A number of nations, conspicuously Israel and the United States, have been increasingly attracted to the use of strategic barriers to promote national defense. In Do Good Fences Make Good Neighbors?, defense analyst Brent Sterling examines the historical use of strategic defenses such as walls or fortifications to evaluate their effectiveness and consider their implications for modern security. Sterling studies six famous defenses spanning 2,500 years, representing both democratic and authoritarian regimes: the Long Walls of Athens, Hadrian’s Wall in Roman Britain, the Ming Great Wall of China, Louis XIV’s Pré Carré, France’s Maginot Line, and Israel’s Bar Lev Line. Although many of these barriers were effective in the short term, they also affected the states that created them in terms of cost, strategic outlook, military readiness, and relations with neighbors. Sterling assesses how modern barriers against ground and air threats could influence threat perceptions, alter the military balance, and influence the builder’s subsequent policy choices. Advocates and critics of strategic defenses often bolster their arguments by selectively distorting history. Sterling emphasizes the need for an impartial examination of what past experience can teach us. His study yields nuanced lessons about strategic barriers and international security and yields findings that are relevant for security scholars and compelling to general readers.
Barfield, Perilous Frontier, 234; see also Mote, Imperial China, 567, 618–19; and Lovell, Great Wall, 182–83, 193–94. 36. Mote, Imperial China, 611, 695; and Waldron, Great Wall ofChina, 80, 86. 37. Waldron, Great Wall ofChina, 81. 38.
Author: Brent L. Sterling
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
Category: Political Science
Introduces readers to the cross-cultural study of ancient and classical civilizations. The book is divided into two sections, the first examining the ongoing interaction between ancient agrarian and nomadic societies and the second focusing on regional patterns in the dissemination of ideas.
Thomas J. Barfield , The Perilous Frontier : Nomadic Empires and China ( Oxford : Basil Blackwell , 1989 ) . 3. Sima Qian ( using Wade - Giles : Ssu - ma Ch'ien ) , The Records of the Grand Historian : Han Dynasty II , rev . ed .
Author: Michael Adas
Publisher: Temple University Press
From the founding of the Ming dynasty in 1368 to the start of the Opium Wars in 1841, China has engaged in only two large-scale conflicts with its principal neighbors, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. These four territorial and centralized states have otherwise fostered peaceful and long-lasting relationships with one another, and as they have grown more powerful, the atmosphere around them has stabilized. Focusing on the role of the "tribute system" in maintaining stability in East Asia and in fostering diplomatic and commercial exchange, Kang contrasts this history against the example of Europe and the East Asian states' skirmishes with nomadic peoples to the north and west. Although China has been the unquestioned hegemon in the region, with other political units always considered secondary, the tributary order entailed military, cultural, and economic dimensions that afforded its participants immense latitude. Europe's "Westphalian" system, on the other hand, was based on formal equality among states and balance-of-power politics, resulting in incessant interstate conflict. Scholars tend to view Europe's experience as universal, but Kang upends this tradition, emphasizing East Asia's formal hierarchy as an international system with its own history and character. This approach not only recasts our understanding of East Asian relations but also defines a model that applies to other hegemonies outside the European order.
Barfield, The Perilous Frontier, 7. 14. Shu, The Rise of Modern China. 15. Wright, “The Northern Frontier,” 74. 16. Crossley, The Manchus, 22. 17. Ibid., 36. 18. Ibid., 38. 19. Ibid., 22. 20. Jagchid and Symons, Peace, War, ...
Author: David C. Kang
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
The Tang dynasty is often called China’s “golden age,” a period of commercial, religious, and cultural connections from Korea and Japan to the Persian Gulf, and a time of unsurpassed literary creativity. Mark Lewis captures a dynamic era in which the empire reached its greatest geographical extent under Chinese rule, painting and ceramic arts flourished, women played a major role both as rulers and in the economy, and China produced its finest lyric poets in Wang Wei, Li Bo, and Du Fu.
167–170, 172–173, 176; Barfield, The Perilous Frontier, pp. 139, 140–144; Graff, Medieval Chinese Warfare, pp. 185–186. 5. Graff, Medieval Chinese Warfare, pp. 186–188. 6. Ibid., pp. 175–176; Barfield, The Perilous Frontier, p. 141. 7.
Author: Mark Edward Lewis
Publisher: Harvard University Press
This set includes all four volumes of the critically acclaimed History of Central Asia series. The epic plains and arid deserts of Central Asia have witnessed some of the greatest migrations, as well as many of the most transformative developments, in the history of civilization. Christoph Baumer's ambitious four-volume treatment of the region charts the 3000-year drama of Scythians and Sarmatians; Soviets and transcontinental Silk Roads; trade routes and the transmission of ideas across the steppes; and the breathless and brutal conquests of Alexander the Great and Chinghiz Khan. Masterfully interweaving the stories of individuals and peoples, the author's engaging prose is richly augmented throughout by colour photographs taken on his own travels. This set includes The Age of the Steppe Warriors (Volume 1), The Age of the Silk Roads (Volume 2), The Age of Islam and the Mongols (Volume 3) and The Age of Decline and Revival (Volume 4)
3 (2016), Barfield, The Perilous Frontier (1992), p. 244. James Geiss, 'The Chia-ching reign, 1522–1566', in: The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7, Part I (1988), p. 467. N. Ishjamts, 'The Mongols', in: History of Civilizations of ...
Author: Christoph Baumer
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Gaining an understanding of China's long and sometimes bloody history can help to shed light on China's ascent to global power. Many of China's imperial dynasties were established as the result of battle, from the chariot warfare of ancient times to the battles of the Guomindang (KMT) and Communist regimes of the twentieth century. China's ability to sustain complex warfare on a very large scale was not emulated in other parts of the world until the Industrial Age, despite the fact that the country is only now rising to economic dominance. In A Military History of China, Updated Edition, David A. Graff and Robin Higham bring together leading scholars to offer a basic introduction to the military history of China from the first millennium B.C.E. to the present. Focusing on recurring patterns of conflict rather than traditional campaign narratives, this volume reaches farther back into China's military history than similar studies. It also offers insightful comparisons between Chinese and Western approaches to war. This edition brings the volume up to date, including discussions of the Chinese military's latest developments and the country's most recent foreign conflicts.
Thomas I. Barfield, The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, 221 BC to AD 1757 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989). 7. Khazanov, Nomads and the Outside World, 222. 8. Arthur Waldron, The Great Wall of China: From History to Myth ...
Author: David Andrew Graff
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
"... a tremendously important contribution to the field of Russian history and the comparative study of empires and frontiers. There is no comparable work in any language.... The book presents an intricate and gripping narrative of a vast sweep of histories, weaving them together into a comprehensive and comprehensible chronology." Valerie KivelsonFrom the time of the decline of the Mongol Golden Horde to the end of the 18th century, the Russian government expanded its influence and power throughout its southern borderlands. The process of incorporating these lands and peoples into the Russian Empire was not only a military and political struggle but also a contest between the conceptual worlds of the indigenous peoples and the Russians. Drawing on sources and archival materials in Russian and Turkic languages, Michael Khodarkovsky presents a complex picture of the encounter between the Russian authorities and native peoples. Russias Steppe Frontier is an original and invaluable resource for understanding Russias imperial experience.
Barfield, Thomas J. The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China. Cambridge, Mass: Basil Blackwell, 1989. ' Bartlett, Robert. The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950—1350.
Author: Michael Khodarkovsky
Publisher: Indiana University Press
A look at how the desire to improve international status affects Russia's and China's foreign policies Deborah Welch Larson and Alexei Shevchenko argue that the desire for world status plays a key role in shaping the foreign policies of China and Russia. Applying social identity theory--the idea that individuals derive part of their identity from larger communities--to nations, they contend that China and Russia have used various modes of emulation, competition, and creativity to gain recognition from other countries and thus validate their respective identities. To make this argument, they analyze numerous cases, including Catherine the Great's attempts to westernize Russia, China's identity crises in the nineteenth century, and both countries' responses to the end of the Cold War. The authors employ a multifaceted method of measuring status, factoring in influence and inclusion in multinational organizations, military clout, and cultural sway, among other considerations. Combined with historical precedent, this socio-psychological approach helps explain current trends in Russian and Chinese foreign policy.
Thomas J. Barfield, The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1989); Spence, Search for Modern China, 30–32; Mark C. Elliott, Emperor Qianlong: Son of Heaven, Man of the World (New York: Longman, ...
Author: Deborah Welch Larson
Publisher: Yale University Press
This book analyzes the social, economic, and political impact of Han Chinese migration into the borderlands that became Inner Mongolia during the Qing period. Linking local history to global movements, Yi Wang traces Inner Mongolia's integration into what would become the nation-state of China and from there into a global capitalist economy.
See Di Cosmo, Ancient China and Its Enemies, 155–58, 186; Temule, “The Great Wall as Perilous Frontier for the Mongols in 16th Century,” 121–56. 28. Sima Qian, Shiji 110, 2879. 29. For a survey of theories for explaining the nomadic ...
Author: Yi Wang
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
At its height, the Russian empire covered eleven time zones and stretched from Scandinavia to the Pacific Ocean. Arguing against the traditional historical view that Russia, surrounded and threatened by enemies, was always on the defensive, John P. LeDonne contends that Russia developed a long-term strategy not in response to immediate threats but in line with its own expansionist urges to control the Eurasian Heartland. LeDonne narrates how the government from Moscow and Petersburg expanded the empire by deploying its army as well as by extending its patronage to frontier societies in return for their serving the interests of the empire. He considers three theaters on which the Russians expanded: the Western (Baltic, Germany, Poland); the Southern (Ottoman and Persian Empires); and the Eastern (China, Siberia, Central Asia). In his analysis of military power, he weighs the role of geography and locale, as well as economic issues, in the evolution of a larger imperial strategy. Rather than viewing Russia as peripheral to European Great Power politics, LeDonne makes a powerful case for Russia as an expansionist, militaristic, and authoritarian regime that challenged the great states and empires of its time.
Barfield, Perilous Frontier, 278–79. 47. Olcott, Kazakhs, xx, 3–9. 48. Wakeman, Fall of Imperial China, 75–86; Chen, Sino-Russian Relations, 20–21. 49. Pokrovsky, Chinese-Russian Relations, 13–14, 123; Barfield, Perilous Frontier, ...
Author: John P. LeDonne
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand