Detection and Typing Strategies for Pathogenic Escherichia coli

This Brief will review the methods that are currently available for the detection, isolation, and typing of pathogenic E. coli with a particular focus on foodborne diseases caused by the Shiga toxigenic E. coli group, which have been ...

Author: Lucia Rivas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493923465

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 110

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This Brief will review the methods that are currently available for the detection, isolation, and typing of pathogenic E. coli with a particular focus on foodborne diseases caused by the Shiga toxigenic E. coli group, which have been implicated in a number of significant outbreaks in recent years. Pathogenic forms of E. coli can cause a variety of diarrheal diseases in hosts due to the presence of specific colonization and virulence factors, and pathogenicity-associated genes, which are generally not present in other E. coli. Six pathotypes of pathogenic E. coli are recognized (Shiga toxigenic E. coli, Enteropathogenic E. coli, Enterotoxigenic E. coli, Enteroinvasive E. coli, Enteroaggregative E. coli and Diffusely Adherent E. coli) and certain strains among these groups are major public health concerns due to the severity of disease that they can cause. Methods to detect and isolate these pathogens from a variety of sources are constantly evolving. In addition, the accumulation of knowledge on these pathogens allows for improved intervention strategies.
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Pathogenic Escherichia Coli in Latin America

It features a unique, comprehensive analysis of the most common categories of E. coli associated with diarrheal illness in Latin America. The aim of this book is to help epide.

Author: Alfredo G. Torres

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 9781608051922

Category: Medical

Page: 264

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Pathogenic Escherichia coli are known to be a common cause of diarrheal disease - a common cause of frequently occurring bacterial infections in children and adults in developing countries. It poses a significant problem in Latin America. Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Latin America presents current information on understanding pathogenic E. coli in Latin America and outlines prospects for future research in this region. It features a unique, comprehensive analysis of the most common categories of E. coli associated with diarrheal illness in Latin America. The aim of this book is to help epide.
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Escherichia coli

In addition to the well-established and extensively studied categories of pathogenic E. coli, there are other groups of E. coli associated with diarrheal and/or inflammatory bowel diseases that have not been thoroughly characterized or ...

Author: Victor A. Garcia-Angulo

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 9780128061855

Category: Science

Page: 612

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In addition to the well-established and extensively studied categories of pathogenic E. coli, there are other groups of E. coli associated with diarrheal and/or inflammatory bowel diseases that have not been thoroughly characterized or which are considered newly emergent pathogens. This chapter focuses on three representatives of these groups of pathogenic E. coli and the current progress understanding their role in pathogenesis. Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) are a collection of isolates that colonize the small bowel, considered potentially diarrheagenic, and that can cause childhood diarrhea. Adherent and invasive E. coli (AIEC) are a group of mucosa-associated bacteria with invasive properties in Crohn’s disease patients and can survive and replicate extensively in macrophages. Finally, E. coli O104:H4, a hybrid Shiga toxin-producing enteroaggregative E. coli, which caused a large outbreak in Europe in 2011, displays a unique combination of virulence traits resulting in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome in an unusually large proportion of infected patients. This chapter summarizes recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis and the clinical outcome of these types of E. coli infections.
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Escherichia coli

In this chapter we try to address these questions by dissecting the molecular mechanisms of both pathogenicity and evolution of Escherichia coli, one of the most notorious and versatile human pathogens, which is also one of the most common ...

Author: Sujay Chattopadhyay

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 9780128061770

Category: Science

Page: 612

View: 485

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Why do bacteria cause disease in humans? Is disease adaptive for the pathogen or just a biological accident? And if disease is adaptive, how does it influence the long-term or short-term fitness for the pathogen and how is it sustained in nature? In this chapter we try to address these questions by dissecting the molecular mechanisms of both pathogenicity and evolution of Escherichia coli, one of the most notorious and versatile human pathogens, which is also one of the most common human commensal bacteria. We examine how and, more importantly, why horizontally transferred virulence factors and pathoadaptive mutations are acquired by and sustained by certain E. coli lineages. The evolution of pathogenicity is thus reviewed from the perspective of E. coli ecology, with the discussion of various models of virulence evolution in general and some of its paradoxes. We hope to shed light from the evolutionary perspective on how professional, accidental, or opportunistic pathogens might be defined.
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E coli

This unique collection presents timely and vital information on understanding the inner workings of E. coli, which will lend key insights into disease prevention research.

Author: Michael Donnenberg

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080494814

Category: Science

Page: 417

View: 646

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Although most strains of E. coli bacteria are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals, several strains can produce powerful toxins and cause severe illness in humans. This versatile pathogen is best known for being transmitted to humans through contaminated foods — such as undercooked meat and unpasteurized fruit juice — and has attracts much attention when serious outbreaks occur. E. coli is capable of causing a wide variety of diseases — from urinary tract infections to meningitis. A considerable amount of media coverage has recently been devoted to one particular strain of E. coli, responsible for an estimated 73,000 cases of infection and 61 deaths in the United States each year. Knowing more about the biology, the evolution, and the genetic basis of this pathogen is crucial to future prevention of infection and illness. Pathogenic E. coli is a unique, comprehensive analysis of the biology and molecular mechanisms that enable this ubiquitous organism to thrive. Leading investigators in the field discuss the molecular basis of E. coli pathogenesis followed by chapters on genomics and evolution. Detailed descriptions of distinct strains reveal the molecular pathogenesis of each and the causes of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans. Pathogenic E. coli concludes with a presentation of virulance factors, common to two or more pathotypes. This unique collection presents timely and vital information on understanding the inner workings of E. coli, which will lend key insights into disease prevention research. Single source of information of E. coli pathogenesis Expert authors Comprehensive coverage Molecular mechanisms Biology, evolution and genomics Recent advances
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Detection and Typing Strategies for Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

This Brief will review the methods that are currently available for the detection, isolation, and typing of pathogenic E. coli with a particular focus on foodborne diseases caused by the Shiga toxigenic E. coli group, which have been ...

Author: Lucia Rivas

Publisher:

ISBN: 1493923471

Category:

Page: 118

View: 640

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Escherichia coli

This work concludes with a presentation of virulence factors common to two or more pathotypes.

Author: Michael Donnenberg

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123977779

Category: Science

Page: 612

View: 539

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The 2e of Escherichia coli is a unique, comprehensive analysis of the biology and molecular mechanisms that enable this ubiquitous organism to thrive. Leading investigators in the field discuss the molecular basis of E. coli pathogenesis followed by chapters on genomics and evolution. Detailed descriptions of distinct strains reveal the molecular pathogenesis of each and the causes of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in humans. This work concludes with a presentation of virulence factors common to two or more pathotypes. The book is a great resource for references and up-to-date knowledge for anyone who studies E. coli pathogenesis, either as established investigators or investigators new to the field. It is also an excellent text for those who teach mechanisms of pathogenesis to graduate students and medical students and wish to have a source of knowledge from which to develop lectures. Offers a single source of information of E. coli pathogenesis written by expert authors Presents comprehensive coverage on molecular mechanisms, biology, evolution and genomics and recent advances
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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of the healthy gut, but is also an important and widespread human and animal pathogen.

Author: Jason W. Sahl

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 9780128061763

Category: Science

Page: 612

View: 169

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Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of the healthy gut, but is also an important and widespread human and animal pathogen. E. coli has been associated with human infections including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and meningitis. E. coli are designated into pathogenic variants (pathovars, also known as pathotypes) based largely on molecular markers associated with specific disease presentations. Many of these biomarkers are present on mobile genetic elements, which provide difficulties in accurate identification and surveillance of these pathogens. E. coli was one of the first bacteria to have the complete genome decoded and these organisms have been the focus of genomic studies for approximately the last 15 years. While early studies suggested the diversity of the species may be limited, the generation of multiple genomes rapidly identified significant genomic diversity. Whole genome sequence analysis has demonstrated significant genetic variability even within each pathovar. Furthermore, next generation sequencing has identified the distribution of genes across the E. coli species and provided insights into the evolution of the species. In the coming years, decreased sequencing costs are likely to positively affect the understanding of pathogenesis in this important human pathogen.
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Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

This is largely due to E. coli genome's plasticity: it generates great variability and facilitates the rapid emergence of new pathogenic variants.

Author: Stefano Morabito

Publisher:

ISBN: 1908230371

Category: Medical

Page: 332

View: 275

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In recent years, a great deal of knowledge has accumulated on the features associated with the virulence of pathogenic E. coli. A large number of virulence genes have been identified and their products characterized. Great strides have been made in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and the bacterium-host interaction. However, much remains elusive in the understanding of pathogenicity at a cellular and sub-cellular level. This is largely due to E. coli genome's plasticity: it generates great variability and facilitates the rapid emergence of new pathogenic variants. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying the evolution of these pathogens and their interactions with the host are key stages for disease prevention. This book reviews the most important recent findings of the studies on pathogenic E. coli, providing a timely overview of the field. The topics covered include: epidemiology of the disease in humans and animals and the biological mechanisms that shaped the pathogenic types of E. coli * shiga toxins * subtilase cytotoxin * cell cycle modulating toxins * the heat stable and heat labile enterotoxins * haemolysins * structural, molecular, and functional characteristics of A/E lesions * colonization factor antigens of ETEC * enteroaggregative adhesion * host cell invasion * the development of vaccinal strategies to confront the burden of disease. The chapters are written from a molecular and cellular biology standpoint, but also include discussions of the findings with a wider perspective, including considerations of public health and the impact on animal productions. The book will be essential reading for everyone working on these and related pathogens.
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Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

In this book, renowned experts provide timely and up-to-date reviews of current E. coli omics, molecular- and cellular-biology research.

Author: Pina M. Fratamico

Publisher: CAISTER ACADEMIC Press

ISBN: 1910190772

Category: Medical

Page: 258

View: 837

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In this book, renowned experts provide timely and up-to-date reviews of current E. coli omics, molecular- and cellular-biology research. Topics range from E. coli genome plasticity and evolution to the application of omics technologies for in silico modeling to understand stress-triggered physiological responses. Essential reading.
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Escherichia coli a Versatile Pathogen

This volume focuses on several types of E. coli infections (intestinal and extraintestinal), virulence factors, and E. coli pandemics.

Author: Gad Frankel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319996646

Category: Medical

Page: 242

View: 267

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Escherichia coli is a facultative anaerobic Gamma-proteobacterium, which belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. While being an important constituent of the normal gut microbiota, specialized E. coli clones have acquired genetic elements that allow them to compete with the endogenous commensals, colonise normally sterile niches and cause disease. E. coli pathotypes can cause intestinal and extra intestinal infections (e.g. UTI, sepsis) and associate with mammalian cells while being extra- or intra-cellular. In recent years, E. coli infections have become a serious clinical problem, due to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance. Thus, infections with intestinal E. coli (e.g. E. coli O104) or extraintestinal pathogenic strains (e.g. E. coli ST131) are becoming difficult to treat and are often lethal. Consequently, there is a pressing need to develop alternative control measures, including the identification of new drug targets and development of vaccines that offer lasting protection. This volume focuses on several types of E. coli infections (intestinal and extraintestinal), virulence factors, and E. coli pandemics. It addresses the problem of antibiotic resistance, and a dedicated chapter discusses the need to develop alternative control measures. Given its depth and breadth of coverage, the book will benefit all those interested in the biology, genetics, physiology and pathogenesis of E. coli, and in related vaccine development.
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Escherichia coli in the Americas

This book's target audience include trainees and students learning about the basic and clinical aspects of E. coli pathogenesis, as well as experts around the globe who wish to learn more about this pathogen and the public health impact ...

Author: Alfredo G. Torres

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319450926

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 189

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Bacterial diarrheal diseases remain an important leading cause of preventable death, especially among children under five in developing countries. In the American continent, diarrheal disease and other health complications caused by Escherichia coli constitute a major public health problem, and, therefore, several research groups have dedicated their effort to understand this pathogen and provide feasible solutions to prevent, treat and reduce E. coli infections. The Latin American Coalition for Escherichia coli Research (LACER) was created as a multidisciplinary network of international research groups working with E. coli with the ultimate goal of advancing understanding of E. coli, and to prepare the next generation of American E. coli investigators. As such, this book compiles the knowledge of these investigators about E. coli, a commensal bacteria living inside its host, and a pathogen causing disease in animals and humans. Escherichia coli in the Americas contains a series of 15 chapters written by experts, covering basic concepts regarding the different categories of E. coli, including their environmental niche, virulence mechanisms, host reservoir, and disease outcomes, as well as diagnosis, vaccine development and treatment. This book's target audience include trainees and students learning about the basic and clinical aspects of E. coli pathogenesis, as well as experts around the globe who wish to learn more about this pathogen and the public health impact this bacteria has in America.
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