Measuring Native Speaker Vocabulary Size

This book reviews over one hundred years of research, critically examining the methodological issues and findings at each age level from young children to adults, and suggesting solutions.

Author: I.S.P. Nation

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789027260291

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 160

View: 743

Download →

Estimating native-speaker vocabulary size is important for guiding interventions to support native-speaker vocabulary growth and for setting goals for learners of English as a foreign language. Unfortunately, the measurement of native-speaker vocabulary size has been one of the most methodologically contentious areas of research in applied linguistics, with estimates of adults’ vocabulary size ranging from 12,000 words to well over 200,000 words. This book reviews over one hundred years of research, critically examining the methodological issues and findings at each age level from young children to adults, and suggesting solutions. It presents a model organising the factors involved in vocabulary growth and is rich in well-researched suggestions for supporting native-speaker vocabulary learning. It concludes with topics for further research. The research shows that we now have a more stable and coherent picture of what and how much vocabulary native-speakers know, and how this knowledge grows throughout their lives.
Posted in:

The Intricate Relationship Between Measures of Vocabulary Size and Lexical Diversity as Evidenced in Non native and Native Speaker Academic Compositions

The lexical diversity of the sample essays is quantified by both the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD) and the voc-D while vocabulary size is measured by CELEX word frequency means, three instruments that are available in the ...

Author: Melanie C. González

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:862945079

Category:

Page: 161

View: 237

Download →

The present study, a quantitative lexical analysis, examines the extent to which vocabulary size and lexical diversity contribute to writing scores on advanced non-native speakers' and native speakers' academic compositions. The data consists of essays composed by 104 adult non-native English learners enrolled in advanced second language writing courses and 68 native speaking university students in a first-year composition course. The lexical diversity of the sample essays is quantified by both the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD) and the voc-D while vocabulary size is measured by CELEX word frequency means, three instruments that are available in the computational linguistics program Coh-Metrix 3.0. Writing scores are provided by three independent raters' evaluations according to the TOEFL iBT Independent Writing Rubric. Results from a binary logistic regression reveal that lexical diversity has a significantly greater impact on writing score than vocabulary size (p [less than] .01). Nevertheless, a series of MANOVAs indicate that vocabulary size initially facilitates writing scores at the lower proficiency levels, but it is an essay's lexical diversity that promotes it to the higher score levels. Additional findings from the MANOVAs demonstrate that native speakers' profiles of lexical diversity and size are significantly different from their non-native peers (p [less than] .001). The lexical profiles also differed significantly among the individual score levels of the TOEFL iBT rubric (p [less than] .05). A final outcome from a Pearson's product moment correlation analysis shows that vocabulary size has only a moderate relationship to lexical diversity, suggesting that variation of mid-range vocabulary may be more important to writing proficiency than the use of more sophisticated terms that occur less frequently in natural language. Implications for practice suggest that it is not enough to simply teach vocabulary words in the L2 composition classroom, but also to guide learners in how to employ these words in a varied manner within their writing. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that teachers should spend more time on helping students use medium frequency words along with synonyms of a similar frequency rather than teaching students infrequent vocabulary, which may appear to sound more advanced.
Posted in:

Learning Vocabulary in Another Language Google eBook

Table 13.2 Estimated vocabulary size of children at three grade levels for root words and psychologically basic words ... Let us look first at studies that did not attempt to measure native speakers' vocabulary size but looked at how ...

Author: I. S. P. Nation

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107549005

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 638

View: 925

Download →

An updated edition of the key reference work in the area of second and foreign language vocabulary studies. This book provides a detailed survey of research and theory on the teaching and learning of vocabulary with the aim of providing pedagogical suggestions for both teachers and learners. It contains descriptions of numerous vocabulary learning strategies which are justified and supported by reference to experimental research, case studies, and teaching experience. It also describes what vocabulary learners need to know to be effective language users. This title shows that by taking a systematic approach to vocabulary learning, teachers can make the best use of class time and help learners get the best return for their learning effort.
Posted in:

Dimensions of Vocabulary Knowledge

Dimensions of Vocabulary Knowledge: · offers a comprehensive investigation of the dimensions that constitute the word knowledge framework and identifies links between them · synthesizes research on individual aspects of word knowledge · ...

Author: James Milton

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 9781137368317

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 224

View: 247

Download →

Written for students of applied linguistics, this textbook is an indispensable introduction to the area of vocabulary knowledge. By linking the latest research to an overview of how the field is developing, the authors explore how learners handle what they know in second and foreign language vocabulary, and how they activate this information. Dimensions of Vocabulary Knowledge: · offers a comprehensive investigation of the dimensions that constitute the word knowledge framework and identifies links between them · synthesizes research on individual aspects of word knowledge · presents new empirical research findings and considers the pedagogical implications of these · provides questions for further classroom discussion
Posted in:

Learning Vocabulary in Another Language

Vocabulary is now well recognized as an important focus in language teaching and learning. Now in its third edition, this book provides an engaging, authoritative guide to the teaching and learning of vocabulary in another language.

