This title is part of UC Press's Voices Revived program, which commemorates University of California Press's mission to seek out and cultivate the brightest minds and give them voice, reach, and impact. Drawing on a backlist dating to 1893, Voices Revived makes high-quality, peer-reviewed scholarship accessible once again using print-on-demand technology. This title was originally published in 1964.
For a list of the members of the Seichủ Gumi , see Katsuda Magoya and Usui Yoshiharu , eds . , Ökubo Toshimichi Monjo ( Papers of Okubo Toshimichi ) ( Tokyo : Nihon Shiseki Kyokai , 1927-1929 ) , I , 32-34 ; hereacter cited as Ökubo ...
Author: Masakazu Iwata
Publisher: Univ of California Press
The samurai radicals who overthrew the last shogun in 1868 promised to restore ancient and pure Japanese ways. Foreign observers were terrified that Japan would lapse into violent xenophobia. But the new Meiji government took an opposite course. It copied best practices from around the world, building a powerful and modern Japanese nation with the help of European and American advisors. While revering the Japanese past, the Meiji government boldly embraced the foreign and the new. What explains this paradox? How could Japan's 1868 revolution be both modern and traditional, both xenophobic and cosmopolitan? To Stand with the Nations of the World explains the paradox of the Restoration through the forces of globalization. The Meiji Restoration was part of the global "long nineteenth century" during which ambitious nation states like Japan, Britain, Germany, and the United States challenged the world's great multi-ethnic empires--Ottoman, Qing, Romanov, and Hapsburg. Japan's leaders wanted to celebrate Japanese uniqueness, but they also sought international recognition. Rather than simply mimic world powers like Britain, they sought to make Japan distinctly Japanese in the same way that Britain was distinctly British. Rather than sing "God Save the King," they created a Japanese national anthem with lyrics from ancient poetry, but Western-style music. The Restoration also resonated with Japan's ancient past. In the 600s and 700s, Japan was threatened by the Tang dynasty, a dynasty as powerful as the Roman empire. In order to resist the Tang, Japanese leaders borrowed Tang methods, building a centralized Japanese state on Tang models, and learning continental science and technology. As in the 1800s, Japan co-opted international norms while insisting on Japanese distinctiveness. When confronting globalization in 1800s, Japan looked back to that "ancient globalization" of the 600s and 700s. The ancient past was therefore not remote or distant, but immediate and vital.
See also Kido Takayoshi, The Diary of Kido Takayoshi, trans. Sidney DeVere Brown, 3 vols. (Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1983), 2:186–187. Okubo to Nishitoku Jiró, January 27, 1873, in Okubo Toshimichi Rosoflá, Okubo Toshimichi ...
Author: Mark Ravina
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In this book social scientists scrutinize the middle decades of the nineteenth century in Japan. That scrutiny is important and overdue, for the period from the 1850s to the 1880s has usually been treated in terms of politics and foreign relations. Yet those decades were also of pivotal importance in Japan's institutional modernization. As the Japanese entered the world order, they experienced a massive introduction of Western-style organizations. Sweeping reforms, without the class violence or the Utopian appeal of revolution, created the foundation for a modern society. The Meiji Restoration introduced a political transformation, but these chapters address the more gradual social transition. Originally published in 1986. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
As Okubo Toshimichi put it: “the threat to the foundation of the imperial state is more pressing now than a year ago.” The course of action followed by Ökubo Toshimichi in this period illuminates the narrow path that leaders in the ...
Author: Marius B. Jansen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Social Science
The dramatic arc of Saigo Takamori's life, from his humble origins as a lowly samurai, to national leadership, to his death as a rebel leader, has captivated generations of Japanese readers and now Americans as well - his life is the inspiration for a major Hollywood film, The Last Samurai, starring Tom Cruise and Ken Watanabe. In this vibrant new biography, Mark Ravina, professor of history and Director of East Asian Studies at Emory University, explores the facts behind Hollywood storytelling and Japanese legends, and explains the passion and poignancy of Saigo's life. Known both for his scholarly research and his appearances on The History Channel, Ravina recreates the world in which Saigo lived and died, the last days of the samurai. The Last Samurai traces Saigo's life from his early days as a tax clerk in far southwestern Japan, through his rise to national prominence as a fierce imperial loyalist. Saigo was twice exiled for his political activities -- sent to Japan's remote southwestern islands where he fully expected to die. But exile only increased his reputation for loyalty, and in 1864 he was brought back to the capital to help his lord fight for the restoration of the emperor. In 1868, Saigo commanded his lord's forces in the battles which toppled the shogunate and he became and leader in the emperor Meiji's new government. But Saigo found only anguish in national leadership. He understood the need for a modern conscript army but longed for the days of the traditional warrior. Saigo hoped to die in service to the emperor. In 1873, he sought appointment as envoy to Korea, where he planned to demand that the Korean king show deference to the Japanese emperor, drawing his sword, if necessary, top defend imperial honor. Denied this chance to show his courage and loyalty, he retreated to his homeland and spent his last years as a schoolteacher, training samurai boys in frugality, honesty, and courage. In 1876, when the government stripped samurai of their swords, Saigo's followers rose in rebellion and Saigo became their reluctant leader. His insurrection became the bloodiest war Japan had seen in centuries, killing over 12,000 men on both sides and nearly bankrupting the new imperial government. The imperial government denounced Saigo as a rebel and a traitor, but their propaganda could not overcome his fame and in 1889, twelve years after his death, the government relented, pardoned Saigo of all crimes, and posthumously restored him to imperial court rank. In THE LAST SAMURAI, Saigo is as compelling a character as Robert E. Lee was to Americans-a great and noble warrior who followed the dictates of honor and loyalty, even though it meant civil war in a country to which he'd devoted his life. Saigo's life is a fascinating look into Japanese feudal society and a history of a country as it struggled between its long traditions and the dictates of a modern future.
Sanjo Sanetomi to Okubo (1871/2/18) in Okubo Toshimichi monjo 4:211–212. 40. SSTKS 73 and STZ 4:28. 41. The importance of the 1871 reorganization of the imperial guard,known in Japanese as sanpan kenpei, is discussed in Umegaki 1988 ...
Author: Mark Ravina
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
No institution did more to create a modern citizenry than the newspaper press of the Meiji period (1868-1912). Here was a collection of highly diverse, private voices that provided increasing numbers of readers - many millions by the end of the period - with both its fresh picture of the world and a changing sense of its own place in that world. Creating a Public is the first comprehensive history of Japan's early newspaper press to appear in English in more than half a century. Drawing on decades of research in newspaper articles and editorials, journalists' memoirs and essays, government documents and press analyses, it tells the story of Japan's newspaper press from its elitist beginnings just before the fall of the Tokugawa regime through its years as a shaper of a new political system in the 1880s to its emergence as a nationalistic, often sensational, medium early in the twentieth century. More than an institutional study, this work not only traces the evolution of the press' leading papers, their changing approaches to circulation, news, and advertising, and the personalities of their leading editors; it also examines the interplay between Japan's elite institutions and its rising urban working classes from a wholly new perspective - that of the press. What emerges is the transformation of Japan's commoners (minshu) from uninformed, disconnected subjects to active citizens in the national political process - a modern public. Conversely, minshu begin to play a decisive role in making Japan's newspapers livelier, more sensational, and more influential. As Huffman states in his Introduction: "The newspapers turned the people into citizens; the people turned the papers into mass media." In addition to providing new perspectives on Meiji society and political life, Creating a Public addresses themes important to the study of mass media around the world: the conflict between social responsibility and commercialization, the role of the press in spurring national development, the interplay between readers' tastes and editors' principles, the impact of sensationalism on national social and political life. Huffman raises these issues in a comparative context, relating the Meiji press to American and Japanese press systems at similar points of development. With its broad coverage of the press' role in modernizing Japan, Creating a Public will be of great interest to students of mass media in general as well as specialists of Japanese history.
For a description of the incident , see Masakazu Iwata , Okubo Toshimichi : The Bismarck of Japan , p . 253 . 137. See Miyatake , “ Meiji hikka shi shiryo , " no . 3 , p . 19 . 138. Choya Shimbun , May 15 , 1878 ; reprinted in Haga ...
Author: James L. Huffman
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
H. D. Harootunian has provided a new preface for the paperback edition of his classic study Toward Restoration, the first intellectual history of the Meiji Restoration in English. Book jacket.
Okubo Toshimichi ( 1830–1878 ) .14 Much of Okubo's commitment to sectionalism grew out of his contact with the Satsuma daimyo Shimazu Hisamitsu and his promotion of the kõbugattai compromise . Like other activists in the 1860s , Okubo ...
Author: H. D. Harootunian
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Using ceremonials such as imperial weddings and funerals as models, T. Fujitani illustrates what visual symbols and rituals reveal about monarchy, nationalism, city planning, discipline, gender, memory, and modernity. Focusing on the Meiji Period (1868-1912), Fujitani brings recent methods of cultural history to a study of modern Japanese nationalism for the first time.
26. It has been noted that the term teito came into frequent use from the late 1880s in Tokyo Hyakunenshi Henshū Iinkai, ed., Tokyô hyakumenshi, 3:7–8. 27. The petition in its entirety is collected in Okubo Toshimichi ...
Author: Takashi Fujitani
Publisher: Univ of California Press
In the years following Japan's long period of self-imposed isolation from the world, Japan developed a new relationship with the West, and especially with Britain, where relations grew to be particularly close. The Japanese, embarrassed by their perceived comparative backwardness, looked to the West to learn modern industrial techniques, including the design and engineering skills which underpinned them. At the same time, taking great pride in their own culture, they exhibited and sold high quality products of traditional Japanese craftsmanship in the West, stimulating a thirst for, and appreciation of, Japanese arts and crafts. This book examines the two-way bridge-building cultural exchange which took place between Japan and Britain in the years after 1859 and into the early years of the twentieth century. Topics covered include architecture, industrial design, prints, painting and photographs, together with a consideration of Japanese government policy, the Japan-Britain Exhibition of 1910, and commercial spin-offs. In addition, there are case studies of key individuals who were particularly influential in fostering British-Japanese cultural bridges in this period.
The key factor to strengthen the basis of the polity is to encourage industries and develop trades.25 Kido Takayoshi died on 26 May 1877, aged forty-four; Okubo Toshimichi was assassinated a year later by Satsuma Samurai, infuriated by ...
Author: Olive Checkland
Category: Political Science
"Japanese Industrial Governance uses a wide range of original Japanese sources to explore the evolution of Japanese developmental debates, arguing that the core of the industrial governance system was in fact the result of infant industry protection and high barriers to foreign entry. In response to international pressures, in particular penetration by Anglo-American multinational corporations, the "licensing system," as Sohn refers to it, was not purely an internal, domestic decision, as it is commonly regarded. Using primarily the cases of prewar petroleum and automobiles industries, the focus of this book lies mainly in the late nineteenth century when the Meiji leaders (1868-1912) established non-tariff protective mechanisms, which were strengthened by the massive entry of foreign multinationals during the 1920s. Combined with other industrial policy tools such as subsidies and other financial incentives, the licensing system helped to establish regulated markets."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
24 Okubo Toshimichi monjo V , p . ... 28 See also Okubo Toshimichi monjo VI ( 1968 ) , p . ... 40 See S. Brown , ' Okubo Toshimichi : His Political and Economic Policies in Early Meiji Japan , ' Journal of Asian Studies 21 , February ...
Author: Yul Sohn
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Political Science
Okubo Toshikazu ( ed . ) . Okubo Toshimichi Bursho ( Okubo Toshimichi Documents ) . Tokyo : Nihon Shiseki Kyokai , 1927–31 . 10 vols . Reference was made to Vol.V in this study . Sets of these may be found at the Gaimusho and at the ...
Author: Hilary Conroy
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Category: Political Science