Materials Science of Thin Films

Deposition and Structure
Author: Milton Ohring
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0125249756
Category: Science
Page: 794
View: 7191
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This is the first book that can be considered a textbook on thin film science, complete with exercises at the end of each chapter. Ohring has contributed many highly regarded reference books to the AP list, including Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and the Engineering Science of Thin Films. The knowledge base is intended for science and engineering students in advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate level courses on thin films and scientists and engineers who are entering or require an overview of the field. Since 1992, when the book was first published, the field of thin films has expanded tremendously, especially with regard to technological applications. The second edition will bring the book up-to-date with regard to these advances. Most chapters have been greatly updated, and several new chapters have been added.

Engineering Materials Science


Author: Milton Ohring
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780125249959
Category: Materials.
Page: 827
View: 343
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Milton Ohring's Engineering Materials Science integrates the scientific nature and modern applications of all classes of engineering materials. This comprehensive, introductory textbook will provide undergraduate engineering students with the fundamental background needed to understand the science of structure–property relationships, as well as address the engineering concerns of materials selection in design, processing materials into useful products, andhow material degrade and fail in service. Specific topics include: physical and electronic structure; thermodynamics and kinetics; processing; mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties; degradation; and failure and reliability. The book offers superior coverage of electrical, optical, and magnetic materials than competing text.The author has taught introductory courses in material science and engineering both in academia and industry (AT&T Bell Laboratories) and has also written the well-received book, The Material Science of Thin Films (Academic Press).

Thin Film Materials

Stress, Defect Formation and Surface Evolution
Author: L. B. Freund,S. Suresh
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139449823
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 750
View: 8694
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Thin film mechanical behavior and stress presents a technological challenge for materials scientists, physicists and engineers. This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the major issues and topics dealing with stress, defect formation, surface evolution and allied effects in thin film materials. Physical phenomena are examined from the continuum down to the sub-microscopic length scales, with the connections between the structure of the material and its behavior described. Theoretical concepts are underpinned by discussions on experimental methodology and observations. Fundamental scientific concepts are embedded through sample calculations, a broad range of case studies with practical applications, thorough referencing, and end of chapter problems. With solutions to problems available on-line, this book will be essential for graduate courses on thin films and the classic reference for researchers in the field.

Thin Film Materials Technology

Sputtering of Compound Materials
Author: Kiyotaka Wasa,Makoto Kitabatake,Hideaki Adachi
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0815519311
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 532
View: 930
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An invaluable resource for industrial science and engineering newcomers to sputter deposition technology in thin film production applications, this book is rich in coverage of both historical developments and the newest experimental and technological information about ceramic thin films, a key technology for nano-materials in high-speed information applications and large-area functional coating such as automotive or decorative painting of plastic parts, among other topics. In seven concise chapters, the book thoroughly reviews basic thin film technology and deposition processes, sputtering processes, structural control of compound thin films, and microfabrication by sputtering.

Materials Science in Microelectronics I

The Relationships Between Thin Film Processing and Structure
Author: Eugene Machlin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080459608
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 270
View: 7432
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Thin films play a key role in the material science of microelectronics, and the subject matter of thin-films divides naturally into two headings: processing / structure relationship, and structure / properties relationship. The first volume of Materials Science in Microelectronics focuses on the first relationship – that between processing and the structure of the thin-film. The state of the thin film’s surface during the period that one monolayer exists - before being buried in the next layer – determines the ultimate structure of the thin film, and thus its properties. This volume takes into consideration the following potential influencing factors: crystal defects, void structure, grain structure, interface structure in epitaxial films, the structure of amorphous films, and reaction-induced structure. An ideal text or reference work for students and researchers in material science, who need to learn the basics of thin films.

Thin Film Analysis by X-Ray Scattering


Author: Mario Birkholz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527607048
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 378
View: 4972
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With contributions by Paul F. Fewster and Christoph Genzel While X-ray diffraction investigation of powders and polycrystalline matter was at the forefront of materials science in the 1960s and 70s, high-tech applications at the beginning of the 21st century are driven by the materials science of thin films. Very much an interdisciplinary field, chemists, biochemists, materials scientists, physicists and engineers all have a common interest in thin films and their manifold uses and applications. Grain size, porosity, density, preferred orientation and other properties are important to know: whether thin films fulfill their intended function depends crucially on their structure and morphology once a chemical composition has been chosen. Although their backgrounds differ greatly, all the involved specialists a profound understanding of how structural properties may be determined in order to perform their respective tasks in search of new and modern materials, coatings and functions. The author undertakes this in-depth introduction to the field of thin film X-ray characterization in a clear and precise manner.

