Logic in Linguistics

The authors offer a clear, succinct and basic introduction to set theory and formal logic for linguists.

Author: Jens Allwood

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521291747

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 185

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The authors offer a clear, succinct and basic introduction to set theory and formal logic for linguists.
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Universals

This collection of articles and review essays, including many hard to find pieces, comprises the most important and fundamental studies of Indian logic and linguistics ever undertaken.

Author: Frits Staal

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226769992

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 267

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This collection of articles and review essays, including many hard to find pieces, comprises the most important and fundamental studies of Indian logic and linguistics ever undertaken. Frits Staal is concerned with four basic questions: Are there universals of logic that transcend culture and time? Are there universals of language and linguistics? What is the nature of Indian logic? And what is the nature of Indian linguistics? By addressing these questions, Staal demonstrates that, contrary to the general assumption among Western philosophers, the classical philosophers of India were rationalists, attentive to arguments. They were in this respect unlike contemporary Western thinkers inspired by existentialism or hermeneutics, and like the ancient Chinese, Greeks, and many medieval European schoolmen, only—as Staal says—more so. Universals establishes that Asia's contributions are not only compatible with what has been produced in the West, but a necessary ingredient and an essential component of any future human science.
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Foundations of Logic and Linguistics

This volume comprises a selection of papers that were contributed to the 7th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, which was held in Salzburg from the 11th - 16th July, 1983.

Author: Georg Dorn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781489905482

Category: Philosophy

Page: 715

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This volume comprises a selection of papers that were contributed to the 7th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, which was held in Salzburg from the 11th - 16th July, 1983. There were 14 sections in this congress: 1. proof theory and foundations of mathematics 2. model theory and its applica ti on 3. recursion theory and theory of computation 4. axiomatic set theory 5. philosophical logic 6. general methodology of science 7. foundations of probability and induction 8. foundations and philosophy of the physical sciences 9. foundati ons and phi 1 osophy of biology 10. foundations and philosophy of psychology foundations and philosophy 11. of the social sciences 12. foundati ons and philosophy of linguistics 13. history of logic, methodology and philosophy of science 14. fundamental principles of the ethics of science In each section, three or four invited addresses were given, which will be published in the Congress Proceedings (Ruth Barcan Marcus, Georg J. W. Dorn and Paul Weingartner, eds. : Logic, Metho dology and Philosophy of Science VII. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of v PREFACE Science, Salzburg, 1983. - Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing 'Company, 1985. ) Every section with the exception of section 14 also contained contributed papers.
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Everything that Linguists Have Always Wanted to Know about Logic But Were Ashamed to Ask

McCawley supplements his earlier book—which covers such topics as presuppositional logic, the logic of mass terms and nonstandard quantifiers, and fuzzy logic—with new material on the logic of conditional sentences, linguistic ...

Author: James D. McCawley

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226556115

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 633

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McCawley supplements his earlier book—which covers such topics as presuppositional logic, the logic of mass terms and nonstandard quantifiers, and fuzzy logic—with new material on the logic of conditional sentences, linguistic applications of type theory, Anil Gupta's work on principles of identity, and the generalized quantifier approach to the logical properties of determiners.
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Handbook of Logic and Language

This Handbook documents the main trends in current research between logic and language, including its broader influence in computer science, linguistic theory and cognitive science.

Author: J. F. A. K. van Benthem

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444817143

Category: Electronic books

Page: 1247

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This Handbook documents the main trends in current research between logic and language, including its broader influence in computer science, linguistic theory and cognitive science. The history of the combined study of Logic and Linguistics goes back a long way, at least to the work of the scholastic philosophers in the Middle Ages. At the beginning of this century, the subject was revitalized through the pioneering efforts of Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and Polish philosophical logicians such as Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz. Around 1970, the landmark achievements of Richard Montague established a junction between state-of-the-art mathematical logic and generative linguistic theory. Over the subsequent decades, this enterprise of Montague Grammar has flourished and diversified into a number of research programs with empirical and theoretical substance. This appears to be the first Handbook to bring logic-language interface to the fore. Both aspects of the interaction between logic and language are demonstrated in the book i.e. firstly, how logical systems are designed and modified in response to linguistic needs and secondly, how mathematical theory arises in this process and how it affects subsequent linguistic theory. The Handbook presents concise, impartial accounts of the topics covered. Where possible, an author and a commentator have cooperated to ensure the proper breadth and technical content of the papers. The Handbook is self-contained, and individual articles are of the highest quality.
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Handbook of Logic and Language

This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective.

Author: Johan F.A.K. van Benthem

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444537279

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1168

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The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories
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Logic and Linguistics

The latter view had gradually become dominant , not just in science , but also in
logic and linguistics . But , empirical studies of linguistic temporal expressions
suggested that our temporal representation rather consists in an ordered
structure ...

Author: Helmut Schnelle

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0863771122

Category: Psychology

Page: 217

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The papers in this series of five volumes provide a snapshot of current trends in European Cognitive Science. Each of the volumes deals with problems in cognitive science from a different perspective, covering the interacting disciplines of cognitive psychology, logic and linguistics, human-computer interaction, neuroscience and artificial intelligence respectively. Linguistics is concerned with the structure and use of languages, and logic with the form and correctness of argumentation in ordinary and scientific language. The two fields are presented with respect to their role in cognitive science and artificial intelligence: How are they realised by psychological mechanisms or biological processes on the one hand or programmed or wired in machines on the other. The contributions in this volume give introductions to the state-of-the-art, emphasizing the analysis of complexity and flexibility in logic and language in the framework of classical approaches (Chapters 3, 4, 5, 7). At the same time some contributions present a broader perspective in which an integration of the formal structure with the structure of the processing systems might be possible (Chapters 2 & 6). In this context, the differences and the perspectives of the classical approaches on the one hand and of connectionist approaches on the other are compared. (Chapters 1 & 6).contributions present a broader perspective in which an integration of the formal structure with the structure of the processing systems might be possible (Chapters 2 & 6). In this context, the differences and the perspectives of the classical approaches on the one hand and of connectionist approaches on the other are compared. (Chapters 1 & 6).
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Semantics A View to Logic of Language

I see semantics as one branch of linguistics, which is the study of language: as an area of study parallel to, and interacting with, those syntax and phonology, which deal respectively with the formal patterns of language, and the way in ...

Author: Kisno

Publisher: LLC Publishing

ISBN: 9786029126358

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 198

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I see semantics as one branch of linguistics, which is the study of language: as an area of study parallel to, and interacting with, those syntax and phonology, which deal respectively with the formal patterns of language, and the way in which these are translated into sounds. While syntax and phonology study the structure of expressive possibilities in language, semantics study the meanings that can be expressed. It may convincingly be claimed that viewing semantics as a component discipline of linguistics is the most fruitful and exciting point of departure at the present time. The book of this kind cannot attempt an overall survey of the field of semantics or at least, if it does, it will end up as a superficial compendium of what others have thought about meaning. The only sensible course is to give evidence that linguistics does exist in our life and it is hypocritical not to acknowledge that linguistics is difficult to understand due to its scientificity. Semantics is a non-fiction science through its unique approach to find the meaning of language not by guessing or judging something subjectively. The strength of the integrated view is that it makes possible a transfer to semantics of techniques of analysis which have proved successful with other aspects of language. It has to be conceded that the primary appeal of semantics is an intellectual one, similar in some respects to that of mathematics or any pure science. Only after seeking understanding for understanding’s sake can one acquire the wisdom which consists in using that understanding for good ends.
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Puzzles in Logic Languages and Computation

This is the first volume of a unique collection that brings together the best English-language problems created for students competing in the Computational Linguistics Olympiad.