Author: I. S. P. Nation

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1009098357

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 640

View: 146

Download →

Vocabulary is now well recognized as an important focus in language teaching and learning. Now in its third edition, this book provides an engaging, authoritative guide to the teaching and learning of vocabulary in another language. It contains descriptions of numerous vocabulary learning strategies, which are supported by reference to experimental research, case studies, and teaching experience. It also describes what vocabulary learners need to know to be effective language users. This new edition has been updated to incorporate the wealth of research that has come out of the past decade. It also includes a new chapter on out of-classroom learning, which explores the effect of the Internet and electronic resources on learning. This vital resource for all vocabulary researchers shows that by taking a systematic approach to vocabulary learning, teachers can make the best use of class time and help learners get the best return for their learning effort.
Posted in:

Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning

This chapter deals with this second kind of test and looks at the design and limitations of such tests for both native speakers and non-native speakers of English. Why Measure Vocabulary Size? The size of a person's vocabulary (how many ...

Author: Eli Hinkel

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781317508366

Category: Education

Page: 514

View: 626

Download →

Volume III of the Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, like Volumes I and II, is a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of current research into social contexts of second language (L2)/foreign language (FL) teaching and learning; language policy; curriculum; types of instruction; incremental language skills such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, vocabulary, and grammar; international communication; pragmatics; assessment and testing. It differs from earlier volumes in its main purpose—to provide a more in-depth discussion and detailed focus on the development of the essential language skills required for any type of communication: speaking, listening, reading, vocabulary, grammar, and writing. Volume III preserves continuity with previous volumes in its coverage of all the classical areas of research in L2/FL teaching and learning and applied linguistics, but rather than offering a historical review of disciplinary traditions, it explores innovations and new directions of research, acknowledges the enormous complexity of teaching and learning the essential language abilities, and offers a diversity of perspectives. Chapter authors are all leading authorities in their disciplinary areas. What’s new in Volume III? Updates the prominent areas of research, including the sub-disciplines addressed in Volumes I and II, and represents the disciplinary mainstays Considers and discusses perspectives held by different schools of thought on the what, the how, and the why of teaching foundational language skills, including theories, pedagogical principles, and their implementation in practice Captures new and ongoing developments and trends in the key areas of L2/FL teaching and learning, and innovative research topics that have gained substantial recognition in current publications, including the role of corpora, technology, and digital literacy in L2/FL teaching and learning Examines new trends in language pedagogy and research, such as an increased societal emphasis on teaching academic language for schooling, somewhat contradictory definitions of literacy, and the growing needs for instruction in intercultural communication.
Posted in:

Word Formation

In order to answer the latter question, we have to measure a speaker's vocabulary size. A reliable measure of native speakers's vocabulary size would give researchers a tertium comparationis, while for learners, vocabulary size can be ...

Author: Peter O. Müller

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110423617

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 838

View: 607

Download →

This handbook comprises an in-depth presentation of the state of the art in word-formation. The five volumes contain 207 articles written by leading international scholars. The XVI chapters of the handbook provide the reader, in both general articles and individual studies, with a wide variety of perspectives: word-formation as a linguistic discipline (history of science, theoretical concepts), units and processes in word-formation, rules and restrictions, semantics and pragmatics, foreign word-formation, language planning and purism, historical word-formation, word-formation in language acquisition and aphasia, word-formation and language use, tools in word-formation research. The final chapter comprises 74 portraits of word-formation in the individual languages of Europe and offers an innovative perspective. These portraits afford the first overview of this kind and will prove useful for future typological research. This handbook will provide an essential reference for both advanced students and researchers in word-formation and related fields within linguistics.
Posted in:

Materials Development in Language Teaching

How many words do native speakers know? For over 100 years there have been published reports of systematic attempts to measure the vocabulary size of native speakers of English. There have been various motivations for such studies, ...

Author: Brian Tomlinson

Publisher: Ernst Klett Sprachen

ISBN: 9783125331204

Category: Langage et langues - Étude et enseignement

Page: 368

View: 854

Download →

This book engages with current issues in developing materials for language teaching.
Posted in:

Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

One of the advantages of examining vocabulary learning in a second language is that, superficially at least, ... My undergraduate students, for example, having read that native speakers of English know something like 200,000 words ...

Author: James Milton

Publisher: Multilingual Matters

ISBN: 9781847692078

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 278

View: 814

Download →

Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition describes the effect that word frequency and lexical coverage have on learning and communication in a foreign language. It examines the tools we have for assessing the various facets of vocabulary knowledge, the scores these produce, and the way these are tied to exam and communicative performance.
Posted in:

Connected Words

Validity study 1: Native speaker norms The study described in the previous chapter indicated that subjects perform in a ... although they disagree as to the actual vocabulary size of a native speaker, researchers agree that the native ...

Author: Paul Meara

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027289070

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 174

View: 284

Download →

What words come into your head when you think of SUN? For native English speakers, the most common responses are MOON, SHINE and HOT, and about half of all native speaker responses to SUN are covered by these three words. L2 English speakers are much less obliging, and produce patterns of association that are markedly different from those produced by native speakers. Why? What does this tell us about the way L2 speakers' vocabularies grow and develop? This volume provides a user-friendly introduction to a research technique which has the potential to answer some long-standing puzzles about L2 vocabulary. The method is easy to use, even for inexperienced researchers, but it produces immensely rich data, which can be analysed on many different levels. The book explores how word association data can be used to probe the development of vocabulary depth, productive vocabulary skills and lexical organisation in L2 speakers.
Posted in: