Mali Political Instability

Mali Political Instability.

Author: Daniel Roberts

Publisher:

ISBN: 171535916X

Category:

Page: 164

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Mali Political Instability. West African Sahara State. While Mali has long been considered as a relative 'no interest' zone by the international community (because of its apparent democratic normality and the absence of strategic resources), other African countries, such as Libya and Algeria, have made this country, and the northern regions in particular, central to their Sahel leadership strategies. The inability of the Malian government to assert its political and military presence in the northern areas has greatly facilitated those foreign interferences. Amadou Toumani Touré's voluntary relinquishment of state sovereignty in some northern areas exacerbated that sense of impunity. At the same time, fragmentation between northern communities has provided Mali's neighbours with the ideal levers to establish their presence and/or their leadership in the region. For security, political or economic reasons, other countries in the region have used this area for their own gains, and thereby directly contributed to local instability and national tensions between north and south
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Mali

Mali is facing its worst crisis since independence in 1960. The entire north of the country has been taken over by armed groups.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:793815936

Category: Child soldiers

Page: 30

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Mali is facing its worst crisis since independence in 1960. The entire north of the country has been taken over by armed groups. Tens of thousands of people have fled the region, creating a humanitarian crisis in southern Mali and in neighbouring countries. Moreover, a military coup in March 2012 has set back almost twenty years of peaceful political changes and has isolated the country internationally. The entire sub-region risks being destabilized by the triple effect of political instability, armed conflict in the north and the food crisis which affects all of the Sahel.
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Instability in Mali

Security in Mali has worsened in recent decades due to the escalation of the Tuareg insurgency, its connection to terrorist groups, and the military coup in 2012.

Author: Naval Postgraduate School

Publisher:

ISBN: 1694240142

Category:

Page: 128

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Security in Mali has worsened in recent decades due to the escalation of the Tuareg insurgency, its connection to terrorist groups, and the military coup in 2012. The crisis in the north of Mali, as the Tuareg insurgency is also known, began in the 1960s, after Mali independence from France. From 1962 to 2012, a series of rebellions occurred in the north of Mali. The 2012 rebellion was the most complex and lethal because it involved foreign combatants and resulted in the invasion of the northern regions by the coalition of Tuareg and terrorist groups following the rout of the Malian army. The crisis has not yet being solved despite the national and international responses, including the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) peacekeeping mission. This thesis seeks to formulate effective responses to the Malian crisis by examining the Tuareg rebellions and Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria as case studies. To formulate recommendations responding to the crisis, the thesis analyzes the involved groups and their funding and evaluates the effectiveness and inadequacy of local and international responses applied to the cases. It concludes that the mix of military, political, and economic responses to the crisis reinforced by good governance will produce effective results.
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Political Legitimacy in Postcolonial Mali

Meanwhile, after a period of political turmoil shaped by shifting power wrangles within the political elite in the capital Bamako, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita was elected the new president in Mali, under the watchful eyes of armed Western ...

Author: Dorothea E. Schulz

Publisher: Boydell & Brewer

ISBN: 9781847012685

Category: Political Science

Page: 258

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An innovative examination of our understanding of political legitimacy in Mali, and its wider implications for democratization and political modernity in the Global South.
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Mali Political Conflict

Mali Political Conflict.

Author: Isla Baines

Publisher:

ISBN: 1542669510

Category:

Page: 164

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Mali Political Conflict. Mali Crises, The history of Mali Civil War. A Book. Historical lack of understanding and mutual distrust between Bamako and its northern territory have played an important role in Malian instability for decades. By ignoring northern aspirations for economic development (especially social and economic infrastructure) or political representation (lack of governmental seats for instance), the Malian authorities have paved the way for violent contestation and separatist actions. The popular support among Tuareg and Arab populations for some rebel movements and armed groups, and the authority the rebel leaders have had over some northern populations, are good illustrations of the inequalities collectively experienced by the northern population. The subsequent rebellions in Mali have, in turn, aggravated the long-standing community distrust. The aftermath of the rebellions and the negotiations that led to 'peace agreements' also fostered tensions among northern communities, as some groups used those situations to advance their own interests. The ethnic divisions and lawlessness, due to the withdrawal of the Malian state, that characterised the aftermath of rebellions presented a window of opportunity for terrorist groups to settle in the north. Thriving on illicit trafficking and mixing with local populations, these groups managed to gradually gain influence before the 2012 crisis
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Output Based Aid in Mali Rural Electrification Hybrid System Project

Electrification can be a significant driver for improving livelihoods in rural communities.

