Non equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Production of Entropy

The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings.

Author: Axel Kleidon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540224955

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 946

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The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers from a wide range of backgrounds, the book presents a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.
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Non equilibrium Thermodynamics for Engineers

The book describes in a simple and practical way what non-equilibrium thermodynamics is and how it can add to engineering fields.

Author:

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814329910

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 651

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The book describes in a simple and practical way what non-equilibrium thermodynamics is and how it can add to engineering fields. It explains how to describe proper equations of transport, more precise than used so far, and how to use them to understand the waste of energy resources in central unit processes in the industry. It introduces the entropy balance as an additional equation to use, to create consistent thermodynamic models, and a systematic method for minimizing energy losses that are connected with transport of heat, mass, charge, momentum and chemical reactions. Readership: Senior undergraduate and graduate students in physics, chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering.
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Beyond the Second Law

This interdisciplinary book, written and peer-reviewed by international experts, presents recent advances in the search for new non-equilibrium principles beyond the Second Law, and their applications to a wide range of systems across ...

Author: Roderick C. Dewar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642401541

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 434

View: 672

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The Second Law, a cornerstone of thermodynamics, governs the average direction of dissipative, non-equilibrium processes. But it says nothing about their actual rates or the probability of fluctuations about the average. This interdisciplinary book, written and peer-reviewed by international experts, presents recent advances in the search for new non-equilibrium principles beyond the Second Law, and their applications to a wide range of systems across physics, chemistry and biology. Beyond The Second Law brings together traditionally isolated areas of non-equilibrium research and highlights potentially fruitful connections between them, with entropy production playing the unifying role. Key theoretical concepts include the Maximum Entropy Production principle, the Fluctuation Theorem, and the Maximum Entropy method of statistical inference. Applications of these principles are illustrated in such diverse fields as climatology, cosmology, crystal growth morphology, Earth system science, environmental physics, evolutionary biology and technology, fluid turbulence, microbial biogeochemistry, plasma physics, and radiative transport, using a wide variety of analytical and experimental techniques. Beyond The Second Law will appeal to students and researchers wishing to gain an understanding of entropy production and its central place in the science of non-equilibrium systems – both in detail and in terms of the bigger picture.
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Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics

Classic monograph treats irreversible processes and phenomena of thermodynamics: non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

Author: S. R. De Groot

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486153506

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 157

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Classic monograph treats irreversible processes and phenomena of thermodynamics: non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Covers statistical foundations and applications with chapters on fluctuation theory, theory of stochastic processes, kinetic theory of gases, more.
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Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics for Engineers

The book describes in a simple and practical way what non-equilibrium thermodynamics is and how it can add to engineering fields.

Author: S Kjelstrup

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789814360838

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 272

View: 548

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The book describes in a simple and practical way what non-equilibrium thermodynamics is and how it can add to engineering fields. It explains how to describe proper equations of transport, more precise than used so far, and how to use them to understand the waste of energy resources in central unit processes in the industry. It introduces the entropy balance as an additional equation to use, to create consistent thermodynamic models, and a systematic method for minimizing energy losses that are connected with transport of heat, mass, charge, momentum and chemical reactions.
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Non equilibrium Thermodynamics

Although nearly three years have elapsed since the publication of this work in Hungarian, it was decided to publish the English edition in the same form as the original, apart from some minor modifications.

Author: Istvan Gyarmati

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642510670

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 905

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Although nearly three years have elapsed since the publication of this work in Hungarian, it was decided to publish the English edition in the same form as the original, apart from some minor modifications. Since, recent research has been directed to the development of an exact theory of non-linear irreversible processes; we suggest to readers interested in similar tasks - such as the continuation of this boo- that they should study some new publications: "On the most general form of the Thermodynamic Integral Principle", Z. phys. Chem. 239 (1968) 133, and particularly: "On the Governing Principle of Dissi pative Processes", Ann. Phys. 7 (1969) 23. I have to thank my wife and Mr. W.F.HEINZ for the translation of the very concise Hungarian text. I also wish to express my gratitude to Dr. L.KARADI and Mr. Gy. VINCZE for reading the typescript with such care and to Mrs. A. R6sZLER, who typed the manuscript with great patience. I am deeply indebted to Professor ISTVAN SZABO for making this edition available so quickly and for including my work in the "En gineering Science Library". Finally, I would like to express my thanks to Springer-Verlag for the excellent edition and to the editorial staff for their readiness to meet my wishes.
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Aspects of Non equilibrium Thermodynamics

In six lectures aspects of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems as well as continuum theoretical concepts are represented.

Author: Wolfgang Muschik

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9810200870

Category: Science

Page: 102

View: 977

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In six lectures aspects of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems as well as continuum theoretical concepts are represented. Starting out with survey and introduction, state spaces are defined, the existence of internal energy is investigated, and Clausius inequality including negative absolute temperature is derived by diagram technique. Non-equilibrium contact quantities, such as contact temperature ? the dynamic analogue of thermostatic temperature ? and chemical potentials are phenomenologically defined and quantumstatistically founded. Using Clausius inequality the existence of non-negative entropy production is proved which allows to formulate a dissipation inequality in continuum thermodynamics. The transition between thermodynamics of discrete systems and continuum thermodynamics with respect to contact quantities is considered. Different possibilities of exploiting the dissipation inequality for getting constraints for constitutive equations are discussed. Finally hyperbolic heat conduction in non-extended thermodynamics is treated.
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Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

This book explores the unifying role of thermodynamics in natural phenomena. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, Second Edition analyzes the transport processes of energy, mass, and momentum transfer processes, as well as chemical reactions.

Author: Yasar Demirel

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008055136X

Category: Science

Page: 754

View: 477

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Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and lead to instabilities, fluctuations, and evolutionary systems. This book explores the unifying role of thermodynamics in natural phenomena. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, Second Edition analyzes the transport processes of energy, mass, and momentum transfer processes, as well as chemical reactions. It considers various processes occurring simultaneously, and provides students with more realistic analysis and modeling by accounting possible interactions between them. This second edition updates and expands on the first edition by focusing on the balance equations of mass, momentum, energy, and entropy together with the Gibbs equation for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. Every chapter contains examples and practical problems to be solved. This book will be effective in senior and graduate education in chemical, mechanical, systems, biomedical, tissue, biological, and biological systems engineering, as well as physical, biophysical, biological, chemical, and biochemical sciences. Will help readers in understanding and modelling some of the coupled and complex systems, such as coupled transport and chemical reaction cycles in biological systems Presents a unified approach for interacting processes - combines analysis of transport and rate processes Introduces the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its use in simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions of physical, chemical, and biological systems A useful text for students taking advanced thermodynamics courses
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Understanding Non equilibrium Thermodynamics

Discover the many facets of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part of this book describes the current thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory. The second part focuses on different approaches.

Author: Georgy Lebon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540742522

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 369

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Discover the many facets of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part of this book describes the current thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory. The second part focuses on different approaches. Throughout the presentation, the emphasis is on problem-solving applications. To help build your understanding, some problems have been analyzed using several formalisms to underscore their differences and their similarities.
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Thermodynamics of Non Equilibrium Processes for Chemists with a Particular Application to Catalysis

This book will be helpful for research into complex chemical transformations, particularly catalytic transformations.

Author: V. Parmon

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080931960

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 425

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Thermodynamics of Non-Equilibrium Processes for Chemists with a Particular Application to Catalysis consists of materials adapted from lectures on the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes that have been taught at the Department of Natural Sciences of Novosibirsk State University since 1995. The thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes traditionally required students to have a strong background in physics. However, the materials featured in this volume allow anyone with knowledge in classical thermodynamics of equilibrium processes and traditional chemical kinetics to understand the subject. Topics discussed include systems in the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; thermodynamics of systems that are close to and far from equilibrium; thermodynamics of catalysts; the application of nonequilibrium thermodynamics to material science; and the relationship between entropy and information. This book will be helpful for research into complex chemical transformations, particularly catalytic transformations. Applies simple approaches of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to analyzing properties of chemically reactive systems Covers systems far from equilibrium, allowing the consideration of most chemically reactive systems of a chemical or biological nature This approach resolves many complicated problems in the teaching of chemical kinetics
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Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics with Application to Solids

This book puts emphasis on developing the basic ideas behind the different approaches to non-equilibrium thermodynamics and on applying them to solids.

Author: W. Muschik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783709143216

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 329

View: 209

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This book puts emphasis on developing the basic ideas behind the different approaches to non-equilibrium thermodynamics and on applying them to solids. After a survey about different approaches an introduction to their common fundamentals is given in the first part. In the second part the mechanical behavior of special materials such as viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, viscoelastoplasticity, and thermoplasticity are discussed. The third part is devoted to extended thermodynamics. The basic ideas, phenomenological as well as microscopical, are reviewed and applied to thermo- and viscoelastic materials. Electromagnetic solids showing dielectric relaxation, such as ceramics, showing electromagneto-mechanical hysteresis and superconductivity are treated in the fourth part. In the last part stability with regard to constitutive equations is investigated. Especially stability of quasi-static processes and of elastic-plastic systems are discussed.
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Experimental Thermodynamics Volume X

The book covers recent developments in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications.

Author: Dick Bedeaux

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781782622543

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 190

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The book covers recent developments in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications. Four chapters are devoted to the foundations; an overview chapter is followed by recent results addressing the underlying principles of the theory. The applications are concerned with bulk systems, with heterogeneous systems where interfaces are central and with process units in industry where entropy production minimization is useful. There is also a collection of chapters under the heading mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics, giving in the end an overview of extensions of the theory into the non-linear regime. Bringing the literature up to date and detailing new approaches in this area of research, it is aimed at a predominantly, but not exclusively, academic audience of practitioners of thermodynamics and energy conversion.
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Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics

In defining the new paradigm of beyond equilibrium thermodynamics, this book has the potential for opening a new field in the study of irreversible processes.

Author: Hans Christian Öttinger

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471727910

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 656

View: 122

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Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics fills a niche in the market by providing a comprehensive introduction to a new, emerging topic in the field. The importance of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is addressed in order to fully understand how a system works, whether it is in a biological system like the brain or a system that develops plastic. In order to fully grasp the subject, the book clearly explains the physical concepts and mathematics involved, as well as presenting problems and solutions; over 200 exercises and answers are included. Engineers, scientists, and applied mathematicians can all use the book to address their problems in modelling, calculating, and understanding dynamic responses of materials.
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Statistical Mechanics and Dynamics of Driven and Active Systems

In this thesis, we work towards advancing the thermodynamic theory of non-equilibrium phenomena by studying models of driven-diffusive systems, growth processes, and active matter.

Author: Katherine Klymko

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1083583375

Category:

Page: 150

View: 527

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Systems driven out of equilibrium display a rich variety of patterns and surprising response behaviors. There exist different types of non-equilibrium processes, for instance a system that has been prepared in a non-Boltzmann initial state and is relaxing back to equilibrium, or a system that adopts a non-equilibrium steady state distribution when it is driven by an external field. In these different cases, the main characteristic that distinguishes these systems as non-equilibrium is that they are constantly dissipating heat, or likewise producing entropy. This entropy production is often the starting point for developing a systematic theory to describe such non-equilibrium processes. Entropy production can be related to the irreversible processes occurring within a system. Particularly strong statements can be made about non-equilibrium systems when a local equilibrium assumption can be made, that is, when smaller subsets of a large system can be considered to be in equilibrium. This turns out to be justified for a wide variety of systems under different conditions. When this holds, the entropy production can be written as a generalized thermodynamic force (often the gradient of some intensive variable of the system) multiplied by a flux. When the thermodynamic force is small, the fluxes can be written as linear combinations of the thermodynamic forces, connected by response coefficients–this is known as linear irreversible thermodynamics. The full extension of equilibrium thermodynamic concepts to dissipative processes beyond this linear regime, including the development of microscopic principles justifying irreversible thermodynamic theories (as equilibrium statistical mechanics justifies equilibrium thermodynamics), is still a work in progress. In this thesis, we work towards advancing the thermodynamic theory of non-equilibrium phenomena by studying models of driven-diffusive systems, growth processes, and active matter. We use developments from stochastic thermodynamics, large deviation theory, and irreversible thermodynamics to characterize the non-equilibrium phases and properties exhibited by these systems. We question to what extent equilibrium approximations are valid for predicting pattern formation in these systems and whether there exist general unifying features describing these non-equilibriums processes. In the process we develop trajectory sampling methods to investigate the statistics of dynamical order parameters distinguishing these phases. We show how the first and second laws of thermodynamics, including consistent expressions for entropy production, can be extended to active systems, where microscopic reversibility is broken at the level of individual particles. Additionally we derive fluctuation relations, exact analytical results for the fluctuations of entropy production in the form of equalities, for the entropy production in active systems. We also extend the Irving-Kirkwood procedure to active systems, deriving the balance laws of mass, momentum, and energy. Consequently we obtain expressions for the stress and couple stress tensors in the system as functions of the microscopic variables. This provides a foundation to extend the framework of irreversible thermodynamics to active systems.
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Non equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics

Halid Bikkin, Igor I. Lyapilin. 1.1.7 Minimum entropy production principle for
weakly non-equilibrium steady states There are other formulations of the
variational principle. A more detailed discussion of this issue can be found in
monographs [6, ...

Author: Halid Bikkin

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110338355

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 985

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This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. Starting from phenomenological non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetic equation method discussed and demonstrated with electrons and phonons in conducting crystals. Linear response theory as well as the non-equilibrium statistical operator and the master equation approach are discussed in the course of the book. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field. Problems and their well-documented solutions included at appropriate points of the narrative allow the reader to actively develop essential parts of the theory himself. From the content: Phenomenological thermodynamics of irreversible processes Brownian motion Kinetic equations in non-equilibrium thermodynamics Kinetic equation for electrons and phonons in conducting crystals Theory of non-linear response to an external mechanical pertubation Non-equilibrium statistical operator method Response of a highly non-equilibrium system to a weakly measuring field Master equation approach
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Non equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

In summary, this expression for the second entropy shows that the optimum flux
in a non-equilibrium system represents the balance of two competing effects: a
positive effect related to the rate of entropy production that is linear in the flux and
 ...

Author: Phil Attard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199662760

Category: Science

Page: 462

View: 891

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This title builds from basic principles to advanced techniques, and covers the major phenomena, methods, and results of time-dependent systems. It is a pedagogic introduction, a comprehensive reference manual, and an original research monograph--
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Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

The book begins with a brief review of equilibrium systems and transport and rate processes, then covers the following areas: theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics; dissipation function; entropy and exergy; analysis and case studies on ...

Author: Yaşar Demirel

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN: 0444508864

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 850

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The book begins with a brief review of equilibrium systems and transport and rate processes, then covers the following areas: theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics; dissipation function; entropy and exergy; analysis and case studies on using the second law of thermodynamics; economic impact of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory; analysis of transport and rate processes; membrane transport; dissipative structures and biological systems; and other thermodynamic approaches and extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics. · Summarizes new applications of thermodynamics as tools for design and optimisation · Covers second law and exergy analysis for sustainable development · Promotes understanding of the coupled phenomena of natural processes
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Nonequilibrium Nondissipative Thermodynamics

Obviously, such a definition of phase could not be used directly for
nonequilibrium systems. ... However, based on modern thermodynamics, there is
a direct relationship between the irreversible process and the entropy production
of the ...

Author: Ji-Tao Wang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 354042802X

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 754

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This book introduces a new and successful concept for thermodynamics: nonequilibrium phase diagrams. This concept has been successfully applied to diamond synthesis. The book goes on to demonstrate how these diagrams lead to a complete new systematization of modern thermodynamics.
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