Locomotion

Locomotion! March,. Hop,. Skip,. Gallop,. Run. Get in the groove! Let's all move arms and legs in cool commotion! ... Loco! Locomotion! Arms move back and forth. Legs go up and down. March, march, march! Let's march around the town.

Author: Michael Dahl

Publisher: Capstone

ISBN: 9781684102433

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 24

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How many ways do we move around? Explore five different kinds of Creative Movement in Locomotion! March, Hop, Skip, Gallop, Run.
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Animal Locomotion

Moreover, many species are familiar with Terrestrial locomotion in animals is restricted to flat surfaces, and it is impossible to restrict it to steady state. To cope with bumpy surfaces, steep slopes, walls, and trees, loco- motion ...

Author: Malcolm S. Gordon

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351966207

Category: Medical

Page: 267

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Animal Locomotion: Physical Principles and Adaptations is a professional-level, state of the art review and reference summarizing the current understanding of macroscopic metazoan animal movement. The comparative biophysics, biomechanics and bioengineering of swimming, flying and terrestrial locomotion are placed in contemporary frameworks of biodiversity, evolutionary process, and modern research methods, including mathematical analysis. The intended primary audience is advanced-level students and researchers primarily interested in and trained in mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. Although not encyclopedic in its coverage, anyone interested in organismal biology, functional morphology, organ systems and ecological physiology, physiological ecology, molecular biology, molecular genetics and systems biology should find this book useful.
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Multi Locomotion Robotic Systems

35–40 (1992) Saito, F., Fukuda, T., Arai, F.: Swing and locomotion control for two-link brachiation robot. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 719–724 (1993) Saito, F., Fukuda, T., ...

Author: Toshio Fukuda

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642301353

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 314

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Nowadays, multiple attention have been paid on a robot working in the human living environment, such as in the field of medical, welfare, entertainment and so on. Various types of researches are being conducted actively in a variety of fields such as artificial intelligence, cognitive engineering, sensor- technology, interfaces and motion control. In the future, it is expected to realize super high functional human-like robot by integrating technologies in various fields including these types of researches. The book represents new developments and advances in the field of bio-inspired robotics research introducing the state of the art, the idea of multi-locomotion robotic system to implement the diversity of animal motion. It covers theoretical and computational aspects of Passive Dynamic Autonomous Control (PDAC), robot motion control, multi legged walking and climbing as well as brachiation focusing concrete robot systems, components and applications. In addition, gorilla type robot systems are described as hardware of Multi-Locomotion Robotic system. It is useful for students and researchers in the field of robotics in general, bio-inspired robots, multi-modal locomotion, legged walking, motion control, and humanoid robots. Furthermore, it is also of interest for lecturers and engineers in practice building systems cooperating with humans.
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Animal Locomotion

... 45 Locomotion of man , 51 MAREY's artificial wings , 233 Membranous wings , 170 Motion associated with the life and well - being of animals , Motion not confined to the animal kingdom , 2 Motion , natural and artificial , 4 .

Author: James Bell Pettigrew

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015021112365

Category: Aeronautics

Page: 264

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Animal Locomotion Or Walking Swimming and Flying

... 113 Flight the poetry of motion , 6 Flight the least fatiguing kind of motion , 13 Flight under water , 90 Flight of ... Locomotion of the ostrich , Locomotion of man , MAREY's artificial wings , Membranous wings , Motion associated ...

Author: James Bell Pettigrew

Publisher:

ISBN: HARVARD:HXCYJB

Category: Aeronautics

Page: 264

View: 161

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Animal Locomotion or walking swimming and flying

... 193 Locomotion, the active organs of, 24 Locomotion, the passive organs of, 21 Locomotion of the horse, 39 Locomotion of the ostrich, 45 Locomotion of man, 51 Marey's artificial wings, 233 Membranous wings, 170 Motion associated ...

