Lochner V. New York

Economic Regulation on Trial
Author: Paul Kens
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780700609192
Category: Law
Page: 216
View: 8926
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Lochner v. New York (1905), which pitted a conservative activist judiciary against a reform-minded legislature, remains one of the most important and most frequently cited cases in Supreme Court history. In this concise and readable guide, Paul Kens shows us why the case remains such an important marker in the ideological battles between the free market and the regulatory state. The Supreme Court's decision declared unconstitutional a New York State law limiting bakery workers to no more than ten hours per day or sixty hours per week. By evoking its "police power," the state hoped to eliminate the employers' abuse of these workers. But the 5-4 majority opinion, authored by Justice Rufus Peckham and renounced by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, cited the state's violation of due process and the "right of contract between employers and employees," which the majority believed was protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. Critics jumped on the decision as an example of conservative juidicial activism promoting laissez-faire capitalism at the expense of progressive reform. As series editors Peter Hoffer and N.E.H. Hull note in their preface, "the case also raised a host of significant questions regarding the impetus of state legislatures to enter the workplace and regulate hours, wages, and working conditions; of the role of courts as monitors of the constitutionality of state regulation of the economy; and of the place of economic and moral theories in judicial thinking." Kens, however, reminds us that these hotly contested ideas and principles emerged from a very real human drama involving workers, owners, legislators, lawyers, and judges. Within the crucible of an industrializing America, their story reflected the fierce competition between two powerful ideologies.

The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America

An Encyclopedia
Author: Wilbur R. Miller
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483305937
Category: History
Page: 2712
View: 895
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Several encyclopedias overview the contemporary system of criminal justice in America, but full understanding of current social problems and contemporary strategies to deal with them can come only with clear appreciation of the historical underpinnings of those problems. Thus, this five-volume work surveys the history and philosophy of crime, punishment, and criminal justice institutions in America from colonial times to the present. It covers the whole of the criminal justice system, from crimes, law enforcement and policing, to courts, corrections and human services. Among other things, this encyclopedia: explicates philosophical foundations underpinning our system of justice; charts changing patterns in criminal activity and subsequent effects on legal responses; identifies major periods in the development of our system of criminal justice; and explores in the first four volumes - supplemented by a fifth volume containing annotated primary documents - evolving debates and conflicts on how best to address issues of crime and punishment. Its signed entries in the first four volumes--supplemented by a fifth volume containing annotated primary documents--provide the historical context for students to better understand contemporary criminological debates and the contemporary shape of the U.S. system of law and justice.

Courts in Federal Countries

Federalists or Unitarists?
Author: Nicholas Aroney,John Kincaid
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1487500629
Category: Law
Page: 583
View: 5518
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Courts in Federal Countries examines the role high courts play in thirteen countries, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Nigeria, Spain, and the United States.

The Human Body on Trial

A Handbook with Cases, Laws, and Documents
Author: Lynne Curry
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1576073491
Category: History
Page: 237
View: 4558
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Explores the controversial issue of an individual's right over his body versus the government's right to control it, focusing on individual cases, historical contexts, and key people and events.

Injustices

The Supreme Court's History of Comforting the Comfortable and Afflicting the Afflicted
Author: Ian Millhiser
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 1568585853
Category: Political Science
Page: 368
View: 7720
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Now with a new epilogue-- an unprecedented and unwavering history of the Supreme Court showing how its decisions have consistently favored the moneyed and powerful. Few American institutions have inflicted greater suffering on ordinary people than the Supreme Court of the United States. Since its inception, the justices of the Supreme Court have shaped a nation where children toiled in coal mines, where Americans could be forced into camps because of their race, and where a woman could be sterilized against her will by state law. The Court was the midwife of Jim Crow, the right hand of union busters, and the dead hand of the Confederacy. Nor is the modern Court a vast improvement, with its incursions on voting rights and its willingness to place elections for sale. In this powerful indictment of a venerated institution, Ian Millhiser tells the history of the Supreme Court through the eyes of the everyday people who have suffered the most from it. America ratified three constitutional amendments to provide equal rights to freed slaves, but the justices spent thirty years largely dismantling these amendments. Then they spent the next forty years rewriting them into a shield for the wealthy and the powerful. In the Warren era and the few years following it, progressive justices restored the Constitution's promises of equality, free speech, and fair justice for the accused. But, Millhiser contends, that was an historic accident. Indeed, if it weren't for several unpredictable events, Brown v. Board of Education could have gone the other way. In Injustices, Millhiser argues that the Supreme Court has seized power for itself that rightfully belongs to the people's elected representatives, and has bent the arc of American history away from justice.

