The turn of the millennium from the twentieth to the twenty-first century provides an occasion to review our understanding of a biological process, biological nitrogen fixation, that is of prime importance for the continued survival of mankind. This process has provided a basis for maintaining soil fertility since the beginning of organised agriculture, yet its very existence was confirmed only just over a century ago. In the intervening years, an enormous intellectual effort has dispersed much of the mystery surrounding biological nitrogen fixation. Biological fixation is widely exploited in agriculture, as are nitrogen fertilisers prepared for the last hundred years under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. However, despite all our efforts, the fundamental nature of the reactions involved at the heart of the biological process remain unknown. This book aims to describe what we have learned in the last one hundred years or so about biological nitrogen fixation, about what its chemistry appears to be, and how it is applied in agriculture. This ambitious objective has not been attempted recently. It is aimed at students and those who wish to enter these very challenging areas of research, and who need to learn the state of the art at the turn of the millennium. The authors are all acknowledged world experts in their fields. They have prepared concise, well referenced and authoritative accounts of their subjects. This book provides a unique summary of the current state of knowledge that will be indispensable to all students and researchers, actual and potential, interested in biological nitrogen fixation.
This book provides a unique summary of the current state of knowledge that will be indispensable to all students and researchers, actual and potential, interested in biological nitrogen fixation.
Author: G.J. Leigh
Category: Technology & Engineering
Biological nitrogen fixation provides more than 50% of the total annual input of the essential element nitrogen to world agriculture. Thus, it is of immense agronomic importance and critical to food supplies, particularly in developing countries. This book, with chapters authored by internationally renowned experts, provides a comprehensive and detailed account of the fascinating history of the process - including the surprising discoveries of molybdenum-independent nitrogenases and superoxide-dependent nitrogenase; a review of Man's attempts to emulate the biological process - most successfully with the commercially dominant Haber-Bosch process; and the current state of the understanding art with respect to the enzymes - called nitrogenases - responsible for biological nitrogen fixation. The initial chapters use a historical approach to the biological and industrial processes, followed by an overview of assay methodologies. The next set of chapters focuses on the classical enzyme, the molybdenum nitrogenase, and details its biosynthesis, structure, composition, and mechanism of action as well as detailing both how variants of its two component proteins are constructed by recombinant DNA technology and how computational techniques are being applied. The sophisticated chemical modelling of the metal-containing clusters in the enzyme is reviewed next, followed by a description of the two molybdenum-independent nitrogenases - first, the vanadium-containing enzyme and then the iron-only nitrogenase - together with some thoughts as to why they exist! Then follows an up-to-date treatment of the clearly "non-classical" properties of the superoxide-dependent nitrogenase, which more closely resembles molybdenum-containing hydroxylases and related enzymes, like nitrate reductase, that it does the other nitrogenases. Each chapter contains an extensive list of references. This book is the self-contained first volume of a comprehensive seven-volume series. No other available work provides the up-to-date and in-depth coverage of this series and this volume. This book is intended to serve as an indispensable reference work for all scientists working in this area, including agriculture and the closely related metals-in-biology area; to assist students to enter this challenging area of research; and to provide science administrators easy access to vital relevant information.
A simple method for measuring nitrogen fixation by cell-free enzyme preparations of Clostridium pasteurianum. Anal. Biochem., 2, 216-220. ... In G. J. Leigh (Ed.), Nitrogen fixation at the millennium (pp. 357-389).
Author: Barry E. Smith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book presents the science, application, and politics of the use of nitrogen-fixing crop plants across the globe in various environments. Nitrogen fixation can help provide a growing population with a nutritious, environmentally friendly, sustainable food supply. From new "omics" approaches to the role of nitrogen fixation in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, from farming strategies in nonindustrialized nations to nitrogen fixation in the global economy, scientists will find the key issues and expanding research areas, and how they contribute to the next wave of advancements related to agriculture and the environment.
Nitrogen fixation at the millennium . Elsevier . Palus , J.A. , J. Borneman , P.W. Ludden , and E.W. Triplett . 1996. A diazotrophic bacterial endophyte isolated from stems of Zea mays L. and Zea luxurians Itlis and Doebley .
Author: David W. Emerich
Here is a comprehensive survey of all aspects of these fascinating bacteria, metabolically the most versatile organisms on Earth. It compiles 48 chapters written by leading experts, who highlight the huge progress made in studies of these bacteria since 1995.
J Bacteriol 173: 5705–5711 Madigan MT (1995) Microbiology of nitrogen fixation by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. In: Blankenship RE, Madigan MT and Bauer CE ... In: Leigh GJ (ed) Nitrogen Fixation at the Millennium, pp 191–222.
Author: C.N. Hunter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book aims to serve as a centralized reference document for students and researchers interested in aspects of marine nitrogen fixation. Although nitrogen is a critical element in both terrestrial and aquatic productivity, and nitrogen fixation is a key process that balances losses due to denitrification in both environments, most resources on the subject focuses on the biochemistry and microbiology of such processes and the organisms involved in the terrestrial environment on symbiosis in terrestrial systems, or on largely ecological aspects in the marine environment. This book is intended to provide an overview of N2 fixation research for marine researchers, while providing a reference on marine research for researchers in other fields, including terrestrial N2 fixation. This book bridges this knowledge gap for both specialists and non-experts, and provides an in-depth overview of the important aspects of nitrogen fixation as it relates to the marine environment. This resource will be useful for researchers in the specialized field, but also useful for scientists in other disciplines who are interested in the topic. It would provide a possible text for upper division classes or graduate seminars.
Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: Recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science, 320(5878), 889. ... Identification of small RNAs involved in nitrogen fixation in Anabaena sp. ... Nitrogen fixation at the millennium.
Author: Jonathan P. Zehr
Publisher: Springer Nature
The reader is referred to a series of seven specialized volumes (Nitrogen Fixation: Origins, Applications, and Research ... W.E. Newton, Nitrogen fixation – a general overview, in: G.J. Leigh (Ed.) Nitrogen Fixation at the Millennium, ...
Author: Hermann Bothe
Written by leading experts in their respective fields, Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology 3e, provides a comprehensive, balanced introduction to soil microbiology, and captures the rapid advances in the field such as recent discoveries regarding habitats and organisms, microbially mediated transformations, and applied environmental topics. Carefully edited for ease of reading, it aids users by providing an excellent multi-authored reference, the type of book that is continually used in the field. Background information is provided in the first part of the book for ease of comprehension. The following chapters then describe such fundamental topics as soil environment and microbial processes, microbial groups and their interactions, and thoroughly addresses critical nutrient cycles and important environmental and agricultural applications. An excellent textbook and desk reference, Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology, 3e, provides readers with broad, foundational coverage of the vast array of microorganisms that live in soil and the major biogeochemical processes they control. Soil scientists, environmental scientists, and others, including soil health and conservation specialists, will find this material invaluable for understanding the amazingly diverse world of soil microbiology, managing agricultural and environmental systems, and formulating environmental policy. Includes discussion of major microbial methods, embedded within topical chapters Includes information boxes and case studies throughout the text to illustrate major concepts and connect fundamental knowledge with potential applications Study questions at the end of each chapter allow readers to evaluate their understanding of the materials
Nitrogen fixation: A general overview, in: Leighton, G.J. (Ed.), Nitrogen Fixation at the Millennium. Elsevier Science B.V., pp. 1–34. Fowler, D., Coyle, M., Skiba, U., Sutton, M.A., Cape, J.N., Reis, S., Sheppard, L.J., Jenkins, A., ...
Author: Terry J. Gentry
Clostridia is one of the largest bacterial genera with an enormous potential for biotechnical and medical applications. Despite growing scientific, medical, and industrial interest, information on basic methods, biochemical fundamentals, clinical practice, industrial applications, and novel developments remains scattered in a variety of research ar
12.11 CONCLUDING REMARKS Nitrogen fixation has been demonstrated in clostridial species belonging to different physiological groups. ... in Nitrogen Fixation at the Millennium, Leigh, G.J., Ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002, Chapter 1. 2.
Author: Peter Duerre
Publisher: CRC Press
Nodules produced on legume roots by root-nodule bacteria provide the major nitrogenous input into natural and agricultural systems worldwide. This book provides an in-depth and up-to-the-minute analysis of what is known about this symbiosis, its origins, the process of nodule formation and development, and the biochemistry and genetics of nodular nitrogen fixation. It also reviews the physiology of the root-nodule bacteria themselves, their ecology in both natural and agricultural systems, and how we can introduce new legumes along with the bacteria they require. This book is recommended for scientists working with root nodule bacteria or host legumes, agronomists, forestry scientists, and soil scientists.
In I. R. Kennedy and L. Copeland (Eds.), 8th international symposium on nitrogen fixation with nonlegumes (pp. 16-17). Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney ... In G. J. Leigh (Ed.), Nitrogen fixation at the millennium (pp. 391-410).
Author: Michael J. Dilworth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The world population will grow more rapidly during the few coming years. This must be accompanied by a parallel increase in the agricultural production to secure adequate food. Sustainability considerations mandate that alternatives to chemical nitrogen fertilizers must be urgently sought. Biological nitrogen (N2) fixation, a microbiological process which converts atmospheric N2 into a plant-usable form, offers this alternative. Among these renewable sources, N2-fixing legumes offer an economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external inputs and improving internal resources. Environmental factors such as drought, elevated temperature, salinity, soil acidity and rising CO2 are known to dramatically affect the symbiotic process and thus play a part in determining the actual amount of nitrogen fixed by a given legume in the field. Understanding how nodule N2 fixation responds to the environment is crucial for improving legume production and maintaining sustainability in the context of global change. In this thoughtful and provocative new Brief, we provide critical information on how current and projected future changes in the environment will affect legume growth and their symbiotic N2 fixing capabilities. Each section reviews the main drivers of environmental change on the legume performance that include drought, elevated temperature, salinity and rising CO2, and soil acidity. Importantly we discuss the molecular approaches to the analysis of the stress response in legumes and the possible biotechnological strategies to overcome their detrimental effects.
Trends Microbiol 17(10):458–466 Mekhaldi A, Benkhelifa M, Belkhodja M (2008) The effect of salinity on gas exchange on different developmental stages of mung bean (Vigna radiata ... In: Leigh GJ (ed) Nitrogen fixation at the millennium.
Author: Saad Sulieman