At the centre of our ethical thought stands the human being. Roger Teichmann examines the ways in which facts about human nature determine the shape of ethical concepts such as rationality, virtue, and happiness. He argues that only by attending to the social and empirical character of language use can we address a number of problems in ethics.
But what is it to reason well in the domain of action? Is it the same as, or analogous to, or wholly distinct from, reasoning well in the domain of ...
Author: Roger Teichmann
Publisher: Oxford University Press
At the centre of our ethical thought stands the human being. Facts about human nature determine the shape of ethical concepts in a variety of ways, and our pre-rational animal nature forms the basis of notions to do with rationality, virtue, and happiness, among other things. Nature, Reason, and the Good Life examines these themes while also arguing for the critical importance of language: only by attending to the social and empirical character of actual language use can we make headway with a number of problems in ethics. Thus what counts as a good or bad reason for action depends on the purposes of human enquiry, as embodied in the question 'Why?'—it does not depend, for example, on some abstract and higher Rationality connected with 'the point of the cosmos'. Furthermore, considerations in philosophy of language and in philosophy of mind together show how emotions, desires, and pleasure—all crucial for ethics—turn out not to be inner states carrying a sort of subjective authority, above or below criticism or justification, and this fact helps undermine various forms of subjectivism and individualism to be found both in philosophy and in the wider culture. Starting from an examination of foundational issues, the book covers a range of topics, including animals, agency, enjoyment, the good life, contemplation, death, and the importance of philosophy. En route, there are critiques of a number of prevalent trends of thought, such as utilitarianism, anti-speciesism, relativism, scientism and even 'ism'-ism.
Starting from an examination of foundational issues, the book covers a range of topics, including animals, agency, enjoyment, the good life, contemplation, death, and the importance of philosophy.
Author: Roger Teichmann
Publisher: OUP Oxford
The rise of modern science created a crisis for Western moral and political philosophy, which had theretofore relied either on Christian theology or Aristotelian natural teleology as guarantors of an objective standard for &"the good life.&" This book examines Rousseau's effort to show how and why, despite this challenge from science (which he himself intensified by equating our subhuman origins with our natural state), nature can remain a standard for human behavior. While recognizing an original goodness in human being in the state of nature, Rousseau knew this to be too low a standard and promoted the idea of &"the natural man living in the state of society,&" notably in Emile. Laurence Cooper shows how, for Rousseau, conscience&—understood as the &"love of order&"&—functions as the agent whereby simple savage sentiment is sublimated into a more refined &"civilized naturalness&" to which all people can aspire.
Nevertheless, all individuals would flourish to the extent they could partake of the single good for man: reason. All ways of life were to be measured by ...
Author: Laurence D. Cooper
Publisher: Penn State Press
This book presents a broad philosophical study of the nature of spirituality and its relationship to human well-being, addressing an area of contemporary philosophy that has been largely underexplored. David McPherson brings together a team of scholars to examine the importance of specific spiritual practices (including prayer, contemplation, and ritual observance) and spiritually informed virtues (such as piety, humility, and existential gratitude) for 'the good life'. This volume also considers and exemplifies how philosophy itself, when undertaken as a humanistic rather than scientistic enterprise, can be a spiritual exercise and part of a spiritual way of life. Clarifying key concepts, and engaging with major religious traditions such as Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Confucianism, this book will appeal to students and scholars from various disciplines, including theology, sociology, and psychology, as well as to philosophers, ethicists, and other readers who are interested in modern spiritual life.
Consider, for instance, Thomas Aquinas's discussion of natural law – that human reason by nature pursues the good and shuns evil because of its ...
Author: David McPherson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This volume concentrates on a hedonistic argument that enters the philosophical debate, when philosophers argue that what they present as the good life is the truly pleasurable life. The book investigates more precisely how this point was made by Plato and his successors.
Our lives are ruled by reason , and nothing will harm or jeopardise our happiness . ( 3 ) If , on the other hand , the assent is contrary to nature ...