The Myth of the Imperial Judiciary

Why the Right is Wrong about the Courts
Author: Mark Kozlowski
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814749291
Category: Law
Page: 293
View: 3419
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Few institutions have become as ferociously fought over in democratic politics as the courts. While political criticism of judges in this country goes back to its inception, today’s intensely ideological assault is nearly unprecedented. Spend any amount of time among the writings of contemporary right-wing critics of judicial power, and you are virtually assured of seeing repeated complaints about the “imperial judiciary.” American conservatives contend not only that judicial power has expanded dangerously in recent decades, but that liberal judges now willfully write their policy preferences into law. They raise alarms that American courts possess a degree of power incompatible with the functioning of a democratic polity. The Myth of the Imperial Judiciary explores the anti-judicial ideological trend of the American right, refuting these claims and taking a realistic look at the role of courts in our democracy to show that conservatives have a highly unrealistic conception of their power. Kozlowski first assesses the validity of the conservative view of the Founders’ intent, arguing that courts have played an assertive role in our politics since their establishment. He then considers contemporary judicial powers to show that conservatives have greatly overstated the extent to which the expansion of rights which has occurred has worked solely to the benefit of liberals. Kozlowski reveals the ways in which the claims of those on the right are often either unsupported or simply wrong. He concludes that American courts, far from imperiling our democracy or our moral fabric, stand as a bulwark against the abuse of legislative power, acting forcefully, as they have always done, to give meaning to constitutional promises.

Justice Stephen Field

Shaping Liberty from the Gold Rush to the Gilded Age
Author: Paul Kens
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 376
View: 2016
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Outspoken and controversial, Stephen Field served on the Supreme Court from his appointment by Lincoln in 1863 through the closing years of the century. No justice had ever served longer on the Court, and few were as determined to use the Court to lead the nation into a new and exciting era. Paul Kens shows how Field ascended to such prominence, what influenced his legal thought and court opinions, and why both are still very relevant today. One of the famous gold rush forty-niners, Field was a founder of Marysville, California, a state legislator, and state supreme court justice. His decisions from the state bench and later from the federal circuit court often placed him in the middle of tense conflicts over the distribution of the land and mineral wealth of the new state. Kens illuminates how Field's experiences in early California influenced his jurisprudence and produced a theory of liberty that reflected both the ideals of his Jacksonian youth and the teachings of laissez-faire economics. During the time that Field served on the U.S. Supreme Court, the nation went through the Civil War and Reconstruction and moved from an agrarian to an industrial economy in which big business dominated. Fear of concentrated wealth caused many reformers of the time to look to government as an ally in the preservation of their liberty. In the volatile debates over government regulation of business, Field became a leading advocate of substantive due process and liberty of contract, legal doctrines that enabled the Court to veto state economic legislation and heavily influenced constitutional law well into the twentieth century. In the effort to curb what he viewed as the excessive power of government, Field tended to side with business and frequently came into conflict with reformers of his era. Gracefully written and filled with sharp insights, Kens' study sheds new light on Field's role in helping the Court define the nature of liberty and determine the extent of constitutional protection of property. By focusing on the political, economic, and social struggles of his time, it explains Field's jurisprudence in terms of conflicting views of liberty and individualism. It firmly establishes Field as a persuasive spokesman for one side of that conflict and as a prototype for the modern activist judge, while providing an important new view of capitalist expansion and social change in Gilded Age America.

Die Krankheiten der Arbeiter

Beiträge zur Förderung der öffentlichen Gesundheitspflege
Author: Ludwig Hirt
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Occupational diseases
Page: N.A
View: 2084
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Die Federalist papers


Author: Alexander Hamilton,James Madison,John Jay
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 9783406547546
Category: Constitutional history
Page: 583
View: 2062
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Soziologie und Geschichte

gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Soziologie, Politik und Theorie der Geschichte
Author: Otto Hintze
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
ISBN: 9783525361139
Category: History
Page: 610
View: 5114
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Der Hitler-Mythos

