models and frameworks directed at understanding sustainability transition processes. It is thus important to analyze the dynamics of technology selection, implementation, use and diffusion in cities from a stakeholders’ perspective as well. Not only is the availability of technology of interest for understanding the impact it has on the environment, but also the intensity of its use. This has resulted in increased attention from politicians and scholars on the so-called global cities (e.g. London, New York, Tokyo), which are characterized by their intense use of e.g. transport, security and surveillance, and information and communication. Paradigmatic models of sustainability can however be contested when the role of local actors, power and agency are considered in detail and not isolated from the context. Some authors recognize the need to address what they call “ordinary cities”, since focusing on the cities’ comparative level of development (be it political, economic or technological) hinders the possibility of bidirectional learning. In the end, sustainability is a “collective good,” which means that it is in everyone’s interest to coordinate efforts and learn from the best practices, regardless of where they come from. This thesis focuses on “ordinary cities,” and promises to offer conclusions that can contribute to a better understanding of how societies can learn from each other and how environmental technologies can have deeper and better results when implemented in different contexts than the ones where they were developed. Two questions related to the process of environmental-technology adaptation are addressed in this thesis: How do technology adaptation processes for the solution of urban environmental problems take place in cities? And how do cities benefit from environmental technologies? It is found that environmental technology is not only seen as a solution to environmental problems in cities, but every day more as a component of strategies to attract attention and compete for resources in national and international markets. Cities have different adaptation and learning strategies. This means that technological solutions have to be flexible and adaptive to local conditions, and allow for vernacular knowledge and past experiences to enrich their performance by facilitating their connection to existing systems. Learning between cities is important and necessary for global sustainability transitions. When it comes to environmental technology, this process is facilitated by strong proof-of-concept projects. Such projects are not only expected to be able to show their technical ability to solve a problem, but must also offer contextual connections to the problems faced by interested cities or potential implementers.
The role of cities in sustainability transitions Although the concept of city has undergone changes with time (e.g., ... cannot be seen as the solution to achieve sustainable cities (some modern megacities are living proof of this).
Author: Santiago Mejía-Dugand
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Category: City planning
At the dawn of the third millennium, planet Earth entered a zone of turbulence. The 2008 crisis added economic uncertainty to the threat of global warming and extreme events such as droughts, floods and cyclones, the persisting crisis of p- erty and the spectrum of pandemics and terrorism. Against this global landscape in an era of fragility, cities, already sheltering more than half of humankind, appear as Janus-faced realities, the best and worst of places, vulnerable but still full of hope and will to overcome the crisis of societal values and progress in the path of susta- able development. This book addresses the most critical challenges for cities, humanity’s collective masterpieces in danger, and analyses breakthrough responses for sustainable dev- opment, a globalisation with human face and the transition to inclusive post carbon communities. The ultimate wish is that experts, city planners, decision-makers and citizens in search of sustainable cities could find here some sources of information and inspiration to enhance the immense possibilities of cities and embrace the best possible trajectories of change.
Report of the Second European Conference on Sustainable Cities and Towns. ... Human Resource System Challenge VII: Human Settlement Development in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems,.UNESCO. ... Towards the Megacities Solution.
Author: Voula P. Mega
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media