Author: James Bell Pettigrew

Publisher: Good Press

ISBN: EAN:4064066182571

Category: Fiction

Page: 4590

View: 262

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"Animal Locomotion; or, walking, swimming, and flying" by James Bell Pettigrew. Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.
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Understanding Mammalian Locomotion

Just as Muybridge set the groundwork for the eventual application of high‐speed imaging and cinematography in the study of locomotion, Manter's force plates played a similar role for the electronic analysis of force in quadrupedal ...

Author: John E. A. Bertram

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119113737

Category: Science

Page: 432

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Understanding Mammalian Locomotion will formally introduce the emerging perspective of collision dynamics in mammalian terrestrial locomotion and explain how it influences the interpretation of form and functional capabilities. The objective is to bring the reader interested in the function and mechanics of mammalian terrestrial locomotion to a sophisticated conceptual understanding of the relevant mechanics and the current debate ongoing in the field.
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A Treatise Upon Elemental Locomotion and Interior Communication Wherein are Explained and Illustrated the History Practice and Prospects of Steam Carriages

end of the cylinder , C ; and so long as the boiler supplies steam , this alternating motion will be continued ... P is the parallel motion in which a wheel , Q , runs backwards ... Ehe th Lial or he G 20 TREATISE ON LOCOMOTION .

Author: Alexander Gordon

Publisher:

ISBN: PSU:000003544891

Category: Communication and traffic

Page: 326

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Aerial Locomotion

words about the famous 'Third law of motion' first enunciated by Newton. It may briefly be expressed thus—'To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.' For example, if we press our hands upon a table, the table exerts an ...

Author: E. H. Harper

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107605923

Category: History

Page: 178

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The volume, first published in 1911, presents a statement of the technical principles underlying aeronautics.
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Muscles Reflexes and Locomotion

Chapter 7 Neural Control of Locomotion Animal locomotion is studied by neurobiologists , zoologists , orthopedists , bioengineers , and physiologists ( not to mention natural historians , anatomists , sports scientists , and dancers ) .

Author: Thomas A. McMahon

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691221540

Category: Science

Page: 331

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The description for this book, Muscles, Reflexes, and Locomotion, will be forthcoming.
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Worm Like Locomotion Systems

An autonomous motion system is called a locomotion system if there exists a particular internal drive such that during the corresponding autonomous motion neither the center of mass nor any material point of the system remain fixed in ...

Author: Joachim Steigenberger

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783486719871

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 207

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Das zentrale Objekt der Theorie der wurmartigen Fortbewegung ist ein mechanisches System in Form einer Kette von Massenpunkten, die ihre unidirektionale Beweglichkeit mittels idealer Spikes erhalten. Davon ausgehend werden Kinematik, Dynamik und Steuerung derartiger Systeme untersucht. Bei den Steuerungsaufgaben stehen adaptive Regler im Vordergrund, da etwa Systemparameter und externe Parameter mit Unsicherheiten behaftet sind. Für Haft- und Gleitreibung werden verschiedene Modelle angegeben und diskutiert, die sogenanntes Stick-Slip-Verhalten realisieren.
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Neural Control of Locomotion

Ciliary movement as a method of locomotion is only of use to very small creatures and is produced by wave-like motion of few or numerous very fine "hairs" known as cilia. The majority of animal movements, however, depend on the use of ...

Author: Robert Herman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781475709643

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 822

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Neuromechanical Modeling of Posture and Locomotion

about how balance and locomotion are jointly achieved. In the second part of the chapter we will give some examples from our work of how experimental and computational approaches can be combined to reveal fundamental principles of human ...

Author: Boris I. Prilutsky

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493932672

Category: Medical

Page: 368

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Neuromechanics is a new, quickly growing field of neuroscience research that merges neurophysiology, biomechanics and motor control and aims at understanding living systems and their elements through interactions between their neural and mechanical dynamic properties. Although research in Neuromechanics is not limited by computational approaches, neuromechanical modeling is a powerful tool that allows for integration of massive knowledge gained in the past several decades in organization of motion related brain and spinal cord activity, various body sensors and reflex pathways, muscle mechanical and physiological properties and detailed quantitative morphology of musculoskeletal systems. Recent work in neuromechanical modeling has demonstrated advantages of such an integrative approach and led to discoveries of new emergent properties of neuromechanical systems. Neuromechanical Modeling of Posture and Locomotion will cover a wide range of topics from theoretical studies linking the organization of reflex pathways and central pattern generating circuits with morphology and mechanics of the musculoskeletal system (Burkholder; Nichols; Shevtsova et al.) to detailed neuromechanical models of postural and locomotor control (Bunderson; Edwards, Marking et al., Ting). Furthermore, uniquely diverse modeling approaches will be presented in the book including a theoretical dynamic analysis of locomotor phase transitions (Spardy and Rubin), a hybrid computational modeling that allows for in vivo interactions between parts of a living organism and a computer model (Edwards et al.), a physical neuromechanical model of the human locomotor system (Lewis), and others.
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Primate Locomotion

limited by a number of potential error factors, such as possible skin motion artifacts and differences in body proportions ... This method therefore seems to be expandable for application in field studies of primate locomotion in which ...

Author: Kristiaan D'Août

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144191420X

Category: Science

Page: 364

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Primate locomotion has typically been studied from two points of view. Laboratory-based researchers have focused on aspects like biomechanics and energetics, whereas field-based researchers have focused on (locomotor) behaviour and ecology. Unfortunately, to date, there is relatively little scientific exchange between both groups. With a book, which will be the result of a symposium on the 2008 Meeting of the International Primatological Society in Edinburgh, we would like to bring together laboratory and field-based primate locomotion studies. We are convinced this will be beneficial for both research lines. For example, biomechanists might wonder how frequently the locomotor style they study in the lab actually occurs in nature, and field workers might use calculated costs of locomotion to understand why certain locomotor behaviours are favoured under specific conditions. Thus, on the one hand, an established link between both groups may help interpret the results by using each other’s findings. On the other hand, recent technological advances (e.g. portable high-speed cameras) make it possible to bridge the gap between lab-based and field-based research by actually collecting biomechanical data in situ. Again, communication between both groups is necessary to identify the specific needs and start up achievable and successful research projects in the field. In order to generate a wide interest, we have invited biomechanists, ecologists, and field-based researchers who combine both disciplines, and we hope their combined contributions will facilitate lasting cooperation between the mentioned disciplines and stimulate innovative research in Primatology. We are convinced that the most appropriate format to publish the different symposium contributions is a conference volume within an existing book series. Firstly, the chapters will not only contain new data but will also review existing data and elaborate on potential future work – more so than can be done in a journal article. Secondly, the combination of chapters will form an entity that is more valuable than the sum of the separate chapters and therefore they need to be presented together. Lastly, this volume will benefit from the typically long "shelf life" of a book in a renowned series, allowing it to be used as reference book for both researchers and students.
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A General Model of Legged Locomotion on Natural Terrain

Chapter 2 Background This monograph develops a model of legged locomotion on natural terrain that, for the first time, incorporates non-conservative foot-soil interactions into a full dynamic formulation. Hence, methods for deriving the ...

Author: David J. Manko

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461535744

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 116

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Dynamic modeling is the fundamental building block for mechanism analysis, design, control and performance evaluation. One class of mechanism, legged machines, have multiple closed-chains established through intermittent ground contacts. Further, walking on natural terrain introduces nonlinear system compliance in the forms of foot sinkage and slippage. Closed-chains constrain the possible motions of a mechanism while compliances affect the redistribution of forces throughout the system. A General Model of Legged Locomotion on Natural Terrain develops a dynamic mechanism model that characterizes indeterminate interactions of a closed-chain robot with its environment. The approach is applicable to any closed-chain mechanism with sufficient contact compliance, although legged locomotion on natural terrain is chosen to illustrate the methodology. The modeling and solution procedures are general to all walking machine configurations, including bipeds, quadrupeds, beam-walkers and hopping machines. This work develops a functional model of legged locomotion that incorporates, for the first time, non-conservative foot-soil interactions in a nonlinear dynamic formulation. The model was applied to a prototype walking machine, and simulations generated significant insights into walking machine performance on natural terrain. The simulations are original and essential contributions to the design, evaluation and control of these complex robot systems. While posed in the context of walking machines, the approach has wider applicability to rolling locomotors, cooperating manipulators, multi-fingered hands, and prehensile agents.
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Locomotion and Posture in Older Adults

However, the older individuals slowed down their motion, particularly during the descent phase of sitting down. ... As sitting down and standing up can be integrated tasks in daily living activities, locomotion is a contingency of ...

Author: Fabio Augusto Barbieri

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319489803

Category: Medical

Page: 457

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This book is an attempt to advance the discussion and improve our understanding about the effects of aging and movement disorders on motor control during walking and postural tasks. Despite these activities are performed daily, there is a high requirement of motor and neural systems in order to perform both tasks efficiently. Both walking and posture require a complex interaction of musculoskeletal and neural systems. However, the mechanisms used to control these tasks, as well as how they are planned and coordinated, are still a question of discussion among health professionals and researchers. In addition, this discussion is more interesting when the effects of aging are included in the context of locomotion and the postural control. The number of older individuals is 841 million in 2015, which is four times higher than the 202 million that lived in 1950. Aging causes many motor, sensorial and neural deficits, which impair locomotion and postural control in the elderly. The severity of this framework is worsened when the aging goes along with a movement disorder, such as Parkinson disease, Chorea, Dystonia, Huntington disease, etc. Therefore, the aim of this book is to highlight the influence of different aspects on planning, controlling and performing locomotion and posture tasks. In attempting to improve current knowledge in this field, invited authors present and discuss how environmental, sensorial, motor, cognitive and individual aspects influence the planning and performance of locomotor and postural activities. The major thrust of the book is to address the mechanisms involved in controlling and planning motor action in neurological healthy individuals, as well as in those who suffer from movement disorders or face the effects of aging, indicating the aspects that impair locomotion and postural control. In addition, new technologies, tools and interventions designed to manage the effects of aging and movement disorders are presented in the book.
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Lessons Learned from Popular Culture

In another example, in 1962 Little Eva released a popular song (it went to Number One in the charts) with a dance to go along with it, “The Loco-motion.” The term loco-motion means movement that starts after all movement has ceased, ...

Author: Tim Delaney

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9781438461465

Category: Social Science

Page: 250

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Informative and entertaining introduction to the study of popular culture. As the “culture of the people,” popular culture provides a sense of identity that binds individuals to the greater society and unites the masses on ideals of acceptable forms of behavior. Lessons Learned from Popular Culture offers an informative and entertaining look at the social relevance of popular culture. Focusing on a wide range of topics, including film, television, social media, music, radio, cartoons and comics, books, fashion, celebrities, sports, and virtual reality, Tim Delaney and Tim Madigan demonstrate how popular culture, in contrast to folk or high culture, gives individuals an opportunity to impact, modify, or even change prevailing sentiments and norms of behavior. For each topic, they include six engaging and accessible stories that conclude with short life lessons. Whether you’re a fan of The Big Bang Theory or Seinfeld, the Beatles or Beyoncé, Charlie Brown or Superman, there’s something for everyone.
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Principles of Animal Locomotion

(1976) Mechanics of bipedal locomotion. In P. S. Davies (editor), Perspectives in Experimental Biology 1, 493–504. Pergamon, Oxford, UK. Alexander, R. McN. (1977a) Mechanics and scaling of terrestrial locomotion.

Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691126340

Category: Science

Page: 384

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How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs. Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.
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Quadrupedal Locomotion

Locomotion. Apart from the interest in creating machines to imitate natural motion, some researchers envisaged the potential advantages of legged systems over traditional vehicles, based on wheels or tracks, for use in industry or ...

Author: Pablo González de Santos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781846283079

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 268

View: 637

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Walking machines have advantages over traditional vehicles, and have already accomplished tasks that wheeled or tracked robots cannot handle. Nevertheless, their use in industry and services is currently limited in scope. This book brings together methods and techniques that have been developed to deal with obstacles to wider acceptance of legged robots. Part I provides an historical overview. Part II concentrates on control techniques, as applied to Four-legged robots.
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