Author: Dragomir Radev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642343780

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 178

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This is the first volume of a unique collection that brings together the best English-language problems created for students competing in the Computational Linguistics Olympiad. These problems are representative of the diverse areas presented in the competition and designed with three principles in mind: · To challenge the student analytically, without requiring any explicit knowledge or experience in linguistics or computer science; · To expose the student to the different kinds of reasoning required when encountering a new phenomenon in a language, both as a theoretical topic and as an applied problem; · To foster the natural curiosity students have about the workings of their own language, as well as to introduce them to the beauty and structure of other languages; · To learn about the models and techniques used by computers to understand human language. Aside from being a fun intellectual challenge, the Olympiad mimics the skills used by researchers and scholars in the field of computational linguistics. In an increasingly global economy where businesses operate across borders and languages, having a strong pool of computational linguists is a competitive advantage, and an important component to both security and growth in the 21st century. This collection of problems is a wonderful general introduction to the field of linguistics through the analytic problem solving technique. "A fantastic collection of problems for anyone who is curious about how human language works! These books take serious scientific questions and present them in a fun, accessible way. Readers exercise their logical thinking capabilities while learning about a wide range of human languages, linguistic phenomena, and computational models. " - Kevin Knight, USC Information Sciences Institute
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Procedural Semantics for Hyperintensional Logic

This volume sets out the foundations of Transparent Intensional Logic, together with many applications to a wide range of topics including formal semantics, philosophy of language, and philosophical logic.

Author: Marie Duží

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048188121

Category: Philosophy

Page: 550

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The book is about logical analysis of natural language. Since we humans communicate by means of natural language, we need a tool that helps us to understand in a precise manner how the logical and formal mechanisms of natural language work. Moreover, in the age of computers, we need to communicate both with and through computers as well. Transparent Intensional Logic is a tool that is helpful in making our communication and reasoning smooth and precise. It deals with all kinds of linguistic context in a fully compositional and anti-contextual way.
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Logic and Lexicon

The book is an extended edition of a German monograph and is addressed to advanced students and researchers in theoretical and computational linguistics, logic, philosophy of language, and NL- oriented AI. Although it makes extensive use of ...

Author: Manfred Pinkal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 079233387X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 377

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Semantic underspecification is an essential and pervasive property of natural language. This monograph provides a comprehensive survey of the various phenomena in the field of ambiguity and vagueness. The book discusses the major theories of semantic indefiniteness, which have been proposed in linguistics, philosophy and computer science. It argues for a view of indefiniteness as the potential for further contextual specification, and proposes a unified logical treatment of indefiniteness on this basis. The inherent inconsistency of natural language induced by irreducible imprecision is investigated, and treated in terms of a dynamic extension of the proposed logic. The book is an extended edition of a German monograph and is addressed to advanced students and researchers in theoretical and computational linguistics, logic, philosophy of language, and NL- oriented AI. Although it makes extensive use of logical formalisms, it requires only some basic familiarity with standard predicate logic concepts since all technical terms are carefully explained.
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Intermediate Quantities

"Few", "many" and "most" express the most commonly referred to intermediate quantifiers, but this book argues that an infinite number can be understood through a deeper examination of the logical nature of all intermediate quantifiers.

Author: Philip Peterson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000114096

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

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This title was first published in 2000: Intermediate quantifiers express logical quantities which fall between Aristotle's two quantities of categorical propositions - universal and particular. "Few", "many" and "most" express the most commonly referred to intermediate quantifiers, but this book argues that an infinite number can be understood through a deeper examination of the logical nature of all intermediate quantifiers. Presenting and analyzing the logical and linguistic features of intermediate quantifiers, in a fashion typical of traditional logic, Philip L. Peterson presents an account integrating the logic and semantics of intermediate quantifiers with the two traditional quantities by traditional methods. Having introduced the basic idea of how to approach the task in the first chapter, with heavy emphasis on the linguistic meanings and ordinary uses of English intermediate quantifier expressions, Peterson then undertakes the task of completely integrating the three basic intermediate quantities into traditional logic in the following chapter.
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The Logic of Conventional Implicatures

This text revives the study of conventional implicatures in natural language semantics.

Author: Christopher Potts

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199273829

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 246

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This text revives the study of conventional implicatures in natural language semantics. The author uses the original concept defined by H. Paul Grice as a key into two areas of natural language - supplements (appositives, parentheticals) and expressives (honorifics, epithets).
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Logic Language and Meaning Volume 1

Although the two volumes of Logic, Language, and Meaning can be used independently of one another, together they provide a comprehensive overview of modern logic as it is used as a tool in the analysis of natural language.

Author: L. T. F. Gamut

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226280853

Category: Philosophy

Page: 296

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Although the two volumes of Logic, Language, and Meaning can be used independently of one another, together they provide a comprehensive overview of modern logic as it is used as a tool in the analysis of natural language. Both volumes provide exercises and their solutions. Volume 1, Introduction to Logic, begins with a historical overview and then offers a thorough introduction to standard propositional and first-order predicate logic. It provides both a syntactic and a semantic approach to inference and validity, and discusses their relationship. Although language and meaning receive special attention, this introduction is also accessible to those with a more general interest in logic. In addition, the volume contains a survey of such topics as definite descriptions, restricted quantification, second-order logic, and many-valued logic. The pragmatic approach to non-truthconditional and conventional implicatures are also discussed. Finally, the relation between logic and formal syntax is treated, and the notions of rewrite rule, automation, grammatical complexity, and language hierarchy are explained.
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Logic Language and Meaning Volume 2

Although the two volumes of Logic, Language, and Meaning can be used independently of one another, together they provide a comprehensive overview of modern logic as it is used as a tool in the analysis of natural language.

Author: L. T. F. Gamut

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226791708

Category: Philosophy

Page: 366

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Although the two volumes of Logic, Language, and Meaning can be used independently of one another, together they provide a comprehensive overview of modern logic as it is used as a tool in the analysis of natural language. Both volumes provide exercises and their solutions.
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Language Logic and Concepts

A wide-ranging collection of essays inspired by the memory of the cognitive psychologist John Macnamara.

Author: John Macnamara

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262600463

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 470

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A wide-ranging collection of essays inspired by the memory of the cognitive psychologist John Macnamara.
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Linguistics and the Formal Sciences

Informative and revealing, this book will be invaluable to all those working in formal linguistics, in particular those interested in its history and development.

Author: Marcus Tomalin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139450812

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page:

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The formal sciences, particularly mathematics, have had a profound influence on the development of linguistics. This insightful overview looks at techniques that were introduced in the fields of mathematics, logic and philosophy during the twentieth century, and explores their effect on the work of various linguists. In particular, it discusses the 'foundations crisis' that destabilised mathematics at the start of the twentieth century, the numerous related movements which sought to respond to this crisis, and how they influenced the development of syntactic theory in the 1950s. The book concludes by discussing the resulting major consequences for syntactic theory, and provides a detailed reassessment of Chomsky's early work at the advent of Generative Grammar. Informative and revealing, this book will be invaluable to all those working in formal linguistics, in particular those interested in its history and development.
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Mathematical Methods in Linguistics

Elementary set theory accustoms the students to mathematical abstraction, includes the standard constructions of relations, functions, and orderings, and leads to a discussion of the various orders of infinity.

Author: Barbara B.H. Partee

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400922136

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 666

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Elementary set theory accustoms the students to mathematical abstraction, includes the standard constructions of relations, functions, and orderings, and leads to a discussion of the various orders of infinity. The material on logic covers not only the standard statement logic and first-order predicate logic but includes an introduction to formal systems, axiomatization, and model theory. The section on algebra is presented with an emphasis on lattices as well as Boolean and Heyting algebras. Background for recent research in natural language semantics includes sections on lambda-abstraction and generalized quantifiers. Chapters on automata theory and formal languages contain a discussion of languages between context-free and context-sensitive and form the background for much current work in syntactic theory and computational linguistics. The many exercises not only reinforce basic skills but offer an entry to linguistic applications of mathematical concepts. For upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students in theoretical linguistics, computer-science students with interests in computational linguistics, logic programming and artificial intelligence, mathematicians and logicians with interests in linguistics and the semantics of natural language.
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