Physical Models and Laboratory Techniques in Coastal Engineering

Sometimes all forcing functions and boundary conditions acting in nature are not
included in the physical model , and the missing functions and conditions need to
be assessed and accounted for in evaluation of model results . For example ...

Author: Steven A. Hughes

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981021541X

Category: Science

Page: 568

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Laboratory physical models are a valuable tool for coastal engineers. Physical models help us to understand the complex hydrodynamic processes occurring in the nearshore zone and they provide reliable and economic engineering design solutions.This book is about the art and science of physical modeling as applied in coastal engineering. The aim of the book is to consolidate and synthesize into a single text much of the knowledge about physical modeling that has been developed worldwide.This book was written to serve as a graduate-level text for a course in physical modeling or as a reference text for engineers and researchers engaged in physical modeling and laboratory experimentation. The first three chapters serve as an introduction to similitude and physical models, covering topics such as advantages and disadvantages of physical models, systems of units, dimensional analysis, types of similitude and various hydraulic similitude criteria applicable to coastal engineering models.Practical application of similitude principles to coastal engineering studies is covered in Chapter 4 (Hydrodynamic Models), Chapter 5 (Coastal Structure Models) and Chapter 6 (Sediment Transport Models). These chapters develop the appropriate similitude criteria, discuss inherent laboratory and scale effects and overview the technical literature pertaining to these types of models. The final two chapters focus on the related subjects of laboratory wave generation (Chapter 7) and measurement and analysis techniques (Chapter 8).
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Advanced Physical Models for Silicon Device Simulation

As there is an upward averaging of the transport equations by considering mean
values of the current density operator or the classical momentum , respectively , a
corresponding “ philosophy ” should hold for the derivation of physical models ...

Author: Andreas Schenk

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3211830529

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 354

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From the reviews: "... this is a well produced book, written in a easy to read style, and will also be a very useful primer for someone starting out the field [...], and a useful source of reference for experienced users ..." Microelectronics Journal
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Movable Bed Physical Models

Up to now the simulation of sediment transport processes in suitable models is
difficult. The advantage of physical models is that the interaction between liquid
and sediment can be directly observed. In this paper the basic differences are ...

Author: Hsieh Wen Shen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400920811

Category: Science

Page: 172

View: 939

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For centuries, physical models have been used to investigate complex hydraulic problems. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) stated, "I will treat of such a subject. But first of all, 1 shall make a few experiments and then demonstrate why bodies are forced to act in this matter. " Even with the current advancements of mathematical numerical models, certain complex three-dimensional flow phenomena must still rely on physical model studies. Mathematical models cannot provide adequate solutions if physical processes involved are not completely known. Physical models are particularly attractive to investigate phenomena-involved sediment movements because many three-dimensional sediment processes are still unclear at this stage. Theoretically, there are numerous factors governing movable bed processes and it is nearly impossible to design model studies to obey all the model criteria. Sometimes, appropriate lightweight materials are difficult or too costly to obtain. Often, distorted models are used due to the limitation of available space and the requirement for greater vertical flow depth to investigate vertical differences of various parameters. The turbulence level in the model may also be maintained at a sufficient level to reproduce a similar flow pattern in the prototype. Frequently, engineers are forced to employ distorted models that cannot be designed to satisfy all governing criteria correctly. Thus each hydraulic laboratory has developed its own rules for model testing and a great deal of experience is needed to interpret model results.
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Statistical physical Models of Man made and Natural Radio Noise

STATISTICAL - PHYSICAL MODELS OF MAN - MADE RADIO NOISE PART I.
FIRST - ORDER PROBABILITY MODELS OF THE INSTANTANEOUS
AMPLITUDE David Middleton * Abstract A general statistical - physical model of
man - made ...

Author: David Middleton

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:20000003156516

Category: Government publications

Page:

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Pt. 1. First-order probability models of the instantaneous amplitude.--pt. 2. First order probability models of the envelope and phase.
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Physical Models and Equilibrium Methods in Programming and Economics

We shall restrict ourselves to a study of the von Neumann-Gale model [29, 41]
and this will enable us to illustrate the possibilities of this method of physical
models. We shall consider an economy in which the production of goods can
change ...

Author: B.S. Razumikhin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9027716447

Category: Mathematics

Page: 351

View: 392

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It isn't that they can't see Approach your problems from the solution. the right end and begin with It is that they can't see the the answers. Then one day, problem. perhaps you will find the final qu~stion. G. K. Chesterton. The Scandal of Father Brown ITh~ Point of 'The Hermit Clad in Crane Feathers' in R. van Gulik's a Pin'. The Chinese Maze Murders. Growing specialization and diversification have brought a host of monographs and textbooks on increasingly specialized topics. HowQvQr, thQ "tree" of knowledge of mathematics and related field does not grow only by putting forth new branches. It also happ~ns, quit~ often in fact, that branches which were thought to be completely disparate are suddenly seen to be related. Further, the kind and level of sophistication of mathe matics applied in various sciences has changed drastically in recent years: measure theory is used (non-trivially) in regional and theoretical economics; algebraic geometry interacts with physics; the Minkowsky lemma, coding theory and the structure of water meet one another in packing and covering theory; quantum fields, crystal defects and mathematical programming profit from homotopy theory; Lie algebras are relevant to filtering; and prediction and electrical engineering can use Stein spaces.
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Foundation Vibration Analysis Using Simple Physical Models

analysis, simple physical models are appropriate. Parametric studies covering
the uncertainties are essential. 3. When comparing the response of a structure
embedded in flexible soil with that of the same structure founded on rigid rock,
first, ...

Author: John P. Wolf

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780132442022

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 464

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This book provides simple physical models to represent the unbounded soil in time and frequency domain analysis. They do not supplant the more generally applicable rigorous methods, but rather supplement them. The physical models used consists of the following representations: cones based one-dimensional rod theory; lumped-parameter models with frequency-independent springs, dashpots, and masses; and prescribed wave patterns in the horizontal plane. The physical models thus offer a strength-of-materials approach to foundation dynamics.
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Physical Models of Semiconductor Quantum Devices

The extra valence electrons will occupy the conduction band, while the missing
valence electrons will make the valence band partially unoccupied. By the drift
and diffusion model of Sect. 2.7, we can calculate the current density j of a
uniform, ...

Author: Ying Fu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400771741

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 154

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The science and technology relating to nanostructures continues to receive significant attention for its applications to various fields including microelectronics, nanophotonics, and biotechnology. This book describes the basic quantum mechanical principles underlining this fast developing field. From the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics to nanomaterial properties, from device physics to research and development of new systems, this title is aimed at undergraduates, graduates, postgraduates, and researchers.
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Critical Observations Versus Physical Models for Close Binary Systems

Gaposchkin ( 1953 ) also gave the essential physical dimensions based on his
photographic observations . But there were only a few photoelectric observations
made by Haug ( 1970 ) in the UBV system and by Hilditch et al . , ( 1975 ) in the ...

Author: Kam-Ching Leung

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0677220707

Category: Science

Page: 472

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This book contains the proceedings of the second joint research program on close binary systems between the People's Republic of China and the United States. The planning for the double stars conference developed gradually through several years of close cooperation between astronomers of the PRC and the US. Topics covered include interacting am binaries, H-alpha emission and polarization of RS CVn stars, observational approach to close binary evolution, the role of polarimetry in understanding close binary stars and their interactions, physical models for close binaries and logical constraints, and accretion disks in dwarf novae.
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Users Guide to Physical Modelling and Experimentation

modelling. Herman. Gerritsen. &. James. Sutherland. João Alfredo Santos, Henk
van den Boogaard, Sofia Caires, Rolf Deigaard, Martin Dixen, Conceição ...
Today, numerical models are increasingly being used in place of physical
models.

Author: Lynne E. Frostick

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439870518

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 272

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A Users Guide to Hydraulic Modelling and Experimentation provides a systematic, comprehensive summary of the progress made through HYDRALAB III . The book combines the expertise of many of the leading hydraulic experimentalists in Europe and identifies current best practice for carrying out state-of-the-art, modern laboratory investigations. In addition it gives an inventory and reviews recent advances in instrumentation and equipment that drive present and new developments in the subject. The Guide concentrates on four core areas – waves, breakwaters, sediments and the relatively-new (but rapidly-developing) cross-disciplinary area of hydrodynamics/ecology. Progress made through the ‘CoMIBBS’ component of HYDRALAB III provides the material for a chapter focussed on guidance, principles and practice for composite modelling. There is detailed consideration of scaling and the degree of relevance of laboratory/physical modelling approaches for specific contexts included in each of the individual chapters. The Guide includes outputs from the workshops and several of the innovative transnational access projects that have been supported within HYDRALAB III, as well as the focussed joint research activities SANDS and CoMIBBS. Its primary purpose is to serve as a shared resource to disseminate the outstanding advances achieved within HYDRALAB III but, even more than this, it is a tribute to the human and institutional collaborations that led to and sustained the research advances, the human relationships that were strengthened and initiated through joint participation in the Programme, and the training opportunities that participation provided to the many young researchers engaged in the projects.
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Mathematical and Physical Modeling of Materials Processing Operations

PREFACE This book discusses the basic principles involved in the simulation of
materials processing using mathematical and physical modeling techniques .
Although it is intended primarily to introduce these tools to materials engineers
and ...

Author: Olusegun Johnso Ilegbusi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1584880171

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 512

View: 553

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The past few decades have brought significant advances in the computational methods and in the experimental techniques used to study transport phenomena in materials processing operations. However, the advances have been made independently and with competition between the two approaches. Mathematical models are easier and less costly to implement, but experiments are essential for verifying theoretical models. In Mathematical and Physical Modeling of Materials Processing Operations, the authors bridge the gap between mathematical modelers and experimentalists. They combine mathematical and physical modeling principles for materials processing operations simulation and use numerous examples to compare theoretical and experimental results. The modeling of transport processes is multi-disciplinary, involving concepts and principles not all of which can be associated with just one field of study. Therefore, the authors have taken care to ensure that the text is self-sustaining through the variety and breadth of topics covered. Beyond the usual topics associated with transport phenomena, the authors also include detailed discussion of numerical methods and implementation of process models, software and hardware selection and application, and representation of auxiliary relationships, including turbulence modeling, chemical kinetics, magnetohydrodynamics, and multi-phase flow. They also provide several correlations for representing the boundary conditions of fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer phenomena. Mathematical and Physical Modeling of Materials Processing Operations is ideal for introducing these tools to materials engineers and researchers. Although the book emphasizes materials, some of the topics will prove interesting and useful to researchers in other fields of chemical and mechanical engineering.
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Physical Models in Civil and Building Engineering

The book covers the history of using of physical models in the design and development of civil and building engineering projects including bridges in the mid-18th century, William Fairbairn?s Britannia bridge in the 1840s, the masonry Aswan ...

Author: Bill Addis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783433609637

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1114

View: 616

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Physical models have been, and continue to be used by engineers when faced with unprecedented challenges, when engineering science has been non-existent or inadequate, and in any other situation when the engineer has needed to raise their confidence in a design proposal to a sufficient level to begin construction. For this reason, models have mostly been used by designers and constructors of highly innovative projects, when previous experience has not been available. The book covers the history of using of physical models in the design and development of civil and building engineering projects including bridges in the mid-18th century, William Fairbairn?s Britannia bridge in the 1840s, the masonry Aswan Dam in the 1890s, concrete dams in the 1920s, thin concrete shell roofs and the dynamic behaviour of tall buildings in earthquakes from the 1930s, tidal flow in estuaries and the acoustics of concert halls from the 1950s, and cable-net and membrane structures in the 1960s. Traditionally, progress in engineering has been attributed to the creation and use of engineering science, the understanding materials properties and the development of new construction methods. The book argues that the use of reduced scale models have played an equally important part in the development of civil and building engineering. However, like the history of engineering design itself, this crucial contribution has not been widely reported or celebrated. The book concludes with reviews of the current use of physical models alongside computer models, for example, in boundary layer wind tunnels, room acoustics, seismic engineering, hydrology, and air flow in buildings.
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Continuum Methods of Physical Modeling

Within time scales of seasonal variations one expects from a turbulence model in
oceanography and physical limnology that computational models for the
temporal evolution of the thermal stratification are obtained. The derivation of
such ...

Author: Kolumban Hutter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540206191

Category: Science

Page: 635

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The book unifies classical continuum mechanics and turbulence modeling, i.e. the same fundamental concepts are used to derive model equations for material behaviour and turbulence closure and complements these with methods of dimensional analysis. The intention is to equip the reader with the ability to understand the complex nonlinear modeling in material behaviour and turbulence closure as well as to derive or invent his own models. Examples are mostly taken from environmental physics and geophysics.
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Earthquake Processes Physical Modelling Numerical Simulation and Data Analysis

Mitsuhiro Matsu'ura, Peter Mora, Andrea Donnellan, Xiang-chu Yin. Pure appl .
geophys . 159 ( 2002 ) 2469–2490 0033-4553 / 02 / 102469-22 $ 1.50 + 0.20 / 0
Pure and Applied Geophysics Long - range Automaton Models of Earthquakes ...

Author: Mitsuhiro Matsu'ura

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3764369167

Category: Science

Page: 367

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In the last decade of the 20th century, there has been great progress in the physics of earthquake generation; that is, the introduction of laboratory-based fault constitutive laws as a basic equation governing earthquake rupture, quantitative description of tectonic loading driven by plate motion, and a microscopic approach to study fault zone processes. The fault constitutive law plays the role of an interface between microscopic processes in fault zones and macroscopic processes of a fault system, and the plate motion connects diverse crustal activities with mantle dynamics. An ambitious challenge for us is to develop realistic computer simulation models for the complete earthquake process on the basis of microphysics in fault zones and macro-dynamics in the crust-mantle system. Recent advances in high performance computer technology and numerical simulation methodology are bringing this vision within reach. The book consists of two parts and presents a cross-section of cutting-edge research in the field of computational earthquake physics. Part I includes works on microphysics of rupture and fault constitutive laws, and dynamic rupture, wave propagation and strong ground motion. Part II covers earthquake cycles, crustal deformation, plate dynamics, and seismicity change and its physical interpretation. Topics in Part II range from the 3-D simulations of earthquake generation cycles and interseismic crustal deformation associated with plate subduction to the development of new methods for analyzing geophysical and geodetical data and new simulation algorithms for large amplitude folding and mantle convection with viscoelastic/brittle lithosphere, as well as a theoretical study of accelerated seismic release on heterogeneous faults, simulation of long-range automaton models of earthquakes, and various approaches to earthquake predicition based on underlying physical and/or statistical models for seismicity change.
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Earthquake Processes Physical Modelling Numerical Simulation and Data Analysis

The APEC Cooperation for Earthquake Simulation (ACES) aims to develop
realistic computer simulation models for the complete earthquake generation
process on the basis of microscopic physics in fault zones and macroscopic
dynamics in ...

Author: Mitsuhiro Matsu'ura

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 9783034882033

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 933

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In the last decade of the 20th century, there has been great progress in the physics of earthquake generation; that is, the introduction of laboratory-based fault constitutive laws as a basic equation governing earthquake rupture, quantitative description of tectonic loading driven by plate motion, and a microscopic approach to study fault zone processes. The fault constitutive law plays the role of an interface between microscopic processes in fault zones and macroscopic processes of a fault system, and the plate motion connects diverse crustal activities with mantle dynamics. An ambitious challenge for us is to develop realistic computer simulation models for the complete earthquake process on the basis of microphysics in fault zones and macro-dynamics in the crust-mantle system. Recent advances in high performance computer technology and numerical simulation methodology are bringing this vision within reach. The book consists of two parts and presents a cross-section of cutting-edge research in the field of computational earthquake physics. Part I includes works on microphysics of rupture and fault constitutive laws, and dynamic rupture, wave propagation and strong ground motion. Part II covers earthquake cycles, crustal deformation, plate dynamics, and seismicity change and its physical interpretation. Topics covered in Part I range from the microscopic simulation and laboratory studies of rock fracture and the underlying mechanism for nucleation and catastrophic failure to the development of theoretical models of frictional behaviors of faults; as well as the simulation studies of dynamic rupture processes and seismic wave propagation in a 3-D heterogeneous medium, to the case studies of strong ground motions from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and seismic hazard estimation for Cascadian subduction zone earthquakes.
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Geotechnical Modelling

A well designed physical model provides an important opportunity in the
modelling cycle. It is always tempting to assume that a theoretical model (
particularly if, mathematically, it is a very elegant model) somehow encapsulates
truth. We can ...

Author: David Muir Wood

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203477979

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 286

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Modelling forms an implicit part of all engineering design but many engineers engage in modelling without consciously considering the nature, validity and consequences of the supporting assumptions. Derived from courses given to postgraduate and final year undergraduate MEng students, this book presents some of the models that form a part of the typical undergraduate geotechnical curriculum and describes some of the aspects of soil behaviour which contribute to the challenge of geotechnical modelling. Assuming a familiarity with basic soil mechanics and traditional methods of geotechnical design, this book is a valuable tool for students of geotechnical and structural and civil engineering as well as also being useful to practising engineers involved in the specification of numerical or physical geotechnical modelling.
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The Science of Hysteresis Physical modeling micromagnetics and magnetization dynamics

Return - point memory can be quite remarkable : in our model ( and in some
experimental systems ) repeating a subloop plays back precisely the same
Barkhausen noise . Indeed , the return - point memory can be used as a way of
retrieving ...

Author: I. D. Mayergoyz

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 0123694329

Category: Electronic books

Page: 664

View: 117

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Volume 1 covers: * Mathematical models * Differential equations * Stochastic aspects of hysteresis * Binary detection using hysteresis * Models of unemployment in economics Volume 2 covers: * Physical models of magnetic hysteresis * All aspects of magnetisation dynamics Volume 3 covers: * Hysteresis phenomena in materials * Over 2100 pages, rich with supporting illustrations, figures and equations * Contains contributions from an international list of authors, from a wide-range of disciplines * Covers all aspects of hysteresis - from differential equations, and binary detection, to models of unemployment and magnetisation dynamics.
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Mathematical and Physical Modelling of Microwave Scattering and Polarimetric Remote Sensing

Using (5.86), the additional phase shift between the waves with horizontal and
vertical polarization is readily obtained when these waves pass through a layer of
grass with thickness H: Next, we will discuss the physical meaning of the ...

Author: A.I. Kozlov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306480911

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 410

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Radar technology is increasingly being used to monitor the environment. This monograph provides a review of polarimetric radar techniques for remote sensing. The first four chapters cover the basics of mathematical, statistical modelling as well as physical modelling based on radiowave scattering theory. The subsequent eight chapters summarize applications of polarimetric radar monitoring for various types of earth environments, including vegetation and oceans. The last two chapters provide a summary of Western as well as former Soviet Union knowledge and the outlook. This monograph is of value to students, scientists and engineers involved in remote sensing development and applications in particular for environmental monitoring.
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Physical and Information Models in Geography Routledge Revivals

Exceptions are found mainly in the field of physical geography and in particular
geomorphology, but even here geologists and hydrologists have been much
more productive. The comparative neglect of hardware models in geography may
 ...

Author: Richard J. Chorley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135121006

Category: Science

Page: 314

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First published in 1967, this book explores the theme of geographical generalization, or model building. It is composed of eight of the chapters from the original Models in Geography, published in 1967. The first chapter broadly outlines geographical generalization and examines the nature and function of generalized statements, ranging from conceptual models to scale models, in a geographical context. The following chapter deals with model theory in a wider scientific framework and the rest of the book discusses models of physical systems and information models. The book considers model-type generalizations that are applied in the three fields of geomorphology, meteorology and climatology, and hydrology before focusing on the transference of information and ideas in geography. This text represents a robustly anti-idiographic statement of modern work in one of the major branches of geography.
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Coastal Engineering

Field measurements and physical models 8.1 The need for field measurements
and physical models Previous chapters have introduced many aspects of the
known physics of the coastal zone and how to incorporate the physics into
numerical ...

Author: Dominic Reeve

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0415268400

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 950

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The United Nations estimate that by 2004, in excess of 75% of the world's population will live within the coastal zone. These regions are therefore of critical importance to a majority of the world's citizens. The coastal zone provides important economic, transport, residential and recreational functions, all of which depend upon its physical characteristics, appealing landscape, cultural heritage, natural resources and rich marine and terrestrial biodiversity. This resource is thus the foundation for the well being and economic viability of present and future generations of coastal zone residents The pressure on coastal environments is also being exacerbated by rapid changes in global climate. The value of the coastal zone to humanity, and the enormous pressure on it, provide strong incentives for a greater scientific understanding which can ensure effective coastal engineering practice and efficient and sustainable management. Coastal Engineering: Processes, Theory and Design Practice is the only book providing a thorough introduction to all aspects of coastal processes, morphology and design of coastal defences. The use of detailed and state-of-the art modelling techniques are an important theme of this book, and there are numerous case studies showing actual examples where mathematical modelling has been applied through engineering judgement. With thorough coverage of the theory, and practical demonstration of the applications, Coastal Engineering: Processes, Theory and Design Practice is a must have for all students and engineers working in coastal management and engineering. .
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