Physics in the Nineteenth Century

Places the work of Faraday, Kelvin, and other nineteenth-century physicists into historical context, and describes how discoveries in electromagnetism, thermodynamics, energy, atomic structure, the kinetic theory, and other topics relate to ...

Author: Robert D. Purrington

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813524423

Category: Science

Page: 249

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Places the work of Faraday, Kelvin, and other nineteenth-century physicists into historical context, and describes how discoveries in electromagnetism, thermodynamics, energy, atomic structure, the kinetic theory, and other topics relate to the Industrial Revolution and European nationalism
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Energy Force and Matter

By focusing on the conceptual issues faced by nineteenth century physicists, this book clarifies the status of field theory, the ether, and thermodynamics in the work of the period.

Author: Peter M. Harman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521288126

Category: Science

Page: 182

View: 944

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By focusing on the conceptual issues faced by nineteenth century physicists, this book clarifies the status of field theory, the ether, and thermodynamics in the work of the period. A remarkably synthetic account of a difficult and fragmentary period in scientific development.
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A History of the Ideas of Theoretical Physics

This book presents a perspective on the history of theoretical physics over the past two hundreds years.

Author: S. D'Agostino

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402002440

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 173

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This book presents a perspective on the history of theoretical physics over the past two hundreds years. It comprises essays on the history of pre-Maxwellian electrodynamics, of Maxwell's and Hertz's field theories, and of the present century's relativity and quantum physics. A common thread across the essays is the search for and the exploration of themes that influenced significant con ceptual changes in the great movement of ideas and experiments which heralded the emergence of theoretical physics (hereafter: TP). The fun. damental change involved the recognition of the scien tific validity of theoretical physics. In the second half of the nine teenth century, it was not easy for many physicists to understand the nature and scope of theoretical physics and of its adept, the theoreti cal physicist. A physicist like Ludwig Boltzmann, one of the eminent contributors to the new discipline, confessed in 1895 that, "even the formulation of this concept [of a theoretical physicist] is not entirely without difficulty". 1 Although science had always been divided into theory and experiment, it was only in physics that theoretical work developed into a major research and teaching specialty in its own right. 2 It is true that theoretical physics was mainly a creation of tum of-the century German physics, where it received full institutional recognition, but it is also undeniable that outstanding physicists in other European countries, namely, Ampere, Fourier, and Maxwell, also had an important part in its creation.
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Before Big Science

Notable features of the book include an insightful analysis of the parallel trajectories of modern chemistry and physics and the work of scientists - such as John Dalton, Michael Faraday, Hermann von Helmholtz, Marie Curie, Ernest ...

Author: Mary Jo Nye

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674063821

Category: Science

Page: 282

View: 800

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Notable features of the book include an insightful analysis of the parallel trajectories of modern chemistry and physics and the work of scientists - such as John Dalton, Michael Faraday, Hermann von Helmholtz, Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford, Dorothy Hodgkin, and Linus Pauling - who played prominent roles in the development of both disciplines.
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When Physics Became King

... stands a statue of the physicist William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (figure 1.1). Born
in Belfast—where his father taught mathematics at the Academical Institution—in
1824, Thomson's career as a man of science spanned the nineteenth century ...

Author: Iwan Rhys Morus

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226542009

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 465

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As recently as two hundred years ago, physics as we know it today did not exist. Born in the early nineteenth century during the second scientific revolution, physics struggled at first to achieve legitimacy in the scientific community and culture at large. In fact, the term "physicist" did not appear in English until the 1830s. When Physics Became King traces the emergence of this revolutionary science, demonstrating how a discipline that barely existed in 1800 came to be regarded a century later as the ultimate key to unlocking nature's secrets. A cultural history designed to provide a big-picture view, the book ably ties advances in the field to the efforts of physicists who worked to win social acceptance for their research. Beginning his tale with the rise of physics from natural philosophy, Iwan Morus chronicles the emergence of mathematical physics in France and its later export to England and Germany. He then elucidates the links between physics and industrialism, the technology of statistical mechanics, and the establishment of astronomical laboratories and precision measurement tools. His tale ends on the eve of the First World War, when physics had firmly established itself in both science and society. Scholars of both history and physics will enjoy this fascinating and studied look at the emergence of a major scientific discipline.
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Quantum Generations

The first comprehensive one-volume history of twentieth-century physics, the book takes us from the discovery of X rays in the mid-1890s to superstring theory in the 1990s.

Author: Helge Kragh

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691214191

Category: Science

Page:

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At the end of the nineteenth century, some physicists believed that the basic principles underlying their subject were already known, and that physics in the future would only consist of filling in the details. They could hardly have been more wrong. The past century has seen the rise of quantum mechanics, relativity, cosmology, particle physics, and solid-state physics, among other fields. These subjects have fundamentally changed our understanding of space, time, and matter. They have also transformed daily life, inspiring a technological revolution that has included the development of radio, television, lasers, nuclear power, and computers. In Quantum Generations, Helge Kragh, one of the world's leading historians of physics, presents a sweeping account of these extraordinary achievements of the past one hundred years. The first comprehensive one-volume history of twentieth-century physics, the book takes us from the discovery of X rays in the mid-1890s to superstring theory in the 1990s. Unlike most previous histories of physics, written either from a scientific perspective or from a social and institutional perspective, Quantum Generations combines both approaches. Kragh writes about pure science with the expertise of a trained physicist, while keeping the content accessible to nonspecialists and paying careful attention to practical uses of science, ranging from compact disks to bombs. As a historian, Kragh skillfully outlines the social and economic contexts that have shaped the field in the twentieth century. He writes, for example, about the impact of the two world wars, the fate of physics under Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin, the role of military research, the emerging leadership of the United States, and the backlash against science that began in the 1960s. He also shows how the revolutionary discoveries of scientists ranging from Einstein, Planck, and Bohr to Stephen Hawking have been built on the great traditions of earlier centuries. Combining a mastery of detail with a sure sense of the broad contours of historical change, Kragh has written a fitting tribute to the scientists who have played such a decisive role in the making of the modern world.
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Wranglers and Physicists

In the nineteenth century , physics was international in character , and the work of
Fourier on heat theory and Fresnel on optics and the luminiferous ether had a
major impact on Cambridge physics ( Whittaker 1951-53 , 1 : 128-69 ; Wise 1979
 ...

Author: Peter Michael Harman

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 0719017564

Category: Cambridge (England)

Page: 261

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Lectures on Ten British Physicists of the Nineteenth Century

Faith in an exact order of Nature was the characteristic of Faraday , and he was
by unanimous consent the greatest electrician of the nineteenth century . What is
the general direction of progress in science ? Physics is becoming more and ...

Author: Alexander Macfarlane

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B4515147

Category: Physicists

Page: 144

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The Language of Physics

This work is the first explicit examination of the key role that mathematics has played in the development of theoretical physics and will undoubtedly challenge the more conventional accounts of its historical development.

Author: Elizabeth Garber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461217664

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 171

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This work is the first explicit examination of the key role that mathematics has played in the development of theoretical physics and will undoubtedly challenge the more conventional accounts of its historical development. Although mathematics has long been regarded as the "language" of physics, the connections between these independent disciplines have been far more complex and intimate than previous narratives have shown. The author convincingly demonstrates that practices, methods, and language shaped the development of the field, and are a key to understanding the mergence of the modern academic discipline. Mathematicians and physicists, as well as historians of both disciplines, will find this provocative work of great interest.
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Intellectual Mastery of Nature Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein Volume 1

Christina Jungnickel and Russell McCormmach have created in these two volumes a panoramic history of German theoretical physics.

Author: Christa Jungnickel

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226415821

Category: Reference

Page: 384

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Christina Jungnickel and Russell McCormmach have created in these two volumes a panoramic history of German theoretical physics. Bridging social, institutional, and intellectual history, they chronicle the work of the researchers who, from the first years of the nineteenth century, strove for an intellectual mastery of nature. Volume 1 opens with an account of physics in Germany at the beginning of the nineteenth century and of German physicists' reception of foreign mathematical and experimental work. Jungnickel and McCormmach follow G. S. Ohm, Wilhelm Weber, Franz Neumann, and others as these scientists work out the new possibilities for physics, introduce student laboratories and instruction in mathematical physics, organize societies and journals, and establish and advance major theories of classical physics. Before the end of the nineteenth century, German physics and its offspring, theoretical physics, had acquired nearly their present organizational forms. The foundations of the classical picture of the physical world had been securely laid, preparing the way for the developments that are the subject of volume 2.
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The Dialectic Relation Between Physics and Mathematics in the XIXth Century

By means of these choices I will interpret the history of the relationship between
Mathematics and Theoretical Physics in the nineteenth century. A particular pair
of choices shaped the Newtonian relationship between Mathematics and Physics
, ...

Author: Evelyne Barbin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400753808

Category: Science

Page: 186

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The aim of this book is to analyse historical problems related to the use of mathematics in physics as well as to the use of physics in mathematics and to investigate Mathematical Physics as precisely the new discipline which is concerned with this dialectical link itself. So the main question is: When and why did the tension between mathematics and physics, explicitly practised at least since Galileo, evolve into such a new scientific theory? The authors explain the various ways in which this science allowed an advanced mathematical modelling in physics on the one hand, and the invention of new mathematical ideas on the other hand. Of course this problem is related to the links between institutions, universities, schools for engineers, and industries, and so it has social implications as well. The link by which physical ideas had influenced the world of mathematics was not new in the 19th century, but it came to a kind of maturity at that time. Recently, much historical research has been done into mathematics and physics and their relation in this period. The purpose of the Symposium and this book is to gather and re-evaluate the current thinking on this subject. It brings together contributions from leading experts in the field, and gives much-needed insight in the subject of mathematical physics from a historical point of view.
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Communicating Chemistry

authors have remarked that by the end of the eighteenth century, the university
disciplines of chemistry and physics were ... Thus, it was only when this process
was concluded in the second decade of the nineteenth century that a physics ...

Author: Anders Lundgren

Publisher: Science History Publications

ISBN: 0881352748

Category: Science

Page: 465

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Historians and philosophers of science offer 18 papers from a European Science Foundation workshop held in Uppsala, Sweden, in February 1996, explore such questions as how textbooks differ from other forms of chemical literature, under what conditions they become established as a genre, whether they develop a specific rhetoric, how their audiences help shape the profile of chemistry, translations, and other topics. Only names are indexed.
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Science Periodicals in Nineteenth Century Britain

A revealing precursor to the story I tell below about physics journals can be found
in mid-nineteenth-century developments in chemistry periodicals. The Chemist
and Druggist was launched in 1859 and the Chemical News in 1862; both ...

Author: Gowan Dawson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226683461

Category: Science

Page: 424

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Periodicals played a vital role in the developments in science and medicine that transformed nineteenth-century Britain. Proliferating from a mere handful to many hundreds of titles, they catered to audiences ranging from gentlemanly members of metropolitan societies to working-class participants in local natural history clubs. In addition to disseminating authorized scientific discovery, they fostered a sense of collective identity among their geographically dispersed and often socially disparate readers by facilitating the reciprocal interchange of ideas and information. As such, they offer privileged access into the workings of scientific communities in the period. The essays in this volume set the historical exploration of the scientific and medical periodicals of the era on a new footing, examining their precise function and role in the making of nineteenth-century science and enhancing our vision of the shifting communities and practices of science in the period. This radical rethinking of the scientific journal offers a new approach to the reconfiguration of the sciences in nineteenth-century Britain and sheds instructive light on contemporary debates about the purpose, practices, and price of scientific journals.
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Nineteenth Century Poetry and the Physical Sciences

The book argues that poets such as William Wordsworth, Mathilde Blind, and Thomas Hardy identified poetry as an experimental investigation of nature’s materiality.

Author: Gregory Tate

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030314415

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 271

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Poetical Matter examines the two-way exchange of language and methods between nineteenth-century poetry and the physical sciences. The book argues that poets such as William Wordsworth, Mathilde Blind, and Thomas Hardy identified poetry as an experimental investigation of nature’s materiality. It also explores how science writers such as Humphry Davy, Mary Somerville, and John Tyndall used poetry to formulate their theories, to bestow cultural legitimacy on the emerging disciplines of chemistry and physics, and to communicate technical knowledge to non-specialist audiences. The book’s chapters show how poets and science writers relied on a set of shared terms (“form,” “experiment,” “rhythm,” “sound,” “measure”) and how the meaning of those terms was debated and reimagined in a range of different texts. “A stimulating analysis of nineteenth-century poetry and physics. In this groundbreaking study, Tate turns to sound to tease out fascinating continuities across scientific inquiry and verse. Reflecting that ‘the processes of the universe’ were themselves ‘rhythmic,’ he shows that a wide range of poets and scientists were thinking through undulatory motion as a space where the material and the immaterial met. ‘The motion of waves,’ Tate demonstrates, was ‘the exemplary form in the physical sciences.’ Sound waves, light, energy, and poetic meter were each characterized by a ‘process of undulation,’ that could be understood as both a physical and a formal property. Drawing on work in new materialism and new formalism, Tate illuminates a nineteenth-century preoccupation with dynamic patterning that characterizes the undulatory as (in John Herschel’s words) not ‘things, but forms.’” —Anna Henchman, Associate Professor of English at Boston University, USA “This impressive study consolidates and considerably advances the field of physics and poetry studies. Moving easily and authoritatively between canonical and scientist poets, Nineteenth-Century Poetry and the Physical Sciences draws scientific thought and poetic form into telling relation, disclosing how they were understood variously across the nineteenth century as both comparable and competing ways of knowing the physical world. Clearly written and beautifully structured, Nineteenth-Century Poetry and the Physical Sciences is both scholarly and accessible, a fascinating and indispensable contribution to its field.” —Daniel Brown, Professor of English at the University of Southampton, UK “Essential reading for Victorianists. Tate’s study of nineteenth-century poetry and science reconfi gures debate by insisting on the equivalence of accounts of empirical fact and speculative theory rather than their antagonism. The undulatory rhythms of the universe and of poetry, the language of science and of verse, come into new relations. Tate brilliantly re-reads Coleridge, Tennyson, Mathilde Blind and Hardy through their explorations of matter and ontological reality. He also addresses contemporary theory from Latour to Jane Bennett.” — Isobel Armstrong, Emeritus Professor of English at Birkbeck, University of London, UK
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Nineteenth Century Aether Theories

The Commonwealth and International Library: Selected Readings in Physics
Kenneth F. Schaffner D. Ter Haar ... During the previous century the various
aether theories held an importance for physicists which general relativity and SU
3 ...

Author: Kenneth F. Schaffner

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781483158280

Category: Science

Page: 288

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Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green’s aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz’ aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz’ ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' response to the Michelson-Morley experiment are discussed. The book discusses the relative motion of the earth and the luminiferous aether and laws of the reflection and refraction of light at the common surface of two non-crystallized media. The text also focuses on the electrical and optical phenomena in moving bodies; simplified theory of electrical and optical phenomena in moving systems; and rotational aether in its application to electromagnetism. The selection is a dependable reference for readers wanting to study aether theories.
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Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists

To some scientists during the nineteenth century, this picture seemed complete.
So much so that William Thomson Kelvin (also known as Lord Kelvin), a great
physicist of the nineteenth century, thought that the basic outline of physical
theory ...

Author: Paul Sanghera

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470922699

Category: Computers

Page: 544

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Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists is a self-contained, comprehensive review of this complex branch of science. The book demystifies difficult concepts and views the subject through non-physics fields such as computer science, biology, chemistry, and nanotechnology. It explains key concepts and phenomena in the language of non-physics majors and with simple math, assuming no prior knowledge of the topic. This cohesive book begins with the wavefunction to develop the basic principles of quantum mechanics such as the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality. Comprehensive coverage of quantum theory is presented, supported by experimental results and explained through applications and examples without the use of abstract and complex mathematical tools or formalisms. From there, the book: Takes the mystery out of the Schrodinger equation, the fundamental equation of quantum physics, by applying it to atoms Shows how quantum mechanics explains the periodic table of elements Introduces the quantum mechanical concept of spin and spin quantum number, along with Pauli's Exclusion Principle regarding the occupation of quantum states Addresses quantum states of molecules in terms of rotation and vibration of diatomic molecules Explores the interface between classical statistical mechanics and quantum statistical mechanics Discusses quantum mechanics as a common thread through different fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology Each chapter features real-world applications of one or more quantum mechanics principles. "Study Checkpoints" and problems with solutions are presented throughout to make difficult concepts easy to understand. In addition, pictures, tables, and diagrams with full explanations are used to present data and further explain difficult concepts. This book is designed as a complete course in quantum mechanics for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students in non-physics majors. It also applies to courses such as modern physics, physical chemistry and nanotechnology. The material is also accessible to scientists, engineers, and technologists working in the fields of computer science, biology, chemistry, engineering, and nanotechnology.
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The Science of Energy

Traditional accounts of the energy concept have tended to emphasize its discovery, an inevitable product of the progress of science in the 19th century. This new history places the construction of the concept firmly in its social context.

Author: Crosbie Smith

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226764214

Category: History

Page: 404

View: 823

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Traditional accounts of the energy concept have tended to emphasize its discovery, an inevitable product of the progress of science in the 19th century. This new history places the construction of the concept firmly in its social context.
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