Micro- and Opto-Electronic Materials and Structures: Physics, Mechanics, Design, Reliability, Packaging

Volume I Materials Physics - Materials Mechanics. Volume II Physical Design - Reliability and Packaging
Author: Ephraim Suhir,Y.C. Lee,C.P. Wong
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387329897
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 1460
View: 7983
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This handbook provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date and easy-to-apply information on the physics, mechanics, reliability and packaging of micro- and opto-electronic materials. It details their assemblies, structures and systems, and each chapter contains a summary of the state-of-the-art in a particular field. The book provides practical recommendations on how to apply current knowledge and technology to design and manufacture. It further describes how to operate a viable, reliable and cost-effective electronic component or photonic device, and how to make such a device into a successful commercial product.

Ceramic Materials

Science and Engineering
Author: C. Barry Carter,M. Grant Norton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387462716
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 716
View: 8911
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Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering is an up-to-date treatment of ceramic science, engineering, and applications in a single, integrated text. Building on a foundation of crystal structures, phase equilibria, defects and the mechanical properties of ceramic materials, students are shown how these materials are processed for a broad diversity of applications in today's society. Concepts such as how and why ions move, how ceramics interact with light and magnetic fields, and how they respond to temperature changes are discussed in the context of their applications. References to the art and history of ceramics are included throughout the text. The text concludes with discussions of ceramics in biology and medicine, ceramics as gemstones and the role of ceramics in the interplay between industry and the environment. Extensively illustrated, the text also includes questions for the student and recommendations for additional reading. KEY FEATURES: Combines the treatment of bioceramics, furnaces, glass, optics, pores, gemstones, and point defects in a single text Provides abundant examples and illustrations relating theory to practical applications Suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate teaching and as a reference for researchers in materials science Written by established and successful teachers and authors with experience in both research and industry

Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization

Surfaces, Interfaces, Thin Films
Author: C. R. Brundle,Charles A. Evans,Shaun Wilson
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9780750691680
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 751
View: 1866
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Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization is a comprehensive volume on analytical techniques used in materials science for the characterization of surfaces, interfaces and thin films. This flagship volume in the Materials Characterization Series is a unique, stand-alone reference for materials science practitioners, process engineers, students and anyone with a need to know about the capabilities available in materials analysis. An encyclopedia of 50 concise articles, this book will also be a practical companion to the forthcoming books in the Series. It describes widely-ranging techniques in a jargon-free manner and includes summary pages for each technique to supply a quick survey of its capabilities.

Handbook of Thin Film Deposition Processes and Techniques


Author: Krishna Seshan
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0815517785
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 430
View: 2050
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New second edition of the popular book on deposition (first edition by Klaus Schruegraf) for engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries. This book traces the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years. This growth has been fueled in large part by improved thin film deposition techniques and the development of highly specialized equipment to enable this deposition. The book includes much cutting-edge material. Entirely new chapters on contamination and contamination control describe the basics and the issues—as feature sizes shrink to sub-micron dimensions, cleanliness and particle elimination has to keep pace. A new chapter on metrology explains the growth of sophisticated, automatic tools capable of measuring thickness and spacing of sub-micron dimensions. The book also covers PVD, laser and e-beam assisted deposition, MBE, and ion beam methods to bring together all the physical vapor deposition techniques. Two entirely new areas receive full treatment: chemical mechanical polishing which helps attain the flatness that is required by modern lithography methods, and new materials used for interconnect dielectric materials, specifically organic polyimide materials.

The Materials Science of Semiconductors


Author: Angus Rockett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387686509
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 622
View: 7989
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This book describes semiconductors from a materials science perspective rather than from condensed matter physics or electrical engineering viewpoints. It includes discussion of current approaches to organic materials for electronic devices. It further describes the fundamental aspects of thin film nucleation and growth, and the most common physical and chemical vapor deposition techniques. Examples of the application of the concepts in each chapter to specific problems or situations are included, along with recommended readings and homework problems.

Principles of Vapor Deposition of Thin Films


Author: Professor K.S. K.S Sree Harsha
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080480312
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 1176
View: 503
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The goal of producing devices that are smaller, faster, more functional, reproducible, reliable and economical has given thin film processing a unique role in technology. Principles of Vapor Deposition of Thin Films brings in to one place a diverse amount of scientific background that is considered essential to become knowledgeable in thin film depostition techniques. Its ultimate goal as a reference is to provide the foundation upon which thin film science and technological innovation are possible. * Offers detailed derivation of important formulae. * Thoroughly covers the basic principles of materials science that are important to any thin film preparation. * Careful attention to terminologies, concepts and definitions, as well as abundance of illustrations offer clear support for the text.

Characterisation of Ferroelectric Bulk Materials and Thin Films


Author: Markys G. Cain
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 140209311X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 280
View: 6722
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This book presents a comprehensive review of the most important methods used in the characterisation of piezoelectric, ferroelectric and pyroelectric materials. It covers techniques for the analysis of bulk materials and thick and thin film materials and devices. There is a growing demand by industry to adapt and integrate piezoelectric materials into ever smaller devices and structures. Such applications development requires the joint development of reliable, robust, accurate and – most importantly – relevant and applicable measurement and characterisation methods and models. In the past few years there has been a rapid development of new techniques to model and measure the variety of properties that are deemed important for applications development engineers and scientists. The book has been written by the leaders in the field and many chapters represent established measurement best practice, with a strong emphasis on application of the methods via worked examples and detailed experimental procedural descriptions. Each chapter contains numerous diagrams, images, and measurement data, all of which are fully referenced and indexed. The book is intended to occupy space in the research or technical lab, and will be a valuable and practical resource for students, materials scientists, engineers, and lab technicians.

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices


Author: Jaydeep Sarkar
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0815519877
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 608
View: 3116
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An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall productivity of various processes. Two unique chapters of this book deal with productivity and troubleshooting issues. The content of the book has been divided into two sections: (a) the first section (Chapter 1 to Chapter 3) has been prepared for the readers from a range of disciplines (e.g. electrical, chemical, chemistry, physics) trying to get an insight into use of sputtered films in various devices (e.g. semiconductor, display, photovoltaic, data storage), basic of sputtering and performance of sputtering target in relation to productivity, and (b) the second section (Chapter 4 to Chapter 8) has been prepared for readers who already have background knowledge of sputter deposition of thin films, materials science principles and interested in the details of sputtering target manufacturing methods, sputtering behavior and thin film properties specific to semiconductor, liquid crystal display, photovoltaic and magnetic data storage applications. In Chapters 5 to 8, a general structure has been used, i.e. a description of the applications of sputtered thin films, sputtering target manufacturing methods (including flow charts), sputtering behavior of targets (e.g. current - voltage relationship, deposition rate) and thin film properties (e.g. microstructure, stresses, electrical properties, in-film particles). While discussing these topics, attempts have been made to include examples from the actual commercial processes to highlight the increased complexity of the commercial processes with the growth of advanced technologies. In addition to personnel working in industry setting, university researchers with advanced knowledge of sputtering would also find discussion of such topics (e.g. attributes of target design, chamber design, target microstructure, sputter surface characteristics, various troubleshooting issues) useful. . Unique coverage of sputtering target manufacturing methods in the light of semiconductor, displays, data storage and photovoltaic industry requirements Practical information on technology trends, role of sputtering and major OEMs Discussion on properties of a wide variety of thin films which include silicides, conductors, diffusion barriers, transparent conducting oxides, magnetic films etc. Practical case-studies on target performance and troubleshooting Essential technological information for students, engineers and scientists working in the semiconductor, display, data storage and photovoltaic industry

X-Ray Scattering from Soft-Matter Thin Films

Materials Science and Basic Research
Author: Metin Tolan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783540651826
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 198
View: 6565
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The properties of soft-matter thin films (e.g. liquid films, polymer coatings, Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers) nowadays play an important role in materials science. They are also very exciting with respect to fundamental questions: In thin films, liquids and polymers may be considered as trapped in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry. This confined geometry is expected to alter the properties and structures of these materials considerably. This volume is dedicated to the scattering of x-rays by soft-matter interfaces. X-ray scattering under grazing angles is the only tool to investigating these materials on atomic and mesoscopic length scales. A review of the field is presented with many examples.

Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering


Author: Yip-Wah Chung
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420009052
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 304
View: 7016
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Our civilization owes its most significant milestones to our use of materials. Metals gave us better agriculture and eventually the industrial revolution, silicon gave us the digital revolution, and we’re just beginning to see what carbon nanotubes will give us. Taking a fresh, interdisciplinary look at the field, Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering emphasizes the importance of materials to engineering applications and builds the basis needed to select, modify, or create materials to meet specific criteria. The most outstanding feature of this text is the author’s unique and engaging application-oriented approach. Beginning each chapter with a real-life example, an experiment, or several interesting facts, Yip-Wah Chung wields an expertly crafted treatment with which he entertains and motivates as much as he informs and educates. He links the discipline to the life sciences and includes modern developments such as nanomaterials, polymers, and thin films while working systematically from atomic bonding and analytical methods to crystalline, electronic, mechanical, and magnetic properties as well as ceramics, corrosion, and phase diagrams. Woven among the interesting examples, stories, and Chinese folk tales is a rigorous yet approachable mathematical and theoretical treatise. This makes Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering an effective tool for anyone needing a strong background in materials science for a broad variety of applications.

Surface Properties and Engineering of Complex Intermetallics


Author: Esther Belin-Ferré
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814304778
Category: Alloys
Page: 408
View: 5733
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This book, the third in a series of four publications issued annually as a deliverable of the research school established within the European Network of Excellence CMA (for Complex Metallic Alloys), is written by reputed experts in the fields of surface physics and chemistry, metallurgy and process engineering. It combines expertise found inside as well as outside the network. The CMA network focuses on the huge group of largely unknown multinary alloys and compounds formed with crystal structures based on giant unit cells containing clusters, with many tens or up to thousands of atoms per unit cell. In these phases, for many phenomena, the physical length scales are substantially smaller than the unit-cell dimension. Hence, these materials offer unique combinations of properties which are mutually excluded in conventional materials: metallic electric conductivity combined with low thermal conductivity, combination of good light absorption with high-temperature stability, combination of high metallic hardness with reduced wetting by liquids, electrical and thermal resistance tuneable by composition variation, excellent resistance to corrosion, reduced cold-welding and adhesion, enhanced hydrogen storage capacity and light absorption. This book series will concentrate on the: development of fundamental knowledge with the aim of understanding materials phenomena, technologies associated with the production, transformation and processing of knowledge-based multifunctional materials, surface engineering, support for new materials development and new knowledge-based higher performance materials for macro-scale applications.

An Introduction to Physics and Technology of Thin Films


Author: Alfred Wagendristel,Youming Wang
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810216160
Category: Science
Page: 147
View: 1454
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Based on lecture notes that have been used successfully by the authors for the past 10 years, with revisions made each year, this book is aimed at graduate students as well as professionals and researchers involved in thin film physics and technology. It is concise, comprehensive and well organized. The first part of the book introduces the concept, describes the various deposition procedures and illustrates PVD methods, evaporation and sputtering. The basic physical processes of film formation are then analyzed and formulated, including methods for monitoring and measuring film thickness. This book also shows how the subject matter connects with, relates and applies to other fields. In the second part of the book, 3 special topics ? ferromagnetic films, diffusion in thin films and mechanical properties of thin films ? are discussed.Given its wide scope, this book is relevant not just to those involved in materials science but also to engineers as well.

Physics and Materials Science of Vortex States, Flux Pinning and Dynamics


Author: R. Kossowsky,Shyamalendu Bose,Vladimir Pan,Zafer Durusoy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792356639
Category: Science
Page: 771
View: 1947
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Kusadasi, Turkey, July 26-August 8, 1998

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells


Author: Kentaro Ito
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118437853
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 440
View: 2543
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Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS-based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS-based solar cells have the potential to be used for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.