Author: Weltbank

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1255459455

Category:

Page:

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Electrification can be a significant driver for improving livelihoods in rural communities. In rural Mali, where more than 80 percent of the country's population lives, the electrification rate is only 15 percent. Increasing access to electricity in rural Mali is crucial for economic development, social cohesion, and reconstruction following the country's recent period of conflict, political instability, and food insecurity. This note discusses an innovative output-based aid (OBA) project in rural Mali, the first such project in the energy sector to support development of mini-grids on a large scale. The project complements an innovative hybrid-system model supported by the International Development Association (IDA) and climate investment funds and scaling up renewable energy in low income countries program (SREP) to expand rural access to modern energy services and increase renewable generation.
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Mali Political Leadership and Democratic Governance

The commentary closes by recommending that the Malian government and its partners should prioritize addressing ... As political instability wracked the south, French forces intervened in January 2013 to halt Islamist advances into the ...

Author: Aiden Baker

Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc

ISBN: 9781365720161

Category: History

Page:

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Mali Political Leadership and Democratic Governance. A Book on Mali, A History. France’s long-term plan for Mali is remarkably short-sighted. The recent French military intervention in Mali focuses on “restoring democracy,” without any consideration for the political and economic problems that caused the government’s collapse. The cumbersome colonial era-borders, erected by the French, dividing north and south Mali were significant in causing the conflict. Furthermore, French is the second official language, and the majority is not fluent. Almost 70% of Malians are illiterate, which seriously inhibits the state’s democratic capacity. Mali’s economy is also insecure. Apart from gold mining, all production companies are foreign owned. This further inhibits the government’s ability to run the country because if several companies pull out, the state will lose the majority of its financing. It is hard to imagine a “recovery” for Mali without any attention to the major problems, which led to the destabilization.
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Conflict and Environmental Security in Somalia

Scientific Essay from the year 2016 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: A+, , course: Environmental Security, language: English, abstract: The contemporary era of international relations is ...

Author: Somaya Bahji

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783668342361

Category: Political Science

Page: 19

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Scientific Essay from the year 2016 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa, grade: A+, , course: Environmental Security, language: English, abstract: The contemporary era of international relations is characterised by increased political and economic interconnectedness and interdependence between states and non-state actors. Globalising and managing trade and commerce processes through institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank promoted global industry, big businesses, and multinational corporations that depend heavily and more than ever before on the exploitation of natural resources such as oil, gas, and minerals and compete over securing their fair share of power-generating resources whether they are hydel, thermal, or nuclear. In the developed world, overuse of natural resources coupled with the disposal of massive amounts of industrial wastes in dump sites can have long-lasting detrimental repercussions on human health as well as the natural environment. Whereas the industrialised countries of the Global North are attempting to find new ways of recycling industrial wastes and developing alternative sources of energy through the use of advanced technology, developing and underdeveloped countries in Africa such as Somalia, Mali, and Ethiopia struggle to maintain the few and scarce natural resource available to them for current as well as for the future generations. Inter or intra-state conflicts in such countries worsen the severity of environmental issues, chiefly droughts. Often, the scarcity of natural resources in these countries becomes an environmental issue with social, economic, and political dimensions, hence, threatening the stability of the state and acting as “Pandora’s Box” by causing crises of different kinds to emerge and impact populations locally and regionally. Somalia as an underdeveloped African country represents a quintessential example of how a correlative relationship between political instability and environmental issues can cause the entanglement of a state into a vortex of interrelated crises leading to more instability, both political and environmental.
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Mali

Mali: Select Financial Flows have fluctuated as a result of the (in USD millions) economic downturn in advanced countries and political instability in Mali, the increase in remittances inflows has been sustained.

Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 9781484399972

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 76

View: 117

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The security and political crisis in Mali caused a sharp recession along with tax and external financing shortfalls. There has been a sharp expenditure cut and increased recourse to domestic financing, but the accumulation of arrears is prevalent. The first disbursement under the Rapid Credit Facility (RCF) of special drawing rights (SDR) 12 million in February has catalyzed about $508 million of budget support thus far. Resumption of donor support brightens the path to economic recovery, but there remain important financing gaps. Strengthening public financial management is essential for sustained macroeconomic and fiscal stability.
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What is Next for Mali

In March 2012, the government of Mali, one of the most touted symbols of Africa's democratic potential, fell in a military-executed coup.

Author: Dona J. Stewart

Publisher:

ISBN: IND:30000139167187

Category: Insurgency

Page: 104

View: 424

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In March 2012, the government of Mali, one of the most touted symbols of Africa's democratic potential, fell in a military-executed coup. At the same time, a 4-decades old rebellion among Tuaregs seeking autonomy or independence reached new heights fueled by weapons from Libya and the belief that the Arab Spring could extend to northern Mali. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and their allies were quick to capitalize on the increasing chaos in a territory characterized by lack of government control and poverty and seized the major cities in the north. While French-led military intervention restored security to cities in the north, the underlying social, economic and political issues of the crisis remain.
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Black Africa

Black Africa is a complete and comprehensive handbook. The first edition of Black Africa won a Book of the Year Award from the American Library Association.

Author: Robert C. Mitchell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781349110230

Category: Social Science

Page: 718

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Black Africa presents political, economic and social data for 41 black African nations. The first edition was published in 1972 and included only data on 32 countries - which was the total number of independent African nations at that time. Enlarging on the first edition, this second edition covers in detail important aspects of the countries included, from demography to political development and social mobilization to a modern comparative analysis of African states. Black Africa is a complete and comprehensive handbook. The first edition of Black Africa won a Book of the Year Award from the American Library Association.
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Corporate Security Crossroads Responding to Terrorism Cyberthreats and Other Hazards in the Global Business Environment

Discussion turns next to nation-state-level factors at the time of the Tigantourine attack that contributed to political instability in Algeria and Mali. Those factors are often characterized by connections to other “nation-state” ...

Author: Richard J. Chasdi

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781440832864

Category: Computers

Page: 242

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Even though terrorism poses an increasing threat to multinational companies, corporate leaders can thwart attacks by learning to navigate the complexities of foreign governments, social unrest, and cultural dissonance. • Covers different operational environments • Offers strategies for minimizing risk, such as shortening supply chains and creating redundancies to mitigate cyberattacks or physical threats • Discusses the use of corporate intelligence about local conditions to create effective security measures and track future safety trends • Suggests that multinational corporations work together to achieve economies of scale in antiterrorism services and to establish partnerships with local governments
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The World Almanac of Islamism 2017

Overall, the government response to Islamist groups has focused heavily on security solutions and building policing ... 2012, http://www ecowas int/publications/en/statement/ mali21032012 pdf; “UN Condemns Political Instability in Mali ...

Author: American Foreign Policy Council

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442273450

Category: Political Science

Page: 1158

View: 468

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Now in its third edition, The World Almanac of Islamism is the first comprehensive reference work to detail the current activities of radical Islamist movements worldwide. The contributions, written by subject expert, provide up-to-date assessments on the contemporary Islamist threat in all countries and regions where it exists. Each country study will include valuable metrics for gauging the advance or decline of Islamism. In places where Islamists are not in power, these include year-on-year comparisons of the number of terrorist attacks that have taken place, the level of popular support being received by radical religious organizations and political parties, and applicable government responses to these trends, if any. In places where they are in power, metrics encompass relevant changes to domestic human rights practices and social conditions, foreign policy rhetoric and action, and the overall stability of the state.
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Requirements for Security Sector Reform Success Case Studies of U S Efforts in Kenya and Mali for SSR Kenya a Success Story But Mali Failed As a Politically and Economically Unstable State

This study will select two states in Sub-Saharan Africa and apply the variables identified in the literature review to determine their effect on SSR success.

Author: U. S. Military

Publisher:

ISBN: 1729040608

Category:

Page: 79

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This monograph determined that political and economic stability are required for Security Sector Reform (SSR) success over the long term. This monograph studied the efforts of the United States in Kenya and Mali to determine if political and economic stability are necessary requirements for SSR success over the long term. This study suggests that states with stable political and economic institutions will benefit from SSR over a longer duration. Kenya was a success case; the United States conducted SSR activities in a relatively stable state resulting in a state that positively affects local and regional security issues. Mali was a failed case; the United States executed SSR activities in a politically and economically unstable state. This instability resulted in a military coup in 2012 with Mali unable to affect security within its own territory or the region, effectively negating SSR efforts by the United States. This study did not determine a threshold for stability in any particular institution but recommends as a start point, a comparison of state institutions in the region to determine stability relative to the regional environment of the targeted state. This study recommends that operational and strategic planners measure political and economic stability prior to executing SSR activities to suggest the probability of SSR success. If SSR activities are required regardless, planners must take measures to ensure some level of stability in the state or risk failure in SSR.The United States has intervened in Africa at the state and regional level for decades to build the security capacity and capability of our partners, stabilize affected regions and secure United States national interests. More often than not, the United States struggles to build lasting security in regions affected by conflict, poor governance, and weak economic systems. A recent example is Mali, where a significant effort to conduct Security Sector Reform (SSR) was undertaken for over a decade to improve security and stability in Mali and the surrounding area. Despite these efforts, the security situation deteriorated in 2012 resulting in a coup and intervention by French forces in 2013. Although the casual observer might believe that Mali failed as a directed result of a weak security apparatus, poor governance contributed to the coup and subsequent intervention by the French government.This study will use the qualitative case study analysis methodology to identify the different outcomes in the case studies. This study will select two states in Sub-Saharan Africa and apply the variables identified in the literature review to determine their effect on SSR success. These case studies will review the political and economic environments of the selected state, United States efforts to improve political and economic stability, and United States SSR efforts in the selected state. The analysis will determine if political and economic stability are present in the selected state and demonstrate a correlation between political and economic stability and SSR success. The analysis section will contrast outcomes in each case study to determine if political and economic stability are required for SSR success. The last section of this monograph will conclude the results and provide recommendations for strategic and operational planners.
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West African Economic and Monetary Union Common Policies of Member Countries Staff Report Press Release and Statement by the Executive Director

KEY ISSUES Context.

Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Publisher:

ISBN: 1484325958

Category: Africa, West

Page: 81

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KEY ISSUES Context. The region continued to experience strong growth in 2014, led by the continued economic expansion in Cote d'Ivoire. The outlook is for further strong growth, subject to a range of downward risks, in particular political instability ahead of upcoming elections in several countries, and security issues in Mali and Niger. With an elevated fiscal deficit exerting pressure on the balance of payments and the regional financial market, delays in fiscal consolidation or structural reforms pose the main medium-term risks. Policy recommendations: Fiscal consolidation. Safeguarding e.
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The World Almanac of Islamism

[1] Adam Nossiter, “Soldiers Overthrow Mali Government in Setback for Democracy in Africa,” New York Times, ... 2012, http://www.ecowas.int/publications/ en/statement/mali21032012.pdf; “UN Condemns Political Instability in Mali After ...

Author: American Foreign Policy Council

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442231443

Category: Political Science

Page: 1087

View: 488

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The World Almanac of Islamism is the first comprehensive reference work to detail the current activities of radical Islamist movements worldwide. The contributions, written by subject experts, provide annual updates on the contemporary Islamist threat in all countries and regions where it exists.
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Beyond Timbuktu

The political instability in Mali contributed to delay an intervention from outside. On May 21, 2012, an angry crowd, ... Negotiations between the Malian government and African regional bodies such as ECOWAS were making little progress.

Author: Ousmane Kane

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674050822

Category: History

Page: 282

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Timbuktu is famous as a center of learning from Islam’s Golden Age. Yet it was one among many scholarly centers to exist in precolonial West Africa. Ousmane Kane charts the rise of Muslim learning in West Africa from the beginning of Islam to the present day and corrects lingering misconceptions about Africa’s Muslim heritage and its influence.
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Development Centre Studies Conflict and Growth in Africa The Sahel Volume 1

Political. Instability. and. Economic. Stagnation. Niger shares many of the natural handicaps of Burkina Faso and Mali, as well as the same colonial history, and it remains linked to them and to the other francophone countries through ...

Author: Azam Jean-Paul

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9789264173552

Category:

Page: 184

View: 619

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This is a book about conflict. It identifies aggravating economic factors in conflict, proceeds to an appreciation of its economic cost, and then proposes economic policy changes which would tend towards reducing the potential for conflict in the Sahel.
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The World Almanac of Islamism 2019

... 2012, http://www.ecowas. int/publications/en/statement/mali21032012.pdf; “UN Condemns Political Instability in Mali ... NewsID=41604&Cr=Tuareg&Cr1; Corey Flintoff, “Mali's Coup: Echoes of a Turbulent Past,” National Public Radio, ...

Author: American Foreign Policy Council

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781538130544

Category: Political Science

Page: 1586

View: 102

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Now in its fourth edition, The World Almanac of Islamism is the first comprehensive reference work to detail the current activities of radical Islamist movements worldwide. The contributions, written by subject expert, provide up-to-date assessments on the contemporary Islamist threat in all countries and regions where it exists.
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