Volksmeinung und Propaganda im Dritten Reich. Mit einer Einführung von Martin Broszat
Author: Ian Kershaw
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3486703390
Category: History
Page: 217
View: 6911
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Bei der historischen Deutung der nationalsozialistischen Epoche bildet die Zentralfigur Hitlers noch immer den Gegenstand kontroverser Erklärungen. Die Flut neuer Hitlerbiographien vermochte wenig beizutragen zur Klärung der Frage, wie es kommen konnte, dass ein Mann solchen persönlichen und ideologischen Zuschnitts von breiten Schichten des deutschen Volkes mit fast religiöser Inbrunst als Führer verehrt wurde. Die im engen Kontakt mit dem Institut für Zeitgeschichte entstandene Schrift des britischen Historikers Ian Kershaw ist wohl der erste systematische Versuch, nicht die Person Hitlers, sondern den sie umgebenden überdimensionalen Nimbus, von seiner Entstehung in der Weimarer Zeit bis zu seiner allmählichen Aufzehrung am Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges, zu dokumentieren. Der Autor konnte sich dabei auf eine breite Überlieferung von Berichten über die Volksmeinung in der NS-Zeit stützen. Er verdeutlicht überzeugend, dass der hypertrophe Hitler-Mythos des Dritten Reiches nicht nur von einer perfektionierten Propaganda täglich neu erzeugt wurde, sondern in hohem Maße auch von naiven Volkserwartungen getragen und perfektioniert worden ist. Am Beispiel einzelner Ereigniskomplexe, z.B. die Röhm-Affäre 1934, wird exemplarisch veranschaulicht, wie weit sich die populäre Vorstellung von Hitler von dem wirklichen Denken und Handeln dieses Mannes entfernen konnte. Erst der zunehmend verselbständigte und introvertierte irrationale Führerglaube, hervorgegangen aus schweren nationalen und sozialen Krisen der deutschen Gesellschaft, vermittelte als Resonanzboden und soziale Integrationskraft des Dritten Reiches die von der Person Hitlers her allein unmöglich erklärbare enorme politische Wirkung des "Führers".

Gerechtigkeit für Igel


Author: Ronald Dworkin
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518780204
Category: Philosophy
Page: 813
View: 7607
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»Der Fuchs weiß viele Dinge, aber der Igel weiß eine große Sache.« Der griechische Dichter Archilochos hat diesen Satz formuliert, Isaiah Berlin hat ihn mit seinem Tolstoi-Essay berühmt gemacht. Aber was ist diese »eine große Sache«? Ronald Dworkin liefert eine Antwort: Es sind Werte in all ihren Erscheinungsformen. Wenn wir verstehen wollen, was Wahrheit und Schönheit sind, was dem Leben Sinn verleiht, was die Moral fordert und die Gerechtigkeit verlangt, so müssen wir der Spur jener moralischen Einstellungen nachgehen, die menschliches Denken, Fühlen und Handeln durchdringen und zu einer Einheit formen. »Gerechtigkeit für Igel« ist eines jener Bücher, wie es sie in Zeiten der Füchse – der Spezialisten und Skeptiker – immer seltener gibt: eines, das aus einem einzigen Prinzip eine ganze Welt erklären und zugleich Orientierung geben möchte.

Die Ethik der Umverteilung


Author: Bertrand de Jouvenel
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783789281006
Category:
Page: 143
View: 7343
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Verfassungspatriotismus


Author: Jan-Werner Müller
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783518126127
Category: Citizenship
Page: 155
View: 1411
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Rational Choice

Eine Kritik am Beispiel von Anwendungen in der Politischen Wissenschaft. Übersetzung aus dem Amerikanischen von Annette Schmitt
Author: Donald P. Green,Ian Shapiro
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3486831607
Category: Philosophy
Page: 271
View: 3332
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In diesem gut lesbaren und verständlichen Buch bewerten die Autoren die Anwendung der Rational-Choice-Theorie. In ihrer herben Kritik zeigen Green und Shapiro auf, dass die hoch gelobten Ergebnisse der Rational-Choice-Theorie tatsächlich äußerst suspekt sind und dass ein grundsätzliches Umdenken erforderlich ist, um diesen analytischen Ansatz in der Politikwissenschaft wirklich nutzen zu können. Diesen Prozess des Umdenkens wollen die Autoren mit ihrem Buch anstoßen.

Allgemeines Verwaltungsrecht

Institute, Kontexte, System
Author: Ulrich [VNV] Battis
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783406665295
Category: Administrative law
Page: 672
View: 6994
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Längengrad

Die wahre Geschichte eines einsamen Genies, welches das größte wissenschaftliche Problem seiner Zeit löste
Author: Dava Sobel
Publisher: ebook Berlin Verlag
ISBN: 3827072360
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 240
View: 3998
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John Harrison, ein schottischer Uhrmacher, setzte sich ein ehrgeiziges und unmöglich erscheinendes Ziel: eine Methode zu ersinnen, die es Seeleuten ermöglicht, den genauen Längengrad ihrer Position auf See zu bestimmen. Über vierzig Jahre arbeitete Harrison wie besessen an der Herstellung eines perfekten Chronometers und kam schließlich — trotz Missgunst und zahlreicher Anfeindungen — zum Erfolg. Dava Sobels in luzider Prosa erzählte Geschichte dieser wissenschaftlichen Gralssuche wurde ein überwältigender internationaler Erfolg.

Demokratische Ausblicke


Author: Walt Whitman
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783938871003
Category:
Page: 95
View: 8164
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Formalisierte oder "schleichende" Kodifizierung des transnationalen Wirtschaftsrechts

Zu den methodischen und praktischen Grundlagen der lex mercatoria
Author: Klaus Peter Berger
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110906597
Category: Law
Page: 349
View: 5557
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