Under Stalin’s totalitarian leadership of the USSR, Soviet national identities with historical narratives were constructed. These constructions envisaged how nationalities should see their imaginary common past, and millions of people defined themselves according to them. This book explains how and by whom these national histories were constructed and focuses on the crucial episode in the construction of national identities of Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan from 1936 and 1945. A unique comparative study of three different case studies, this book reveals different aims and methods of nation construction, despite the existence of one-party rule and a single overarching official ideology. The study is based on work in the often overlooked archives in the Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan. By looking at different examples within the Soviet context, the author contributes to and often challenges current scholarship on Soviet nationality policies and Stalinist nation-building projects. He also brings a new viewpoint to the debate on whether the Soviet period was a project of developmentalist modernization or merely a renewed ‘Russian empire’. The book concludes that the local agents in the countries concerned had a sincere belief in socialism—especially as a project of modernism and development—and, at the same time, were strongly attached to their national identities. Claiming that local communist party officials and historians played a leading role in the construction of national narratives, this book will be of interest to historians and political scientists interested in the history of the Soviet Union and contemporary Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
This book explains how and by whom these national histories were constructed and focuses on the crucial episode in the construction of national identities of Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan from 1936 and 1945.
Author: Harun Yilmaz
Category: Political Science
Jamil Hasanli’s research on 1950s’ Azerbaijan sheds light on the watershed period in Soviet history while also furnishing the reader with a greater understanding of the root causes of the dissolution of the USSR.
He clearly let it be known that mistakes in the ideology strongly troubled the
Center, saying: “Literary works on history published in the Republic contain
distortions of historical facts and events; manifestations of national restraint glorify
Author: Jamil Hasanli
Publisher: Lexington Books
Globalisation and National Identity in History Textbooks: The Russian Federation, the 16th book in the 24-volume book series Globalisation, Comparative Education and Policy Research, discusses trends in dominant discourses of identity politics, and nation-building in school history textbooks in the Russian Federation (RF). The book addresses one of the most profound examples of the re-writing of history following a geo-political change. Various book chapters examine debates pertaining to national identity, patriotism, and the nation-building process. The book discusses the way in which a new sense of patriotism and nationalism is documented in prescribed Russian history textbooks, and in the Russian media debate on history textbooks. It explores the ambivalent and problematic relationship between the state, globalisation and the construction of cultural identity in prescribed school history textbooks. By focusing on ideology, identity politics, and nation-building, the book examines history teachers’ responses to the content of history textbooks and how teachers depict key moments in modern Russian history. This book, an essential sourcebook of ideas for researchers, practitioners and policymakers in the fields of globalisation and history education, provides timely information on history teachers’ attitudes towards historical knowledge and historical understanding in prescribed Russian history textbooks.
Was the post-World War II economic boom, as experienced in the West, felt in the
Soviet Union? ... National. Identity. We have examined the evolution of the
cultural identity and the nation-building process in history education in the
Author: Joseph Zajda
This volume brings together 15 articles divided into four sections on the role of nationalism in transitions to democracy, the application of theory to country case studies, and the role played by history and myths in the forging of national identities and nationalisms. The book develops new theories and frameworks through engaging with leading scholars of nationalism: Hans Kohn's propositions are discussed in relation to the applicability of the term 'civic' (with no ethno-cultural connotations) to liberal democracies, Rogers Brubaker over the usefulness of dividing European states into 'civic' and 'nationalizing' states when the former have historically been 'nationalizers', Will Kymlicka on the applicability of multiculturalism to post-communist states, and Paul Robert Magocsi on the lack of data to support claims of revivals by national minorities in Ukraine. The book also engages with 'transitology' over the usefulness of comparative studies of transitions in regions that underwent only political reforms, and those that had 'quadruple transitions', implying simultaneous democratic and market reforms, as well as state and nation building. A comparative study of Serbian and Russian diasporas focuses on why ethnic Serbs and Russians living outside Serbia and Russia reacted differently to the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the USSR. The book dissects the writing of Russian and Soviet history that continues to utilize imperial frameworks of history, analyzes the re-writing of Ukrainian history within post-colonial theories, and discusses the forging of Ukraine's identity within theories of 'Others' as central to the shaping of identities. The collection of articles proposes a new framework for the study of Ukrainian nationalism as a broader research phenomenon by placing nationalism in Ukraine within a theoretical and comparative perspective.
IV HISTORY and NATIONALISM 12 Historiography and National Identity among
the Eastern Slavs: Towards a New ... The article surveys Tsarist, Soviet and
Western historiography of Russia and how this influenced the national identities
Author: Taras Kuzio
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
This book examines how national and ethnic identities are being reforged in the post-Soviet borderland states.
2 National history and national identity in Ukraine and Belarus This chapter
seeks to examine the relationship between historiography and the nation as an '
imagined community ' in Russia's two east Slavic neighbours , Ukraine and
Author: Graham Smith
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
National identity in Moldova remains contested despite repeated attempts by governments, historians, and educators to cultivate a shared sense of national belonging through the development of history textbooks. Concern over professional status and distrust of the government’s motivations halted these reforms, demonstrating that the success of such efforts greatly depends on teachers’ and citizens’ social memory and everyday lives. This volume looks at educational reform and the struggle over national identity in the history classroom from the perspectives of five different groups: elected politicians, Ministry of Education officials, textbook authors and historians, teachers, and students. Each chapter explores the actors’ motivations and agendas regarding reform, their role in promoting or obstructing the reform process, and their opinions about the ensuing controversy. Drawing on months of fieldwork and original research, author Elizabeth Worden examines the importance of teachers and students in the success or failure of a reform initiative.
A history teacher from southern Moldova told me that these likenesses had once
decorated schools. ... Yet, under the banner of these new heroes, much of what
happens at school continues to reflect Soviet influence. ... structures, the post-
Soviet historical narrative and school curriculum consisted of new myths and
golden ages superimposed over a well-worn approach to creating a national
Author: Elizabeth Anderson Worden
This book examines the nexus between nation-building and history education globally and the implication for cultural diversity and social justice. It studies some of the major education reforms and policy issues in history education in a global culture, and regards them in the light of recent shifts in history education and policy research. In doing so, the volume provides a comprehensive picture of the intersecting and diverse discourses of globalisation, history education and policy-driven reforms. It makes clear that the impact of globalisation on education policy and reforms is a strategically significant issue for us all. The book focuses on the importance of nation-building and patriotism in history education, and presents up-to-date research on global trends in history education reforms and policy research. It provides an easily accessible, practical yet scholarly source of information about the international concerns in the field of globalisation, history education and policy research.
In Belarus, a former republic of the USSR, the construction of a national identity
runs parallel to historiographical construction. The early history of the Belarusian
lands dates back to the late nineteenth century when centrifugal tendencies ...
Author: Joseph Zajda
From the royal pew of Ivan the Terrible, to Catherine the Great's use of landscape, to the struggles between the Orthodox Church and preservationists in post-Soviet Yaroslavl—across five centuries of Russian history, Russian leaders have used architecture to project unity, identity, and power. Church architecture has inspired national cohesion and justified political control while representing the claims of religion in brick, wood, and stone. The architectural vocabulary of the Soviet state celebrated industrialization, mechanization, and communal life. Buildings and landscapes have expressed utopian urges as well as lofty spiritual goals. Country houses and memorials have encoded their own messages. In Architectures of Russian Identity, James Cracraft and Daniel Rowland gather a group of authors from a wide variety of backgrounds—including history and architectural history, linguistics, literary studies, geography, and political science—to survey the political and symbolic meanings of many different kinds of structures. Fourteen heavily illustrated chapters demonstrate the remarkable fertility of the theme of architecture, broadly defined, for a range of fields dealing with Russia and its surrounding territories. The authors engage key terms in contemporary historiography—identity, nationality, visual culture—and assess the applications of each in Russian contexts.
The architectural vocabulary of the Soviet state celebrated industrialization, mechanization, and communal life. Buildings and landscapes have expressed utopian urges as well as lofty spiritual goals.
