This research emphasizes semantic, syntactic and pragmatic considerations illustrating a wide array of linguistic approaches. Written from within the theoretical framework of Generalized Quantifiers, the three main areas considered are collocations, polarity items and multiple negations.
This research emphasizes semantic, syntactic and pragmatic considerations illustrating a wide array of linguistic approaches.
Author: Ton van der Wouden
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Author: Anton van der Wouden
Author: Ton van der Wouden
Category: Grammar, Comparative and general
The loss of Negative Concord (NC) has long been attributed to external factors. This study readdresses this issue and provides evidence of the failure of certain external factors to account for the observed decline and ultimate disappearance of NC in Standard English. A detailed study of negation in Late Middle and Early Modern English reveals that the process of the decline of NC was a case of a natural change, preceded by a period of variation manifested in the obtained S-curves for all the contexts studied. Variation existed not only on the level of the speech community as a whole but also within individual speakers (contra Lightfoot, 1991). A close study of n-indefinites in negative contexts and their ultimate replacement with Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) in a number of grammatical environments shows that the decline of NC follows the same pattern across contexts in a form of parallel curvature, which indicates that the loss of NC is a natural process. However, this study reveals that the decline is not constant across time and thus the Constant Rate Hypothesis (Kroch, 1989) does not, in that respect, fully account for this change. Context behaviour suggests an alternative principle of linguistic change, the Context Constancy Principle. A Context Constancy Effect is obtained across all contexts indicating that the loss of NC is triggered by a change in a single underlying parameter setting. Accordingly, a theory-internal explanation is suggested. N-words underwent a lexical reanalysis whereby they acquired a new grammatical feature [+Neg] and were thus reinterpreted as negative quantifiers, rather than NPIs. This lexical reanalysis was triggered by the ambiguous status of n-words between [±Neg] and thus between single and double negative meanings. This change is treated as a case of parameter resetting as this lexical reanalysis affected a whole set of lexical items and can thus economically account for the different observed surface changes.
The loss of Negative Concord (NC) has long been attributed to external factors.
Author: Amel Kallel
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Despite the advances of radio and television and increasing mobility and urbanization, spoken English is by no means becoming more like the written standard. English dialect grammar, however, is still a new and relatively undeveloped area of research, and most studies to date are either restricted regionally, or based on impressionistic statements. This book provides the first thorough empirical study of the field of non-standard negation across Great Britain.
WERE-generalization in both positive and negative contexts (generalization strategy (2)) occurs in four cases, although the areal distribution is not as coherent. These four dialect areas are the contiguous regions of northeast England ...
Author: Lieselotte Anderwald
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Vendler, Z. (1967) Linguistics in Philosophy, Cornell University Press, Ithaca. van der Wouden, T. (1994) Negative Contexts, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Groningen. Zwarts, F. (1981) "Negatief Polarie Uitdrukkingen I," GLOT 4, pp.
Author: Eric Griffin Jackson
There are several devices that can be employed to differenciate unnegated indefinites from negated indefinites in a negative context . They are part of the syntax and lexicon of the language with their own functions .
Category: Language and languages
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Analytic Tableaux and Related Methods, TABLEAUX'99, held in Saratoga Springs, NY, USA, in June 1999. The volume presents 18 revised full papers and three system descriptions selected from 41 submissions. Also included are system comparisons and abstracts of an invited paper and of two tutorials. All current issues surrounding mechanization of reasoning with tableaux and similar methods are addressed - ranging from theoretical foundations to implementation and systems development and applications, as well as covering a broad variety of logic calculi. As application areas, formal verification of software and computer systems, deductive databases, knowledge representation, and systems diagnosis are covered.
Consequently, it remains to prove that the negative and positive context rules allow only correct contexts to be derived. We handle the case of the negative contexts and leave the other case, which is similar, to the reader.
Author: Neil V. Murray
The present thesis investigates whether the emotional background (context) in which a neutral face is viewed changes one's memory for that face. In Experiment 1, neutral faces were overlaid centrally onto emotional (positive or negative) or neutral background scenes, and recognition memory for faces was assessed. Memory for faces initially encoded in negative contexts was boosted relative to memory for faces initially encoded in neutral contexts. Further investigation was necessary to reveal the mechanism behind the influence that emotional context had on memory for faces. In Experiments 2 and 3 the spotlight theory of attention was tested to examine whether visual attention was mediating the memory effect. The spotlight theory of attention postulates that positive affective states broaden one's scope of attention, while negative affective states narrow one's scope of attention (Easterbrook, 1959; Derryberry & Tucker, 1994). According to this theory, the negative contexts may have narrowed attentional scope and therefore led to a richer processing of the face which happened to be presented centrally in Experiment 1, leading to boosted recognition of these faces. To test whether the varying emotional contexts did indeed shift attentional scope, Experiment 2 was designed in which neutral faces were presented once again in positive, negative or neutral contexts, however location of face presentation was peripheral rather than central. Results revealed a loss of the memory boost, for faces paired with negative contexts, reported in Experiment 1. Experiment 3 was designed to test the spotlight theory of attention using an intermixed design in which faces were presented either centrally or peripherally, randomly across trials, in emotional and neutral background scenes. In this experiment, faces were better remembered when they were viewed peripherally in positive, relative to neutral, contexts at time of study. Experiment 4 was designed to assess the validity of the spotlight theory in accounting for how emotional scenes change visual attention, by examining how performance on a flanker task differed when emotionally positive or negative scenes were presented centrally. Results suggest that positive scenes broaden the spotlight of attention, relative to negatives ones. In summary, emotional contexts lead to a boost in memory for faces paired with negative information, and this effect may be due to shifts in attention varied by the valence of the context.
Further investigation was necessary to reveal the mechanism behind the influence that emotional context had on memory for faces.
Author: Shahnaz Koji
Theorizing Women and Leadership: New Insights and Contributions from Multiple Perspectives is the fifth volume in the Women and Leadership: Research, Theory, and Practice series. This cross?disciplinary series, from the International Leadership Association, enhances leadership knowledge and improves leadership development of women around the world. The purpose of this volume is to provide a forum for women to theorize about women’s leadership in multiple ways and in multiple contexts. Theorizing has been a viewed as a gendered activity (Swedberg, 2014), and this series of chapters seeks to upend that imbalance. The chapters are written by women who represent multiple disciplines, cultures, races, and subject positions. The diversity extends into research paradigm and method, and the chapters combine to illuminate the multiple ways of knowing about and being a woman leader. Twenty?first century leadership scholars acknowledge the importance of context, and many are considering post?heroic leadership models based on relationships rather than traits. This volume contributes to this discussion by offering a diverse array of perspectives and ways of knowing about leadership and leading. The purpose of the volume is to provide readers with not only interesting new ideas about women and leadership, but also to highlight the diverse epistemologies that can contribute to theorizing about women leaders. Some chapters represent typical social scientific practices and processes, while others represent newer knowledge forms and ways of knowing. The volume contributors adopt various epistemological positions, ranging from objective researcher to embedded co?participant. The chapters link their new findings to existing empirical or conceptual work and illustrate how the findings extend, amend, contradict, or confirm existing research. The diversity of the chapters is one of the volume’s strengths because it illuminates the multiple ways that leadership theory for women can be advanced. Typically, research based on a realist perspective is more valued in the academy. This perspective has indeed generated robust information about leadership in general and women’s leadership in particular. However, readers of this volume are offered an opportunity to explore multiple ways of knowing, different ways of researching, and are invited to de?center researcher objectivity. The authors of the chapters offer conceptual and empirical findings, illuminate multiple and alternative research practices, and in the end suggest future directions for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed?methods research.
The contexts of family and community as well as engaging in leadership behaviors that had both positive and negative contexts in “everyday life” emerged as salient in our research. The connections and experiences we had in these ...
Author: Julia Storberg-Walker
Category: Business & Economics