Taking its title from Karl Marx's description of religion as the world's "logic in a popular form," this book explores the hidden logic behind popular religions in nineteenth-century Bengal. Sumanta Banerjee examines cross-religious cults and the construction of Bengali myths and beliefs about godlings and spirits, approaching them as popular inventions that attempt to make sense of human existence in the face of an overwhelming and often hostile environment. These religious manifestations of popular logic--ranging from Kali to Radha-Krishna to Satyapir to Tantric practice--are fluid and constantly innovating. Banerjee argues that they represent an alternative stream running parallel to, and often challenging, the more strictly structured beliefs and practices of the Indian religious establishments, whether Hindu, Islamic or Christian. Logic in a Popular Form brings to light many significant aspects of the multifaceted phenomenon of popular religion in Bengal, while tracing the impact of urbanization, colonialism, and nationalism. Banerjee re-examines the relevance of the beliefs and rituals that continue to survive in Bengali society today.
Taking its title from Karl Marx's description of religion as the world's "logic in a popular form," this book explores the hidden logic behind popular religions in nineteenth-century Bengal.
Author: Sumanta Banerjee
This volume challenges prevailing understanding of the two great founders of sociological thought. In a detailed and systematic way the author demonstrates how Marx and Durkheim gradually developed the fundamental frameworks for sociological materialism and idealism. While most recent interpreters of Marx have placed alienation and subjectivity at the centre of his work, Professor Alexander suggests that it was the later Marx’s very emphasis on alienation that allowed him to avoid conceptualizing subjectivity altogether. In Durkheim’s case, by contrast, the author argues that such objectivist theorizing informed the early work alone, and he demonstrates that in his later writings Durkheim elaborated an idealist theory that used religious life as an analytical model for studying the institutions of secular society.
Moreover, this class understands that in order to achieve this new form of action
and order, private property must be ... its encyclopedic compendiumi, its logic in
popular form, its spiritual point d'honneur, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, ...
Author: Jeffrey C. Alexander
Category: Social Science
will be necessary , when these arguments are found in a popular form , to reduce
them to the form of the syllogism , before the test of logical principles can be with
advantage applied to them . The student , therefore , would do well to accustom ...
Author: John Leechman
Short turnaround has become critical in the design of electronic systems. Software- programmable components such as microprocessors and digital signal processors have been used extensively in such systems since they allow rapid design revisions. However, the inherent performance limitations of software-programmable systems mean that they are inadequate for high-performance designs. Designers thus turned to gate arrays as a solution. User-programmable gate arrays (field-programmable gate arrays, FPGAs) have recently emerged and are changing the way electronic systems are designed and implemented. The growing complexity of the logic circuits that can be packed onto an FPGA chip means that it has become important to have automatic synthesis tools that implement logic functions on these architectures. Logic Synthesis for Field-Programmable Gate Arrays describes logic synthesis for both look-up table (LUT) and multiplexor-based architectures, with a balanced presentation of existing techniques together with algorithms and the system developed by the authors. Audience: A useful reference for VLSI designers, developers of computer-aided design tools, and anyone involved in or with FPGAs.
The most popular form of two-level implementation is a programmable logic array
(PLA). ... The factored form suffers from the fact that it may not be possible in a
factored form to share two instances of the same function, or of a function and its
Author: Rajeev Murgai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
Pragmatic Logic presents the analysis and design of digital logic systems. The author begins with a brief study of binary and hexadecimal number systems and then looks at the basics of Boolean algebra. The study of logic circuits is divided into two parts, combinational logic, which has no memory, and sequential logic, which does. Numerous examples highlight the principles being presented. The text ends with an introduction to digital logic design using Verilog, a hardware description language. The chapter on Verilog can be studied along with the other chapters in the text. After the reader has completed combinational logic in Chapters 4 and 5, sections 9.1 and 9.2 would be appropriate. Similarly, the rest of Chapter 9 could be studied after completing sequential logic in Chapters 6 and 7. This short lecture book will be of use to students at any level of electrical or computer engineering and for practicing engineers or scientists in any field looking for a practical and applied introduction to digital logic. The author's "pragmatic" and applied style gives a unique and helpful "non-idealist, practical, opinionated" introduction to digital systems.
Yet all our designs so far have been And–Or designs. We need to look beyond
And–Or. 4.4 OTHER GATE ARRANGEMENTS And–Or is not the only way to
organize two-level logic. In fact, it is one of the less popular forms. I'm going to
look at ...
Author: William J. Eccles
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Category: Technology & Engineering
This volume presents those writings of Marx that best reveal his contribution to sociology, particularly to the theory of society and social change. The editor, Neil J. Smelser, has divided these selections into three topical sections and has also included works by Friedrich Engels. The first section, "The Structure of Society," contains Marx's writings on the material basis of classes, the basis of the state, and the basis of the family. Among the writings included in this section are Marx's well-known summary from the Preface of A Contribution to a Critique of Political Economy and his equally famous observations on the functional significance of religion in relation to politics. The second section is titled "The Sweep of Historical Change." The first selection here contains Marx's first statement of the main precapitalist forms of production. The second selection focuses on capitalism, its contradictions, and its impending destruction. Two brief final selections treat the nature of communism, particularly its freedom from the kinds of contradictions that have plagued all earlier forms of societies. The last section, "The Mechanisms of Change," reproduces several parts of Marx's analysis of the mechanisms by which contradictions develop in capitalism and generate group conflicts. Included is an analysis of competition and its effects on the various classes, a discussion of economic crises and their effects on workers, and Marx's presentation of the historical specifics of the class struggle. In his comprehensive Introduction to the selections, Professor Smelser provides a biography of Marx, indentifies the various intellectual traditions which formed the background for Marx's writings, and discusses the selections which follow. The editor describes Marx's conception of society as a social system, the differences between functionalism and Marx's theories, and the dynamics of economic and political change as analyzed by Marx.
... produce religion which is an inverted world consciousness, because they are
an inverted world. Religion is the general theory of this world, its encyclopedic
compendium, its logic in popular form, its spiritual point d'honneur, its enthusiasm
Author: Karl Marx
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
The latest update on this popular textbook The importance of concepts and methods based on fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory has been rapidly growing since the early 1990s and all the indications are that this trend will continue in the foreseeable future. Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications, Fourth Edition is a new edition of the popular textbook with 15% of new and updated material. Updates have been made to most of the chapters and each chapter now includes new end-of-chapter problems. Key features: New edition of the popular textbook with 15% of new and updated material. Includes new examples and end-of-chapter problems. Has been made more concise with the removal of out of date material. Covers applications of fuzzy logic to engineering and science. Accompanied by a website hosting a solutions manual and software. The book is essential reading for graduates and senior undergraduate students in civil, chemical, mechanical and electrical engineering as wells as researchers and practitioners working with fuzzy logic in industry.
This chapter has focused on two popular forms of logic, classical and fuzzy.
There are other forms, of course. For example, almost a century ago, L. E. J.
Brouwer posed a form of logic known as intuitionism. This logic has been subject
Author: Timothy J. Ross
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
Research and development of logic synthesis and verification have matured considerably over the past two decades. Many commercial products are available, and they have been critical in harnessing advances in fabrication technology to produce today's plethora of electronic components. While this maturity is assuring, the advances in fabrication continue to seemingly present unwieldy challenges. Logic Synthesis and Verification provides a state-of-the-art view of logic synthesis and verification. It consists of fifteen chapters, each focusing on a distinct aspect. Each chapter presents key developments, outlines future challenges, and lists essential references. Two unique features of this book are technical strength and comprehensiveness. The book chapters are written by twenty-eight recognized leaders in the field and reviewed by equally qualified experts. The topics collectively span the field. Logic Synthesis and Verification fills a current gap in the existing CAD literature. Each chapter contains essential information to study a topic at a great depth, and to understand further developments in the field. The book is intended for seniors, graduate students, researchers, and developers of related Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools. From the foreword: "The commercial success of logic synthesis and verification is due in large part to the ideas of many of the authors of this book. Their innovative work contributed to design automation tools that permanently changed the course of electronic design." by Aart J. de Geus, Chairman and CEO, Synopsys, Inc.
The techniques developed by Brayton and others drastically enhanced the
quality of multi-level logic with algebraic methods. They developed a ... SOP (sum
-of-product) expression This is the most popular form to manipulate. Many good ...
Author: Soha Hassoun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Venn's style is to take his readers very much into his confidence: as he builds the theory, he carefully points out the alternative paths he might have taken, the alternative definitions he might have used, he shows what the implications of these alternatives are, and justifies his choice on the broadest possible grounds. What is distinctive about this work may be given in part in Venn's own words: ""The thorough examination of symbolic logic as a whole, that is, in its relation to ordinary logic and ordinary thought and language; the establishment of every general symbolic expression and rule on purely logical principles, instead of looking mainly to its formal justification; and the invention and employment of a scheme of diagrammatic notation which shall be in true harmony with our generalizations.
... this work has been to illustrate the relation of the Symbolic Treatment of Logic ,
not only to the ordinary scheme but also to the current modes of popular thought
... What is at bottom the significance of the familiar hypothetical form of speech ?
Author: John Venn
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
... open - collector / drain , and tristate . These will be explained in subsequent
sections . 4 . 3 RESISTOR - TRANSISTOR LOGIC ( RTL ) The resistor - transistor
logic was the most popular form of logic in common use before the development
Author: R P Jain
Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill Education
Category: Digital electronics
Science in its more popular forms, and so far as it is fully conscious of its methods
, adopts the same categories : it takes up the motto of reflection, and seeks for the
identity and the difference latent in the ground of what exists, for the laws of ...
Author: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Science in its more popular forms , and so far as it is fully conscious of its
methods , adopts the same categories : it takes up the motto of reflection , and
seeks for the identity and the difference latent in the ground of what exists , for the
laws of ...
Author: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Moving effortlessly from Greek to Shakespearean tragedies, to nineteenth and twentieth-century British, American and Russian drama, and fiction and contemporary television, this study sheds new light on the art of comedy.
The most universally popular forms of supernatural romance are of course the
classic fairy tales by Charles Perrault, the Grimm Brothers, and Hans Christian
Andersen. Many of these are derived from the peasant oral tradition of folk tales
Author: Ben La Farge
Category: Literary Criticism
In the Indian world of the nineteenth century, religion was a part of the ordinary
business of common life, symbolizing human trust and vitality — the 'general
theory of this world, its encyclopaedic compendium, its logic in a popular form, ...
Author: Rudrangshu Mukherjee
Publisher: Orient Blackswan
The Fourth Edition of this long-established text retains all the key features of the previous editions, covering the basic topics of a solid first course in mathematical logic. This edition includes an extensive appendix on second-order logic, a section on set theory with urlements, and a section on the logic that results when we allow models with empty domains. The text contains numerous exercises and an appendix furnishes answers to many of them. Introduction to Mathematical Logic includes: propositional logic first-order logic first-order number theory and the incompleteness and undecidability theorems of Gödel, Rosser, Church, and Tarski axiomatic set theory theory of computability The study of mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, and computability theory provides an understanding of the fundamental assumptions and proof techniques that form basis of mathematics. Logic and computability theory have also become indispensable tools in theoretical computer science, including artificial intelligence. Introduction to Mathematical Logic covers these topics in a clear, reader-friendly style that will be valued by anyone working in computer science as well as lecturers and researchers in mathematics, philosophy, and related fields.
Fraenkel proposed a way of overcoming such difficulties , but his idea could not
be clearly expressed in the language of Z. ... ZF is now the most popular form of
axiomatic set theory ; most of the modern research in set theory on independence
Author: Elliott Mendelson
Publisher: CRC Press
The ability to persuade, influence and convince is a vital skill for success in work and life. However, most of us have little idea how to argue well. Indeed, arguing is still seen by many as something to be avoided at all costs, and mostly it's done poorly, or not at all. Yet it's possibly the most powerful and yet most neglected asset you could have. In How to Argue: Powerfully, Persuasively, Positively , you will discover the art of arguing powerfully, persuasively and positively and you'll have a head start every time you want. The Truth About Negotiations, Second Edition shares even more proven principles for handling virtually every negotiation situation. Building on her widely praised First Edition, Leigh Thompson delivers more than 50 real solutions for the make-or-break scenarios faced by every negotiator. In this edition, Thompson adds powerful new “truths” and techniques for negotiating across generations and cultures, negotiating in virtual/online environments, and more.
George W. Bush became famous for this when he spoke of the war on terror: “
You are either for us or against us. ... As both the examples show, “bifurcation,” to
give it its technical name, is a particularly popular form of argument where one of
Author: Jonathan Herring
Publisher: FT Press
Category: Business & Economics
The papers in this book have been collected in celebration of Carl Wellman, who, after forty-five years, is retiring from teaching. Here I would like to highlight a few of the moments which have shaped Carl as a person and a philosopher. Although his childhood was not unhappy, Carl faced considerable challenges growing up in Manchester, New Hampshire. He ne ver knew his father; he and his mother, Carolyn, had little money; and he fought a long battle with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, an illness which made hirn more familiar with hospitals than any young person should be. (His mother once told me that there were times when the doctors put Carl in his own hospital room because, while he was too young to be housed with adult men, they did not want the other children to see hirn die. ) Following a year of physician-prescribed rest after high school, the doctors recommended the University of Arizona in the misguided hope that the desert climate might improve his health. In spite of the doctors' hopes, life in Tucson was not easy. The heat takes its toll on everyone, but the desert was especially oppressive for Carl since his unusually sensitive eyes were no match for the intense sun. Still, Carl enjoyed college.
By the way: are there not even theologians firmly convinced on one hand that
their own religion is a divine revelation, ... Religion was a worldly theory created
by the masses; it represented their logic in a popular form, their consciousness of
Author: Marilyn Friedman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Noted logician discusses both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications, exploring set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, proof theory, logic's relation to computer science, and other subjects. 1981 edition, reissued by Dover in 1993 with a new Postscript by the author.
It is well known that many theoretical algorithms require exponential time and are
way beyond the capacity of computers. On the other hand, we also see,
especially in the area of “artificial intelligence”, silly experiments with computer
Author: Hao Wang
Publisher: Courier Corporation
It is aimed at those, especially young people, who have just become involved politically, as well as those engaged in single issue movements, having come across the word 'socialism' and want to know more about it. It is not a detailed text book on the subject. The author was a full-time trade union official most of his working life (he is now retired) and was also involved politically on the left, so is able to write with some experience and knowledge on the subject. The book opens with an attempt to described capitalism as it is now, then deals with the basic ideas of socialism. It then takes the reader more deeply into the politics and economics of socialism from a Marxist standpoint. The remaining chapters deal with various social problems of today, including the growing gap between rich and poor and between rich and poor nations, feminism, racism, democracy, freedom and liberty under socialism, etc. It considers the road to socialism in the light of past attempts to set up socialist regimes, e.g. the Paris Commune of 1870-71 and the Russian Revolution from 1917 to the collapse of the Soviet system in 1989-91. It has a chapter on the history of the idea of socialism-communism in Britain and Europe. It also deals with the present and the future of the several new Latin American left-wing regimes and concludes with a discussion of the situation in Britain today in the light of the 'New' Labour government's swing to the right. It arrives at a conclusion that the future of socialism in Britain - if it has a future at all - lies with ordinary people and their battle for political and economic democracy, peace, liberty and justice.
In that passage which ends with the famous phrase, “Religion is the opium of the
people”, Marx wrote: “ ... religion is the ... Religion is the general theory of that
world, its encyclopaedic compendium, its logic in a popular form, its spiritualistic ...
Author: Hyman Frankel
Publisher: Arena books
Category: Political Science
A surprising, gripping narrative depicting the thinkers whose ideas shaped contemporary China, India, and the Muslim world A little more than a century ago, as the Japanese navy annihilated the giant Russian one at the Battle of Tsushima, original thinkers across Asia, working independently, sought to frame a distinctly Asian intellectual tradition that would inform and inspire the continent's anticipated rise to dominance. Asian dominance did not come to pass, and those thinkers—Tagore, Gandhi, and later Nehru in India; Liang Qichao and Sun Yatsen in China; Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Abdurreshi al Ibrahim in the ruins of the Ottoman Empire—are seen as outriders from the main anticolonial tradition. But Pankaj Mishra shows that it was otherwise in this stereotype-shattering book. His enthralling group portrait of like minds scattered across a vast continent makes clear that modern Asia's revolt against the West is not the one led by faith-fired terrorists and thwarted peasants but one with deep roots in the work of thinkers who devised a view of life that was neither modern nor antimodern, neither colonialist nor anticolonialist. In broad, deep, dramatic chapters, Mishra tells the stories of these figures, unpacks their philosophies, and reveals their shared goal of a greater Asia. Right now, when the emergence of a greater Asia seems possible as at no previous time in history, From the Ruins of Empire is as necessary as it is timely—a book essential to our understanding of the world and our place in it.
India's most famous thinker of that century, Swami Vivekananda ( 1863–1902),
articulated a widespread moral revulsion ... its logic in a popular form, its
spiritualistic point d'honneur, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn
Author: Pankaj Mishra
Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux