The book examines how sensory experience is conceptualised during the period, drawing novel connections between treatments of perception as an embodied phenomenon and the creative methods employed by natural philosophers.
Author: Rosalind Powell
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
The psychologist William James observed that "a native talent for perceiving analogies is ... the leading fact in genius of every order." The centrality and the ubiquity of analogy in creative thought have been noted again and again by scientists, artists, and writers, and understanding and modeling analogical thought have emerged as two of the most important challenges for cognitive science. Analogy-Making as Perception is based on the premise that analogy-making is fundamentally a high-level perceptual process in which the interaction of perception and concepts gives rise to "conceptual slippages" which allow analogies to be made. It describes Copycat - a computer model of analogymaking, developed by the author with Douglas Hofstadter, that models the complex, subconscious interaction between perception and concepts that underlies the creation of analogies. In Copycat, both concepts and high-level perception are emergent phenomena, arising from large numbers of low-level, parallel, non-deterministic activities. In the spectrum of cognitive modeling approaches, Copycat occupies a unique intermediate position between symbolic systems and connectionist systems a position that is at present the most useful one for understanding the fluidity of concepts and high-level perception. On one level the work described here is about analogy-making, but on another level it is about cognition in general. It explores such issues as the nature of concepts and perception and the emergence of highly flexible concepts from a lower-level "subcognitive" substrate. Melanie Mitchell, Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan, is a Fellow of the Michigan Society of Fellows. She is also Director of the Adaptive Computation Program at the Santa Fe Institute.
On one level the work described here is about analogy-making, but on another level it is about cognition in general.
Author: Melanie Mitchell
Publisher: Bradford Books
Hofstadter and his colleagues have criticized current accounts of analogy, claiming that such accounts do not accurately capture interactions between processes of representation construction and processes of mapping. They suggest instead that analogy should be viewed as a form of high level perception that encompasses both representation building and mapping as indivisible operations within a single model. They argue specifically against SME, our model of analogical matching, on the grounds that it is modular, and offer instead programs like Mitchell & Hofstader's Copycat as examples of the high level perception approach. In this paper we argue against this position on two grounds. First, we demonstrate that most of their specific arguments involving SME and Copycat are incorrect. Second, we argue that the claim that analogy is high-level perception, while in some ways an attractive metaphor, is too vague to be useful as a technical proposal. We focus on five issues: (1) how perception relates to analogy, (2) how flexibility arises in analogical processing, (3) whether analogy is a domain-general process, (4) how should micro-worlds be used in the study of analogy, and (5) how best to assess the psychological plausibility of a model of analogy. We illustrate our discussion with examples taken from computer models embodying both views.
In this paper we argue against this position on two grounds. First, we demonstrate that most of their specific arguments involving SME and Copycat are incorrect.
Analogy arguments from religious experience attempt to establish a direct analogy between sense perception and certain kinds of religious experience construed in terms of a perceptual model. C.B. Martin challenges traditional analogy arguments from religious experience by contending that there is a disanalogy between both kinds of experience due to the fact that there is a society of testing and checkup procedures available to sense perception that is not available to religious experience. William P. Alston presents his own analogy argument from religious experience in Perceiving God. Alston establishes an analogy between sense perception and religious experience by arguing that certain kinds of religious experience can be construed in terms of a perceptual model. In doing so, Alston maintains that sense perception and certain kinds of religious experience that count as perception--mystical perception--produce justified beliefs in very similar ways. Thus, Alston defuses Martin's objection by arguing that both kinds of perception have testing and checkup procedures available to them, procedures which are necessary to defeat the prima facie justification of perceptual beliefs. However, I argue that because there are apparently inconsistent core beliefs in the practice of forming beliefs on the basis of Christian mystical perception, the analogy between sense perception and mystical perception is threatened. In order for Alston's analogy argument to be successful, he must address this problem.
William P. Alston presents his own analogy argument from religious experience in Perceiving God.
Author: William C. Williams
One of the most fundamental capacities of language is the ability to express what speakers see, hear, feel, taste, and smell. Sensory Linguistics is the interdisciplinary study of how language relates to the senses. This book deals with such foundational questions as: Which semiotic strategies do speakers use to express sensory perceptions? Which perceptions are easier to encode and which are “ineffable”? And what are appropriate methods for studying the sensory aspects of linguistics? After a broad overview of the field, a detailed quantitative corpus-based study of English sensory adjectives and their metaphorical uses is presented. This analysis calls age-old ideas into question, such as the idea that the use of perceptual metaphors is governed by a cognitively motivated “hierarchy of the senses”. Besides making theoretical contributions to cognitive linguistics, this research monograph showcases new empirical methods for studying lexical semantics using contemporary statistical methods.
Sensory Linguistics is the interdisciplinary study of how language relates to the senses. This book deals with such foundational questions as: Which semiotic strategies do speakers use to express sensory perceptions?
Author: Bodo Winter
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Author: Светослав Евгениев Близнашки
Cognitive linguists believe that metaphors are prevalent in human thought, while metaphorical structures are reflected at the linguistic level. Therefore, analysing extensive language data can aid in revealing the metaphorical mappings of embodied experience with the senses of vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and temperature. This volume seeks to discover the similarities and differences between the metaphorical systems of the English and Chinese languages. Adopting a comparative view, the authors examine the semantic extensions of perception words in English and Chinese, in order to reveal the metaphorical scope of each sense and the metaphorical system behind it. They argue that the metaphorical systems of the senses not only help us understand and use conventionalised metaphorical expressions but also allow us to create novel expressions. The findings also unveil how abstract concepts are constructed via cognitive mechanisms, such as image schema and metaphor. This title is a useful reference for scholars and students who are interested in cognitive linguistics, comparative linguistics, and the philosophy of language.
Sweetser's research reveals that perception metaphor is a hierarchical system. To be more specific, the objective visual domain is projected to the intellectual domain; the auditory domain is projected to the “attention, acceptance, ...
Author: Qin Xiugui
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Author: Margarita Lukshina