Paying for the Past

Yet the vast literature on sentencing policy, law, and practice has generally overlooked the issue of prior convictions, even though this is the most important sentencing factor after the seriousness of the crime.

Author: Julian V. Roberts

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190254018

Category: Law

Page: 320

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All modern sentencing systems, in the US and beyond, consider the offender's prior record to be an important determinant of the form and severity of punishment for subsequent offences. Repeat offenders receive harsher punishments than first offenders, and offenders with longer criminal records are punished more severely than those with shorter records. Yet the vast literature on sentencing policy, law, and practice has generally overlooked the issue of prior convictions, even though this is the most important sentencing factor after the seriousness of the crime. In Paying for the Past, Richard S. Frase and Julian V. Roberts provide a critical and systematic examination of current prior record enhancements under sentencing guidelines across the US. Drawing on empirical data and analyses of guidelines from a number of jurisdictions, they illustrate different approaches to prior record enhancements and the differing outcomes of those approaches. Roberts and Frase demonstrate that most prior record enhancements generate a range of adverse outcomes at sentencing. Further, the pervasive justifications for prior record enhancement, such as the repeat offender's assumed higher risk of reoffending or greater culpability, are uncertain and have rarely been subjected to critical appraisal. The punitive sentencing premiums for repeat offenders prescribed by US guidelines cannot be justified on grounds of prevention or retribution. Shining a light on a neglected but critically important topic, Paying for the Past examines the costs of prior record enhancements for repeat offenders and offers model guidelines to help reduce racial disparities and reallocate criminal justice resources for jurisdictions who use sentence enhancements.
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Paying for the Past

Instead of " perpetuating " reparations , Die Zeit believed , they should finally be
brought to an end , so that a " new chapter unburdened by the past " could begin .
173 People hoped to dispose of the burden of the past , not only by bringing ...

Author: Christian Pross

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801858240

Category: History

Page: 265

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Finally available in English, this edition of Paying for the Past contains a new preface by the author and an afterword by medical ethicist Erich Loewy which places the ethical issues raised by the West German experiences with reparations into an international context.
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A Course in Miracles

Even the past life that death might indicate, could only have been futile if it must
come to this, and needs this to prove that it was at ... By the notion of paying for
the past in the future, the past becomes the determiner of the future, making them



ISBN: 9780981597164

Category: Self-Help

Page: 664

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This volume contains the original "Course in Miracles" text, as well as the "Course for Miracles for Teachers" and "The 360 Lessons."
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Paying for agricultural productivity

... past century, paying particular attention to developments of the past 50 years.
We next describe the main R&D performing institutions in the current federal and
state agricultural research systems and the various federal funding mechanisms.

Author: Alston, Julian M.

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 9780801861857

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 315

View: 226

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Agricultural research and development has stimulated enormous increases in agricultural productivity in the twentieth century. Now, in response to common pressures, countries the world over are changing how they manage and pay for agricultural R&D. Paying for Agricultural Productivity reviews agricultural R&D policy in Australia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States and assesses whether the new approaches are raising or lowering the efficiency and effectiveness of R&D. To complement the case studies, the book analyzes trends in R&D investment in twenty-two developed countries. Paying for Agricultural Productivity will be an invaluable resource for economic and development specialists concerned with agricultural research and development, as well as for farmers, food processors, agricultural wholesalers and retailers, environmentalists, and research scientists.
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The Future of the Past

Half of this goes toward paying unemployed former militia fighters who overthrew
the government of Siad Barre. The traditional postcolonial African government
was modeled after the Western nation-state, a centralized government with a ...

Author: Alexander Stille

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 9781466817098

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

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An engrossing look at the cultural consequences of technological change and globalization Space radar, infrared photography, carbon dating, DNA analysis, microfilm, digital data bases-we have better technology than ever for studying and preserving the past. And yet the by-products of technology threaten to destroy--in one or two generations--monuments, works of art, and ways of life that have survived thousands of years of hardship and war. This paradox is central to our age. We use the Internet to access and assess infinite amounts of information--but understand less and less of its historical context. Globalization may eventually benefit countries around the world; it will also, almost certainly, lead to the disappearance of hundreds of regional dialects, languages, and whole societies. In The Future of the Past, Alexander Stille takes us on a tour of the past as it exists today and weighs its prospects for tomorrow, from China to Somalia to Washington, D.C. Through incisive portraits of their protagonists, he describes high-tech struggles to save the Great Sphinx and the Ganges; efforts to preserve Latin within the Vatican; the digital glut inside the National Archives, which may have lost more information in the information age than ever before; an oral culture threatened by a "new" technology: writing itself. Wherever it takes him, Stille explores not just the past, but our ideas about the past, how they are changing--and how they will have to change if our past is to have a future.
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Freedom from Past Injustices

between current wrongs and past wrongs, I will begin by analyzing contemporary
cases (in which the wrongdoers and ... This is an indirect act of support for his or
her government's activities, and the connection between paying taxes and the ...

Author: Nahshon Perez

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 9780748649631

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

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There is a widespread belief that contemporary citizens should take responsibility for rectifying past wrongs. Nahshon Perez challenges this view, questioning attempts to aggregate dead wrongdoers with living people, and examining ideas of intergeneration
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Principles of Lender Liability

3 'Paying For Our Past', a Consultation Paper (March 1994), prepared by the
Department of the Environment and the Welsh Office. 4 Entitled 'Contaminated
Land Cleanup 86 Control', a Consultation Paper (March 1994), prepared by the ...

Author: Parker Hood

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198299035

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 678

View: 563

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Providing a single point of reference, this book covers situations in which banks can incur liability, giving a practical consideration of the central issues and as well as the underlying general principles. It addresses liability in negligence and contract from an English law perspective, with reference to Scottish and Commonwealth law.
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Remembrance of Patients Past

Efforts were made to get paying patients to work at 999 with the argument that it
would be physically and mentally therapeutic. In 1894 Clark noted that out of 225
paying inmates at least 50 per cent were capable of some type of work. Relatives

Author: Geoffrey Reaume

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 9780195415384

Category: History

Page: 362

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In Remembrance of Patients Past, historian Geoffrey Reaume remembers previously forgotten psychiatric patients by examining in rich detail their daily life at the Toronto Hospital for the Insane (now called the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health - CAMH) from 1870-1940. Psychiatric patients endured abuse and could lead monotonous lives inside the asylum's walls, yet these same women and men worked hard at unpaid institutional jobs for years and decades on end, created their own entertainment, even in some cases made their own clothes, while forming meaningful relationships with other patients and some staff. Using first person accounts by and about patients - including letters written by inmates which were confiscated by hospital staff - Reaume weaves together a tapestry of stories about the daily lives of people confined behind brick walls that patients themselves built.
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Internet Econometrics

Strikingly, thepercentage ofthe populationwho have paidto download at some
pointin the past issignificantly higher thanthe number of paying downloaders
overthe past 12 months.It would seem that paidfor downloads have not been
attractive ...

Author: S. Allegrezza

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230364226

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 344

View: 516

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The proliferation of the internet has often been referred to as the fourth technological revolution. This book explores the diffusion of radical new communication technologies, and the subsequent transformation not only of products, but also of the organisation of production and business methods.
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The Look of the Past

Written materials help reveal ways in which looking was important in past
societies and attended to by many constituencies. Probing the look of the past
involves paying close attention to words as well as to images and objects, and to
the ...

Author: Ludmilla Jordanova

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316139455

Category: History


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How can we use visual and material culture to shed light on the past? Ludmilla Jordanova offers a fascinating and thoughtful introduction to the role of images, objects and buildings in the study of past times. Through a combination of thematic chapters and essays on specific artefacts – a building, a piece of sculpture, a photographic exhibition and a painted portrait – she shows how to analyse the agency and visual intelligence of artists, makers and craftsmen and make sense of changes in visual experience over time. Generously illustrated and drawing on numerous examples of images and objects from 1600 to the present, this is an essential guide to the skills that students need in order to describe, analyse and contextualise visual evidence. The Look of the Past will encourage readers to think afresh about how they, like people in the past, see and interpret the world around them.
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Despite protests, the contractors were hurrying construction along; having
decided paying overtime would be cheaper than paying penalties for the past
year. It was decided to hold the experiments the last week in May, since most of
the ...


Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 9781420889383

Category: Fiction

Page: 568

View: 230

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Dr. Tom Gorham is a professor at Central States University located on the Mississippi River below St. Louis. One of his assignments is to secure funding for research projects in the College of Science and Engineering. Dr. John “Raj” Jhangi, a Professor of Physics, tries an experiment with an experimental powerful electromagnet with results that open a new realm in Physics. Tom’s job is to coordinate the efforts to solve the dilemma of the experiment. The Navy Department lends an old escort destroyer to the University to supply added D.C. power to expand the experiment while the Pentagon tries to obtain control over the experiment as a defense project. One of their observers, an officious naval captain, interferes with the experiment and causes the experiment to blow up, sending a portion of the University back in time. Efforts to return only puts the group further into the past and the people and a portion of the university winds up in the year 1003 A.D. One of the primary problems facing the colony is the need for more people and children so the colony will not die out and the knowledge lost. Since women far outnumber men, much debate occurs as to how they can have more children when there are not enough males. This is solved by a sharing arrangement where a woman asks permission of a wife to share her husband for purposes of insemination, after which the man must have nothing more to do with the woman. This arrangement makes many women unhappy and requires modification. The colony meets the Cahokian Indians and establish a common ground of support for each other when the colonists defeat a warring Indian tribe who attack the Cahokians. Further complications arise when the Indians desire to become “one people” which requires the council members to take an Indian “princess” and some women to marry an Indian “prince.” This is done to make “One People” and thus seal the pact. The people struggle to survive; scrounging seeds, food and clothing from various sources and changing cars and trucks into fanning and mining equipment. By the end of the second year the colony is in good enough shape to search for and find oil, gold, coal and iron ore. The third year they are able to send the destroyer to Europe for supplies and more people and children. The book details the efforts for the colony to survive and grow and to reshape the direction of the world by having as their primary goal education of the people. The conditions of the various countries and the living conditions in the world in 1005 A.D. are described and the history of many of the plants and foods used by Americans today.
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Paying the Price

As for the residents of hazard-prone areas, property owners today are
experiencing greater difficulty in acquiring insurance and are paying
considerably more for it than they have in the past. Moreover, these market
conditions will become ...

Author: Richard J. Roth, Sr.

Publisher: Joseph Henry Press

ISBN: 9780309063616

Category: Science

Page: 318

View: 733

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This book considers the effectiveness of insurance coverage for low-probability, high-consequence events such as natural disasters--and how insurance programs can successfully be used with other policy tools, such as building codes and standards, to encourage effective loss reduction measures. The authors discuss the reasons for the dramatic increase in insured losses from natural disasters since 1989 and the concern that insurers have about their ability to provide coverage against more such events in the future. It addresses why there has been an increasing demand for hazards insurance, what types of coverage private insurers are willing to offer, and the role of reinsurance and private-/public-sector initiatives at the state and federal levels for providing protection to victims of natural disasters. Detailed case studies of the challenges facing Florida in the wake of Hurricane Andrew in 1992 and California following the Northridge earthquake in 1994 reveal the challenges facing the insurance industry as well as other concerned stakeholders. The National Flood Insurance Program illustrates how a public-/private-sector partnership can mitigate damages and provide financial protection to victims. The book identifies new initiatives for reducing future losses and providing funds for recovery through cooperation by the relevant parties.
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Paying for College Without Going Broke 2005 Edition

In fact , this is not true at all , and margin debt may be one of the more sensible
approaches to paying for college if you run ... term investment possibilities , the
stock market has been the single best way to build principal over the past 50
years .

Author: Kalman A. Chany

Publisher: The Princeton Review

ISBN: 0375764216

Category: Education

Page: 314

View: 507

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Discusses financial aid options and cutting college costs.
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Paying for Progress in China

Yet the number of rural poor officially increased by 800,000, the first such
officially announced increase in the past quarter century of reform and transition (
see Xinhua News Agency 2004). The correspondence of rapid growth and
increased ...

Author: Vivienne Shue

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134100705

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

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China’s stunning record of economic development since the 1970s has been marred by an increasingly obvious gap between the country’s ‘haves’ and its ‘have-nots’. While people living in some parts of the country have enjoyed dramatically improved conditions of life, those in other districts and regions have slipped ever further behind in terms of access to health, wealth, education, security and opportunity. Paying for Progress in China is a collection of essays which trace the causes of this growing inequality, using new data including surveys, interviews, newly available official statistics and in-depth fieldwork. Their findings expose the malfunctioning of China’s ‘broken’ intergovernmental fiscal system, which has exacerbated the disequalizing effects of emerging market forces. Whilst the government’s deliberately ‘pro-poor’ development policies have in recent years sought to reduce the gap between rich and poor, both markets, and also state institutions and policies, are continuing to create perverse equity outcomes across the country, confounding hopes for better-balanced and more inclusive growth in China. The interdisciplinary approach of this collection, incorporating work by economists, sociologists and political scientists, makes it a valuable resource for students of contemporary Chinese political economy and social development.
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Options for Paying Military Physicians

medical schools have declined substantially over the past decade ; for every
acceptance , medical schools attracted about 2 applicants in 1980 , only 1.6
applicants in 1988. The steady ratio of applicants to awards suggests that the
HPSP's ...

Author: Joel N. Slackman


ISBN: UOM:39015032140363

Category: Government publications

Page: 72

View: 159

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The 100 Best Dividend paying Stocks To Own In America

Financial Strength Increased earnings per share four of the past five years .
Increased revenues four of the past five years . Financial Summary Fiscal year
ended : Dec. 31 5 - 146 ☆ The 100 Best Dividend - Paying Stocks to Own in

Author: Gene Walden

Publisher: Marathon International Book Company

ISBN: 1928877052

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 280

View: 854

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Encyclopedia of Race Ethnicity and Society

Total discrimination refers to current discrimination operating in the labor market
and past discrimination. Past discrimination ... No, individuals within the four
groups are not equally prepared to compete for high-paying jobs. Past
discrimination ...

Author: Richard T. Schaefer

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781412926942

Category: Social Science

Page: 1622

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This three volume reference set offers a comprehensive look at the roles race and ethnicity play in society and in our daily lives. General readers, students, and scholars alike will appreciate the informative coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide. These volumes offer a foundation to understanding as well as researching racial and ethnic diversity from a multidisciplinary perspective. Over a hundred racial and ethnic groups are described, with additional thematic essays offering insight into broad topics that cut across group boundaries and which impact on society. The encyclopedia has alphabetically arranged author-signed essays with references to guide further reading. Numerous cross-references aid the reader to explore beyond specific entries, reflecting the interdependent nature of race and ethnicity operating in society. The text is supplemented by photographs, tables, figures and custom-designed maps to provide an engaging visual look at race and ethnicity. An easy-to-use statistical appendix offers the latest data with carefully selected historical comparisons to aid study and research in the area
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Here and There

If you're not paying attention, the past can come back to haunt you. In 1970, the
year Danny was born, we were putting the first addition on the cow barn. I was
seven, the gopher who ran for hammers, nails, and bottles of beer. Neighbors
would ...

Author: Bill Conlogue

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271063225

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 248

View: 701

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The global economy threatens the uniqueness of places, people, and experiences. In Here and There, Bill Conlogue tests the assumption that literature and local places matter less and less in a world that economists describe as “flat,” politicians believe has “globalized,” and social scientists imagine as a “global village.” Each chapter begins at home, journeys elsewhere, and returns to the author’s native and chosen region, northeastern Pennsylvania. Through the prisms of literature and history, the book explores tensions and conflicts within the region created by national and global demand for its resources: fertile farmland, forest products, anthracite coal, and college-educated young people. Making connections between local and global environmental issues, Here and There uses the Pennsylvania watersheds of urban Lackawanna and rural Lackawaxen to highlight the importance of understanding and protecting the places we call home.
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Dirty Little Secrets

By looking at your credit reports, a potential lender can determine if you have a
history of paying your bills on time. They'll look carefully at how timely you were
paying off past car loans (or your auto lease payments, if you've leased a car in
the ...

Author: Jason R. Rich

Publisher: Entrepreneur Press

ISBN: 9781613082294

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 216

View: 531

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What the credit bureaus don’t tell you can cost you thousands. Jason Rich unearths these dirty little secrets in this tell-all expose’ aimed at immediately improving your credit report. Whether you have credit problems, are trying to establish credit or want to improve your credit score, this previously undisclosed advice can help you save hundreds, perhaps thousands of dollars every month.
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Transitional Justice

The salient feature is the role of the state in past evil and this legacy's ongoing
consequences for the possibility of repair. ... Yet, with the passage of time, what is
troubling is that those paying for past wrongs are successor generations that are

Author: Ruti G. Teitel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199882243

Category: Political Science

Page: 404

View: 721

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At the century's end, societies all over the world are throwing off the yoke of authoritarian rule and beginning to build democracies. At any such time of radical change, the question arises: should a society punish its ancien regime or let bygones be bygones? Transitional Justice takes this question to a new level with an interdisciplinary approach that challenges the very terms of the contemporary debate. Ruti Teitel explores the recurring dilemma of how regimes should respond to evil rule, arguing against the prevailing view favoring punishment, yet contending that the law nevertheless plays a profound role in periods of radical change. Pursuing a comparative and historical approach, she presents a compelling analysis of constitutional, legislative, and administrative responses to injustice following political upheaval. She proposes a new normative conception of justice--one that is highly politicized--offering glimmerings of the rule of law that, in her view, have become symbols of liberal transition. Its challenge to the prevailing assumptions about transitional periods makes this timely and provocative book essential reading for policymakers and scholars of revolution and new democracies.
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