Author: James Cracraft
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ALEXANDER KAN Scandinavian Conceptions of National History — A Model for
Soviet Historians? An attempt to compare national history ... literature and
fostering of Swedish national identity. Three circumstances at least encourage
Author: Nobel Symposium (78th : 1990 : Hässelby gård, Stockholm, Sweden)
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
This collected volume, edited by Ron Suny and Terry Martin, shows how the Soviet state managed to create a multiethnic empire in its early years, from the end of the Russian Revolution to the end of World War II. Bringing together the newest research on a wide geographic range, from Russia to Central Asia, this volume is essential reading for students and scholars of Soviet history and politics.
TERRY MARTIN Introduction HE KEY WORDS THAT HAVE INTRIGUED
HISTORIANS of the Soviet Union have ... At the core of the study of Russia and
the USSR was an unexamined history of Russian and non-Russian national
Author: Ronald Grigor Suny
Publisher: Oxford University Press
When the German Democratic Republic (GDR) was founded in 1949, its leaders did not position it as a new state. Instead, they represented East German socialism as the culmination of all that was positive in Germany's past. The GDR was heralded as the second German Enlightenment, a society in which the rational ideals of progress, Bildung, and revolution that had first come to fruition with Goethe and Beethoven would finally achieve their apotheosis. Central to this founding myth was the Germanic musical heritage. Just as the canon had defined the idea of the German nation in the nineteenth-century, so in the GDR it contributed to the act of imagining the collective socialist state. Composing the Canon in the German Democratic Republic uses the reception of the Germanic musical heritage to chart the changing landscape of musical culture in the German Democratic Republic. Author Elaine Kelly demonstrates the nuances of musical thought in the state, revealing a model of societal ascent and decline that has implications that reach far beyond studies of the GDR itself. The first book-length study in English devoted to music in the GDR, Composing the Canon in the German Democratic Republic is a seminal text for scholars of music in the Cold War and in Germany more widely.
25 They seek their legitimation in constructs of history that portray them as being
both inevitable and exceptional. ... the construction of national identity was
redolent of the role assigned to historiography in Soviet national policy of the
Author: Elaine Kelly
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Appearing on the world stage in 1918, Lithuania suffered numerous invasions, border changes and large scale population displacements.The successive occupations of Stalin in 1940 and Hitler in 1941, mass deportations to the Gulag and the elimination of the Jewish community in the Holocaust gave the horrors of World War II a special ferocity. Moreover, the fighting continued after 1945 with the anti-Soviet insurrection, crushed through mass deportations and forced collectivization in 1948-1951. At no point, however, did the process of national consolidation take a pause, making Lithuania an improbably representative case study of successful nation-building in this troubled region. As postwar reconstruction gained pace, ethnic Lithuanians from the countryside – the only community to remain after the war in significant numbers – were mobilized to work in the cities. They streamed into factory and university alike, creating a modern urban society, with new elites who had a surprising degree of freedom to promote national culture. This book describes how the national cultural elites constructed a Soviet Lithuanian identity against a backdrop of forced modernization in the fifties and sixties, and how they subsequently took it apart by evoking the memory of traumatic displacement in the seventies and eighties, later emerging as prominent leaders of the popular movement against Soviet rule.
The regime strove to incorporate elements of national Lithuanian identity into
Soviet historiography. This had begun already in 1949 with the first efforts to write
a history of the LSSR, but the first significant result of this effort appeared only in ...
Author: Violeta Davoliūtė
Category: Social Science
The question of where Russian history ends and Ukrainian history begins has not yet received a satisfactory answer. Generations of historians referred to Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine, as the starting point of the Muscovite dynasty, the Russian state, and, ultimately, the Russian nation. However, the history of Kyiv and that of the Scythians of the Northern Black Sea region have also been claimed by Ukrainian historians, and are now regarded as integral parts of the history of Ukraine. If these are actually the beginnings of Ukrainian history, when does Russian history start? In Ukraine and Russia, Serhii Plokhy discusses many questions fundamental to the formation of modern Russian and Ukrainian historical identity. He investigates the critical role of history in the development of modern national identities and offers historical and cultural insight into the current state of relations between the two nations. Plokhy shows how history has been constructed, used, and misused in order to justify the existence of imperial and modern national projects, and how those projects have influenced the interpretation of history in Russia and Ukraine. This book makes important assertions not only about the conflicts and negotiations inherent to opposing historiographic traditions, but about ways of overcoming the limitations imposed by those traditions.
Where does Russian history end and Ukrainian history begin? ... These
questions are fundamental to the formation of modern Russian and Ukrainian
national identity and to future relations between these two largest Slavic states
Author: Serhii Plokhy
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
An original and thought-provoking text, Russian and Soviet History uses noteworthy themes and important events from Russian history to spark classroom discussion. Consisting of twenty essays written by experts in each area, the book does not simply repeat the conventional themes found in nearly all Russian history texts, anthologies, and documentary compilations. Rather, it showcases current thinking on Russian cultural, political, economic, and social history from the end of the sixteenth century to the demise of the Soviet "experiment." Informed by archival work in the former Soviet Union and a broad range of published sources, this book is intended to introduce students to Russian history in an accessible and provocative format. Its eclectic essays offer readers an incomparable taste of the complexity and richness of Russia as it has evolved from late Muscovy to the modern era. This text is perfect for undergraduate and graduate students in Russian history and is a great resource for scholars in the field. Contributions by: Sergei Arutiunov, Richard Bidlack, Kees Boterbloem, James Cracraft, Chester S. L. Dunning, Colum Leckey, Alexander M. Martin, Susan P. McCaffray, Martha Merritt, Patrick O'Meara, Scott W. Palmer, Jelena Pogosjan, Thomas E. Porter, Ana Siljak, Douglas Smith, William Taubman, Steven A. Usitalo, Jeffrey Veidlinger, Rex A. Wade, and William Benton Whisenhunt
THE RUSSIAN NINETEENTH CENTURY The Napoleonic conflict and the
development ( or further development ) of a Russian national identity ; Russia ' s
first revolution and the emergence of the intelligentsia ; Russia ' s status as a
Author: Steven A. Usitalo
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Pub Incorporated
How has the Ukrainian state sought to build national identity over the past decade, and with what results? The premise of the book is that assertions about the role of the state in identity politics should be treated as questions to be debated theoretically and studied empirically instead of assumptions made casually and left unexamined. Essays, analysis, and case studies provide a detailed look at efforts to promote national identity, with surprising conclusions.
Identity. Construction. and. Education: The. History. of. Ukraine. in. Soviet. and.
Post-Soviet. Schoolbooks. Jan. G. Janmaat. History has always played a pivotal
role in the formation or disintegration of national identities. To promote group ...
Author: Darlene M. Daubert
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Category: Political Science
Half a century after their deaths, the dictatorships of Stalin and Hitler still cast a long and terrible shadow over the modern world. They were the most destructive and lethal regimes in history, murdering millions. They fought the largest and costliest war in all history. Yet millions of Germans and Russians enthusiastically supported them and the values they stood for. In this first major study of the two dictatorships side-by-side Richard Overy sets out to answer the question: How was dictatorship possible? How did they function? What was the bond that tied dictator and people so powerfully together? He paints a remarkable and vivid account of the different ways in which Stalin and Hitler rose to power, and abused and dominated their people. It is a chilling analysis of powerful ideals corrupted by the vanity of ambitious and unscrupulous men.
A. Powell 'The Nationalist Trend in Soviet Historiography', Soviet Studies, 2 (1950
/1), pp. 373–5; D. Brandenberger National Bolshevism: Stalinist Mass Culture
and the Formation of Modern Russian National Identity 1931–1956 (Cambridge,
Author: Richard Overy
Publisher: Penguin UK
Contesting History is an authoritative guide to the positive and negative applications of the past in the public arena and what this signifies for the meaning of history more widely. Using a global, non-Western model, Jeremy Black examines the employment of history by the state, the media, the national collective memory and others and considers its fundamental significance in how we understand the past. Moving from public life pre-1400 to the struggle of ideologies in the 20th century and contemporary efforts to find meaning in historical narratives, Jeremy Black incorporates a great deal of original material on governmental, social and commercial influences on the public use of history. This includes a host of in-depth case studies from different periods of history around the world, and coverage of public history in a wider range of media, including TV and film. Readers are guided through this material by an expansive introduction, section headings, chapter conclusions and a selected further reading list. Written with eminent clarity and breadth of knowledge, Contesting History is a key text for all students of public history and anyone keen to know more about the nature of history as a discipline and concept.
