During the mid-forties bacteria and phages were dis covered to be suitable objects for the study of genet ics. Genetic phenomena such as mutation and recombina tion, which had already been known in eukaryotes for a long time, were now shown to exist in bacteria and phages as well. New phenomena as lysogeny and trans duction were discovered, which gained great importance beyond the field of microbial genetics. Bacteria and phages are of small size, multiply rapid ly, and have chemically defined growth requirements. Many selective procedures can be applied to screen for rarely occurring mut.
... b) If a result is not clear, record the subjective estimation nevertheless, but be
careful in the formulation (e.g., "It appears that..."). ... Discussion of the Results a)
Does the experiment answer the basic problem or part of it? ... If the data of one
experiment appear to be important, immediately repeat the experiment. d) Quote
publications dealing with related experimental questions, techniques or results ...
Author: U. Winkler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In the 1960's and 1970's, personality and mental illness were conceptualized in an intertwined psychodynamic model. Biological psychiatry for many un-weaved that model and took mental illness for psychiatry and left personality to psychology. This book brings personality back into biological psychiatry, not merely in the form of personality disorder but as part of a new intertwined molecular genetic model of personality and mental disorder. This is the beginning of a new conceptual paradigm!! This breakthrough volume marks the beginning of a new era, an era made possible by the electrifying pace of discovery and innovation in the field of molecular genetics. In fact, several types of genome maps have already been completed, and today's experts confidently predict that we will have a smooth version of the sequencing of the human genome -- which contains some 3 billion base pairs Such astounding progress helped fuel the development of this remarkable volume, the first ever to discuss the brand-new -- and often controversial -- field of molecular genetics and the human personality. Questioning, critical, and strong on methodological principles, this volume reflects the point of view of its 35 distinguished contributors -- all pioneers in this burgeoning field and themselves world-class theoreticians, empiricists, clinicians, developmentalists, and statisticians. For students of psychopathology and others bold enough to hold in abeyance their understandable misgivings about the conjunction of "molecular genetics" and "human personality," this work offers an authoritative and up-to-date introduction to the molecular genetics of human personality. The book, with its wealth of facts, conjectures, hopes, and misgivings, begins with a preface by world-renowned researcher and author Irving Gottesman. The authors masterfully guide us through Chapter 1, principles and methods; Chapter 4, animal models for personality; and Chapter 11, human intelligence as a model for personality, laying the groundwork for our appreciation of the remaining empirical findings of human personality qua personality. Many chapters (6, 7, 9, 11, and 13) emphasize the neurodevelopmental and ontogenetic aspects of personality, with a major emphasis on the receptors and transporters for the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Though these neurotransmitters are a rational starting point now, the future undoubtedly will bring many other candidate genes that today cannot even be imagined, given our ignorance of the genes involved in the prenatal development of the central nervous system. Chapter 3 provides an integrative overview of the broad autism phenotype, and as such will be of special interest to child psychiatrists. Chapters 5, 8, and 10 offer enlightening information on drug and alcohol abuse. Chapter 14 discusses variations in sexuality. Adding balance and mature perspectives on how all the chapters complement and sometimes challenge one another are Chapter 2, written by a major figure in the renaissance of the relevance to psychopathology of both genetics and personality; Chapters 15-17, informed critical appraisals citing concerns and cautions about premature applications of this information in the policy arena; and Chapter 18, a judicious contemplation by the editors themselves of this promising -- and, to some, alarming -- field. Clear and meticulously researched, this eminently satisfying work is written to introduce the subject to postgraduate students just beginning to develop their research skills, to interested psychiatric practitioners, and to informed laypersons with some scientific background.
Spurred by recent work on the molecular genetics of human personality, I delved
into one of its main instruments, the ... From the construction of the test, it appears
that these differences can result from answers to very few questions, which ...
Author: Jonathan Benjamin
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
Molecular Exercise Physiology: An Introduction is the first student-friendly textbook to be published on this key topic in contemporary sport and exercise science. It introduces sport and exercise genetics and the molecular mechanisms by which exercise causes adaptation. The text is linked to real life sport and exercise science situations such as ‘what makes people good at distance running?’, ‘what DNA sequence variations code for a high muscle mass?’ or ‘by what mechanisms does exercise improve type2 diabetes?’ The book includes a full range of useful features, such as summaries, definitions of key terms, guides to further reading, review questions, personal comments by molecular exercise pioneers (Booth, Bouchard) and leading research in the field, as well as descriptions of research methods. A companion website offers interactive and downloadable resources for both student and lecturers. Structured around central themes in sport and exercise science, such as nutrition, endurance training, resistance training, exercise & chronic disease and ageing, this book is the perfect foundation around which to build a complete upper-level undergraduate or postgraduate course on molecular exercise physiology.
Molecular exercise physiologists especially study the signal transduction
mechanisms that cause adaptation to exercise and the genetics of sport and
exercise-related traits (Spurway and Wackerhage, 2006). ... This enables
researchers to answer questions that previous generations of exercise physiolo-
gists were unable to answer due to the ... The above list of leading exercise
biochemists is subjective and there are undoubtedly others who deserve a place
in the biochemistry of ...
Author: Henning Wackerhage
Author: B. R. Chaudhary
This richly textured book bridges analytic and hermeneutic and phenomenological philosophy of science. It features unique resources for students of the philosophy and history of quantum mechanics and the Copenhagen Interpretation, cognitive theory and the psychology of perception, the history and philosophy of art, and the pragmatic and historical relationships between religion and science.
No one has ever given a fully satisfactory answer to this question. ... With
advances in molecular genetics and biochemistry, plants and animals have
become firmly annexed to the realm of ... The realm of conscious experience, the
subjective life of perception, feeling, thought, and action, appears more and more
Author: B.E. Babich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This entry in the Oxford Library of Psychology compiles cutting- edge research organized around the concept "molecular psychology," which applies principles of molecular biology to the study of behavior and its neural underpinnings. Determining the biological bases for behavior, and the extent to which we can observe and explain their neural underpinnings, requires a bold, broadly defined research methodology. The interdisciplinary entries in this handbook are organized around the principle of "molecular psychology," which unites cutting-edge research from such wide-ranging disciplines as clinical neuroscience and genetics, psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and neuroethology. For the first time in a single volume, leaders in diverse research areas use molecular approaches to investigate social behavior, psychopathology, emotion, cognition and stress in healthy volunteers, patient populations, and an array of non-human species including rodents, insects, fish, and non-human primates. Chapters draw on molecular methods covering candidate genes, genome-wide association studies, copy number variations, gene expression studies, and epigenetics while addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues to emerge from this new and exciting research approach.
Our own group used this method in the context of molecular genetics PE
research. ... We attempted to answer this question by means of an
endocrinological approach. ... Heritability and genome-wide linkage scan of
Author: Associate Professor of Psychology and Radiology Turhan Canli
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
This is the first book to collate and synthesize the recent burgeoning primary research literature on dog behaviour, evolution, and cognition. The author presents a new ecological approach to the understanding of dog behaviour, demonstrating how dogs can be the subject of rigorous and productive scientific study without the need to confine them to a laboratory environment. This second, fully updated edition of Dog Behaviour, Evolution and Cognition starts with an overview of the conceptual and methodological issues associated with the study of the dog, followed by a brief description of their role in human society. An evolutionary perspective is then introduced with a summary of current research into the process of domestication. The central part of the book is devoted to issues relating to the cognitive aspects of behaviour which have received particular attention in recent years from both psychologists and ethologists. The book's final chapters introduce the reader to many novel approaches to dog behaviour, set in the context of behavioural development and genetics. This second edition recognises and discusses the fact that dogs are increasingly being used as model organisms for studying aspects of human biology, such as genetic diseases and ageing. Specific attention is also given in this edition to attachment behaviour which emerges between humans and dogs, the importance of inter-specific communication in the success of dogs in human communities and the broad aspects of social cognition and how this may contribute to human-dog cooperation Directions for future research are highlighted throughout the text which also incorporates links to human and primate research by drawing on homologies and analogies in both evolution and behaviour. The book will therefore be of relevance and use to anyone with an interest in behavioural ecology including graduate students of animal behaviour and cognition, as well as a more general audience of dog enthusiasts, biologists, psychologists, veterinarians, and sociologists.
The genetic heritage from the Canis ancestor(s) constrained the direction and
magnitude of the possible phenotypic changes in ... Although molecular genetics
offered a lot of new tools for use in evolutionary comparison, some of the old
problems remain. ... Nagel queried whether natural science could ever offer a
method of understanding the subjective conscious state in another creature. ...
but many try to answer a much simpler form of the question 'What is it like for us to
be a bat?'.
Author: Adam Miklosi
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Molecular biology has enhanced the traditional determination of “predisposition
to disease” (previously based on physical examination, ... can have large
influences on political and social responses to divergent problems such as
disease, homelessness and behavior (28). ... Three themes are addressed in the
report: the relationship between the “objective” and the “subjective” in scientific
research, the ...
Category: Environmental health
The question of the role of the main mass of DNA in eukaryote chromosomes
remains a matter for debate. ... The choice and interpretation of the problems
examined in this survey are perhaps somewhat subjective. It is to be hoped that
rapid progress in research on the molecular genetics of eukaryotes will not only
provide the answers to the questions raised above, but will also indicate fresh
This volume introduces the most current research about the neural underpinnings of consciousness and EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) in regard to attachment, traumatic stress, and dissociation. It is the first book to comprehensively integrate new findings in information processing, consciousness, traumatic disorders of information processing, chronic trauma and autoimmune compromises, and the implications of these data on the Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) model and EMDR treatment The text examines online/wakeful information processing, including sensation, perception, somatosensory integration, cognition, memory, language and motricity, and off-line/sleep information processing, such as slow wave sleep and cognitive memorial processing, as well as REM/dream sleep and its function in emotional memory processing. The volume also addresses disorders of consciousness, including coma, anesthesia, and other neurological disorders, particularly disorders of Type 1 PTSD, complex PTSD/dissociative disorders, and personality disorders. It delves into chronic trauma and autoimmune function, especially in regard to diseases of unknown origin, and examines them from the perspective of autoimmune compromises resulting from the unusual neuroendocrine profile of PTSD sufferers. The final section integrates all material to illustrate the tenets of the AIP model and the implication of this material with respect to current EMDR treatment, as well as techniques to render it more robust Key Features: Provides a neurobiological foundation that informs our understanding of human development, disorders of attachment, and information processing Examines biological underpinnings of EMDR and other psychotherapeutic modalities regarding successful treatment outcomes for attachment, stress, and dissociation Offers the latest research in neurosciences relevant to attachment, traumatic stress, and dissociation Explicates disorders as outcomes of chronically dysregulated, evolutionarily based, biological action systems Illustrates EMDR's sensorial input to the brain as a neural catalyst that can facilitate repair of dysfunctional neural circuitry Includes illustrative neural maps
... the nonspecific thalamocortical circuitry provides the context (interoceptive
subjective awareness) of any given moment of consciousness. ... the answer to
these questions resides in some aspects of molecular genetics and protein
Author: Uri Bergmann, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company