Author: Gerd Van Riel
The Humanity of Private Law presents a new way of thinking about English private law. Making a decisive break from earlier views of private law, which saw private law as concerned with wealth-maximisation or preserving relationships of mutual independence between its subjects, the author argues that English private law's core concern is the flourishing of its subjects. THIS VOLUME - presents a critique of alternative explanations of private law; - defines and sets out the key building blocks of private law; - sets out the vision of human flourishing (the RP) that English private law has in mind in seeking to promote its subjects' flourishing; - shows how various features of English private law are fine-tuned to ensure that its subjects enjoy a flourishing existence, according to the vision of human flourishing provided by the RP; - explains how other features of English private law are designed to preserve private law's legitimacy while it pursues its core concern of promoting human flourishing; - defends the view of English private law presented here against arguments that it does not adequately fit the rules and doctrines of private law, or that it is implausible to think that English private law is concerned with promoting human flourishing. A follow-up volume will question whether the RP is correct as an account of what human flourishing involves, and consider what private law would look like if it sought to give effect to a more authentic vision of human flourishing. The Humanity of Private Law is essential reading for students, academics and judges who are interested in understanding private law in common law jurisdictions, and for anyone interested in the nature and significance of human flourishing.
But I think we can say that if S's life is going well then S has reason to ... out in his Natural Law and Natural Rights.4 This seems like a good starting ...
Author: Nicholas McBride
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Amid the unrest, dislocation, and uncertainty of seventeenth-century Europe, readers seeking consolation and assurance turned to philosophical and scientific books that offered ways of conquering fears and training the mind—guidance for living a good life. The Good Life in the Scientific Revolution presents a triptych showing how three key early modern scientists, René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, and Gottfried Leibniz, envisioned their new work as useful for cultivating virtue and for pursuing a good life. Their scientific and philosophical innovations stemmed in part from their understanding of mathematics and science as cognitive and spiritual exercises that could create a truer mental and spiritual nobility. In portraying the rich contexts surrounding Descartes’ geometry, Pascal’s arithmetical triangle, and Leibniz’s calculus, Matthew L. Jones argues that this drive for moral therapeutics guided important developments of early modern philosophy and the Scientific Revolution.
CONTRARY TO NATURE, NOT TO REASON In analyzing the blindness of human beings to their own self-interest, Pascal showed his readers that human beings are ...
Author: Matthew L. Jones
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
This noteworthy book develops a new theory of the natural law that takes its orientation from the account of the natural law developed by Thomas Aquinas, as interpreted and supplemented in the context of scholastic theology in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Though this history might seem irrelevant to twenty-first-century life, Jean Porter shows that the scholastic approach to the natural law still has much to contribute to the contemporary discussion of Christian ethics. Aquinas and his interlocutors provide a way of thinking about the natural law that is distinctively theological while at the same time remaining open to other intellectual perspectives, including those of science. In the course of her work, Porter examines the scholastics' assumptions and beliefs about nature, Aquinas's account of happiness, and the overarching claim that reason can generate moral norms. Ultimately, Porter argues that a Thomistic theory of the natural law is well suited to provide a starting point for developing a more nuanced account of the relationship between specific beliefs and practices. While Aquinas's approach to the natural law may not provide a system of ethical norms that is both universally compelling and detailed enough to be practical, it does offer something that is arguably more valuable -- namely, a way of reflecting theologically on the phenomenon of human morality.
the best possible reasons for observing the relevant standards and trying to ... by definition , does not already share a common vision of the good life .
Author: Jean Porter
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Kierkegaard's God and the Good Life focuses on faith and love, two central topics in Kierkegaard's writings, to grapple with complex questions at the intersection of religion and ethics. Here, leading scholars reflect on Kierkegaard's understanding of God, the religious life, and what it means to exist ethically. The contributors then shift to psychology, hope, knowledge, and the emotions as they offer critical and constructive readings for contemporary philosophical debates in the philosophy of religion, moral philosophy, and epistemology. Together, they show how Kierkegaard continues to be an important resource for understandings of religious existence, public discourse, social life, and how to live virtuously.
The reason for this joy is not explained by Tolstoy, ... is conditioned by one's realization of one's nature (the Aristotelian picture of the good life), ...
Author: Stephen Minister
Publisher: Indiana University Press
Love wins, hate ruins. Human, by nature, loves more readily than hates occasionally. The book, How to Win Nature and Enjoy Good Life, explores innate human nature and its relationship with nature. This book along with its four companion books—Nature Is My Teacher; Of Human Nature and Good Habits; Life, Living and Lifestyle and Health and Medical Care—constitutes a series that tells the nature-human connection and its implication in our daily life, in the related set of separate episodes. How to Win Nature and Enjoy Good Life primarily deals with love, relationship, marriage and family life. It contains chapters: Love and Relationships (Love is hard to describe; it is often bewildering and unknowable. You may never know even in your lifetime. But you can’t miss to sense it.); Marriage (To be a woman, childlessness is a private sorrow. Childlessness signifies a rolling loss into the future. It means no children, and no grandchildren.); Family (Today, children suffer from the lack of love and care, affection and attention from their parents on a daily basis.); Children (Children are the most valuable resources of this planet—one-third of our population and all of our generation. If you want to give one gift to your child, then let it be enthusiasm.); Friends and Society (Most Americans are home alone (2.6 people per household), drive alone (1.6 per car), and stay alone.); Life Is Good (Research on well-being basically concentrates on three core factors: health, relationships, and a sense of purpose.); Life is Beautiful (Life is half spent before we envision what life is. We are sorry for the past and worry for the future. But true living never has to be all regrets of the past or all prospects of the future.); Live Young, Live Long (Globally, life expectancy grows and shrinks according to income trends.); Enjoy Good Food (Food is remarkably a bonding force. Survey finds that in more than a quarter of families, food is considered to be an emotional response and a meaningful way to show affection.); How Food Works (Breakfast jump-starts the metabolism process of the day. So, don’t skip or mess it up. People who do not break fast soon after rising (half an hour or so), or take breakfast later in the morning, typically consume more calories over the course of the day and run a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity.) Diet and Nutrition (Humans evolved to eat. Anthropologists looked at the diets, habits and physical activities of hundreds of modern hunter-gatherer groups and small-scale societies, whose lifestyles are very similar to those of ancient populations, and find that they all generally exhibit excellent metabolic health while consuming a wide range of diets.); Herbs and Spices (The herb is always of plant origin. It is not of animal origin; nor is it a supplement that was developed in a lab.)
The conservative view is that the worst of reconciliation is better than the best of divorce. One of the reasons why there are so many broken marriages in ...
Author: Prabhash Karan
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
First published in 1931, this volume represents the culmination of twenty years’ of the study on the principles of science. Noticing a widespread craving for philosophical light at a time of scant such offerings, Morris R. Cohen aimed to demonstrate here the fundamental and ancient connection between nature and science - between hearts and minds – in an attempt to salve the developing mutual hostility between the two in the 1920s. The volume bears particular relation to George Santayana’s Life of Reason and Bertrand Russell’s Principles of Mathematics and explores areas including the character of the insurgence against reason and reason in the contexts of the natural and social sciences.
That the continuance of mere physical life is an absolute moral good seems to be axiomatic in current ethics. It serves as a basis for the unqualified moral ...
Author: Morris R. Cohen
In Hegel’s Idea of the Good Life, Joshua D. Goldstein presents the first book-length study of the development and meaning of Hegel’s account of human flourishing. This volume will be welcomed by philosophers and political theorists seeking to engage with the details of Hegel’s early and mature social thought. By bringing Hegel’s earliest writings into dialogue with his Philosophy of Right, Goldstein argues that Hegel’s mature political philosophy should be understood as a response to his youthful failure to build a sustainable account of the good life upon the foundations of ancient virtue. This study reveals how Hegel’s mature response integrates ancient concerns for the well-ordered life and modern concerns for autonomy in a new, robust conception of selfhood that can be actualized across the full expanse of the modern political community.
Hegel begins the Life of Jesus by conceptualizing reason's activity as rulership ... of nature altogether while hurtling down from a high place " ( L/77 ) .
Author: Joshua D. Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
An exploration of philosophical and religious ideas about humor in modern philosophy and their secular implications. By exploring the works of both Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury, and Søren Kierkegaard, Lydia B. Amir finds a rich tapestry of ideas about the comic, the tragic, humor, and related concepts such as irony, ridicule, and wit. Amir focuses chiefly on these two thinkers, but she also includes Johann Georg Hamann, an influence of Kierkegaard’s who was himself influenced by Shaftesbury. All three thinkers were devout Christians but were intensely critical of the organized Christianity of their milieux, and humor played an important role in their responses. The author examines the epistemological, ethical, and religious roles of humor in their philosophies and proposes a secular philosophy of humor in which humor helps attain the philosophic ideals of self-knowledge, truth, rationality, virtue, and wisdom, as well as the more ambitious goals of liberation, joy, and wisdom.
Finally, Immanuel Kant views metaphysical questions as necessarily arising from the nature of reason, yet transcending reason's power of answer- ing them: ...
Author: Lydia B. Amir
Publisher: SUNY Press
This book features many of the leading voices championing the revival of Neo-Aristotelian Ethical Naturalism (AN) in contemporary philosophy. It addresses the whole range of issues facing this research program at present. Coverage in the collection identifies differentiations, details standpoints, and points out new perspectives. This volume answers a need: AN is quite new to contemporary philosophy, despite its deep roots in the history of philosophy. As yet, there are many unanswered questions regarding its relation to contemporary views in metaethics. It is certainly not equivalent to dominant naturalistic approaches to metaethics in Anglophone philosophy. Indeed, it is not obviously incompatible with some approaches identified as nonnaturalistic. Further, there are controversies regarding the views of the first wave of virtue revivalists. The work of G.E.M. Anscombe and Philippa Foot is frequently misunderstood, despite the fact that they are important figures in the contemporary revival. This volume details a robust approach to ethics by situating it within the context of human life. It will help readers to better understand how AN raises deep questions about the relation of action and its evaluation to human nature. Neo-Aristotelians argue that something like the traditional cardinal virtues, practical wisdom, temperance, justice and courage, are qualities that perfect human reason and desire.
This nature directs us to a vision of a good life and we are able to ... goods can be understood very differently; so how do we know which reasons are ...
Author: Martin Hähnel
Publisher: Springer Nature
The "Guise of the Good" thesis - the view that desire, intention, or action) always aims at the good - has received renewed attention in the last twenty years. The book brings together work on various issues related to this thesis both from contemporary and historical perspectives.
That is not the sort of nature a rational creature has: Its nature is to live a specific sort of rational life, and its good will involve whatever features ...
Author: Sergio Tenenbaum
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
This volume explores questions that emerge from considering the relationship between nature and ethics through philosophical, theological, ethical, and environmental lenses.
In Hursthouse's thought the relationship between reason and these goods is, ... circumstances of my life, including of course the rest of my human nature, ...
Author: Gary Keogh
Publisher: Lexington Books
Living the Good Life presents a brief introduction to virtue and vice, self-control and weakness, misery and happiness.
On a natural level, we do seek the knowledge of God, but only as we can attain it, ... Only by living a fully human life, a life of reason and the virtues, ...
Author: Steven J. Jensen
Publisher: CUA Press
This book is a story. It's a story about ordinary people in very different parts of the world dealing with rapid change in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. It's about times of turbulent and violent social upheaval and rupture with the past. It's about modern times. It's also about being human; what it is to be human in a modernising and globalising world; how, in responding to the circumstances of their times, different groups define, redefine, and attempt to put into practice their understandings of the good and of what constitutes a good life. And it's about how human rights have come to be not abstract universal principles but a practical source of consciousness and practice for real people.
In The Theory of Communicative Action, and throughout his work, Habermas places reason, and rationalityi'a disposition of speaking or acting subjects that ...
Author: Mary Edmunds
Publisher: ANU E Press
Category: Social Science
These are all points on which natural reason , without the illumination of a good life , might have speculated much in vain , and have come to very ...
Author: Isaac Williams
These are all points on which natural reason , without the illumination of a good life , might have speculated much in vain , and have come to very ...
Author: Isaac Williams