Stalinist Mass Culture and the Formation of Modern Russian National Identity,
1931–1956 (Cambridge, MA, 2002); K. M. F. Platt and D. Brandenberger (eds),
Epic Revisionism: Russian History and Literature as Stalinist Propaganda (
Author: Jeremy Black
Publisher: A&C Black
From the Introduction: The purpose of the conference which produced the contents of this volume was to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth in Iitti in 1794 of the Finnish historian and Finno-Ugrist Anders Johan Sjogren. The organisers chose to honour Sjogren not by dwelling on his life and work -- though such was his influence in his day that we were frequently reminded of his scholarly legacy during the course of the conference -- but by a critical examination of the historical phenomenon of which he was both a founder and a practitioner in Northern Europe: the role of history in shaping national identities and in nation-building.
Approaches to the Writing of National History in the North-east Baltic Region
Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries Michael ... in Soviet - occupied Lithuania ,
authors of textbooks were forced to adopt a Marxist - Leninist interpretation of
Author: Michael Branch
Category: Baltic Sea Region
In this provocative study, Mikhail A. Molchanov analyzes the political and cultural factors that underlie modern national identities in Russia and Ukraine and systematically compares the political cultures of these two historically similar, yet profoundly different nations. He views national identities as constructed, multiple, and sometimes competing images of the national self. He sees political culture as a key determinant of national identity and emphasizes the critical role it plays as a vehicle of change and development. Like culture, national identity is a constructed phenomenon, a means to organize and structure cultural resources to fit current political and social needs. The author argues that domestic and international factors shape national identities, which are not an inherent characteristic of a people, but arise in interaction with the national "other." The "self-other" relationship is therefore a key element of national identity, particularly in newly independent states, of which Ukraine is a prime example. In culturally similar duos, like Russia and Ukrain, historical and cultural proximity complicate dialogue, yet allow mutually acceptable accommodations. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, national identities had to be reconstructed or re-created. The relationship between Russians, the core political people in the U.S.S.R., and Ukrainians, the perennial junior brothers, changed following the disintegration of the Soviet state. Molchanov questions the extent to which Russians have been able to construct an identity apart from that of the Soviet Union, arguing that the system denationalized them in an attempt to create the ideal A Soviet Man. He sees Ukraine as both dependent on Russia and struggling to forge a new national identity in conscious opposition to Russian influence. Molchanov doubts the viability of a Ukrainian nationalist project, because he believes that a majority of the Ukrainian population gravitate toward Russia culturally and linguistically. Molchanov sees Ukraine neither as Russia's victim, nor as its opposite. Unlike those who fear a resurgent Russia and who argue that it should be contained by local nationalisms in the "near abroad." Molchanov believes this strategy can lead only to estrangement between Russia and its neighbors. In addition, Russia=s recent opening and demonstrated support of the U.S. is too valuable to the world to be sacrificed to a new variant of the containment strategy.
White , “ USSR , ” 50 – 51 . 2 . See , e . g . , I . S . Koropeckyj , ed . , Ukrainian
Economic History : Interpretive Essays ; Krawchenko , ed . , Ukrainian Past ,
Ukrainian Present ; F . M . Kyryliuk , ed . , Ukrainska politolohiia : vytoky ta
evoliutsiia ; Yu ...
Author: Mikhail A. Molchanov
Publisher: College Station : Texas A&M University Press
The current transformation of many Eastern European societies is impossible to understand without comprehending the intellectual struggles surrounding nationalism in the region. Anthropologist Katherine Verdery shows how the example of Romania suggests that current ethnic tensions come not from a resurrection of pre-Communist Nationalism but from the strengthening of national ideologies under Communist Party rule.
Anthropologist Katherine Verdery shows how the example of Romania suggests that current ethnic tensions come not from a resurrection of pre-Communist Nationalism but from the strengthening of national ideologies under Communist Party rule.
Author: Katherine Verdery
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Political Science