Plastic Materials for Packaging

Developments in Markets, Materials & Processes Andrew Barnetson. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 What is Packaging ? Before considering why plastics are used in packaging , the concept of packaging itself must be investigated .

Author: Andrew Barnetson

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 1859570682

Category: Containers

Page: 136

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This report reviews the current use of plastics for packaging both by technology and market covering the world in consumption and growth terms as well as material and process developments.
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Recycling of Plastic Materials

The agricultural plastic wastes can be collected and well classified in the place of their generation. ... An increase by two hundred and fifty percent by volume of wastes would become real if plastic packaging materials were not used.

Author: Francesco Paolo La Mantia

Publisher: ChemTec Publishing

ISBN: 9781895198034

Category: Science

Page: 189

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Combines topics discussing the state of art, analysis of processes successfully implemented in industrial practice, ideas concerning production with recycling in mind, and the new research developments offering practical solutions for recycling industry and product manufacturers. The major emphasis is given to polyolefins, polyethylene terephthalate, PVC, and rubber. Materials concerned include films, bottles, packing materials, paper, car batteries, plastics used in car interiors, tires, etc.
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Tribology of Plastic Materials

4.3 GEARS 4.3.1 Characteristics Although gears were first made of wood, metallic materials have been used almost exclusively until recently. Since the introduction of plastics, special gears constructed of laminated phenolics have been ...

Author: Y. Yamaguchi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080875807

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 361

View: 745

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This book presents a thorough overview on workable theories and reliable experimental data on the use of plastic materials for sliding parts. Divided into four parts. Chapters 1 and 2 deal with current theories of friction and wear, and include discussion of various hypotheses based upon experimental studies. Chapter 3 details experiments designed to improve tribological performance via polymer blending and composite production, whilst Chapter 4 explains how the data obtained from these experiemnts can be applied to sliding machine parts. The work will prove useful in the design of plastic materials and components and will also provide a stepping-stone toward future innovations in this field.
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Polyhydroxyalkanoates plastic Materials of the 21st Century

This can be termed a pandemic of plastic pollution , which has spread all over the world and is growing more intense , because the rate ... Chemical polymer plastics are a “ thrombus ” in the closed material cycling of the biosphere .

Author: Tatʹi͡ana Grigorʹevna Volova

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 1590339924

Category: Science

Page: 282

View: 758

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Special Interest Catogories: biotechnology; materials science; medicine; ecology and chemistry. The book summarizes the literature data and research results on biodegradable polyesters of microbiological origin -- polymers of hydroxy alkanoic acids (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHAs). These polymers are thermoplastic, biodegradable, and biocompatible. They are promising candidates for applications in agriculture, communal services, pharmacology, medicine, and other spheres. The book sums up the most recent data on the known types of polyhydroxyalkanoates, their producers, substrates, and methods of biosynthesis. The structure and physicochemical properties of these polymers, the methods used to process them to make specialised products and spheres of their application are described in the book.
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Numerical Assessments of Cracks in Elastic Plastic Materials

2.1 Higher-order solutions for pressure-sensitive materials In classical theory of plasticity based on the Mises yield criterion it is generally assumed that the hydrostatic pressure has only negligible effects on plastic deformations ...

Author: Huang Yuan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540458821

Category: Science

Page: 311

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In this book a systematic discussion of crack problems in elastic-plastic materials is presented. The state of the art in fracture mechanics research and assessment of cracks is documented, with the help of analytic, asymptotic methods as well as finite element computations. After a brief introduction to fracture mechanics, the two-parameter concept for stationary cracks is studied in addition to the issues in three-dimensional crack fields under coupling with strong out-of-plane effects. Cracks along interfaces and crack growth problems under mixed mode conditions are also treated. A systematic study of stress singularities for different notches is accompanied by detailed finite element computations.
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Plastic Materials

For both classes of plastics, the ease of shaping is related to the fluidity of the material: the mobility of prepolymers and the high ... The interaction of plastics with solvents is relevant to the wider use of plastics materials.

Author: Birley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401176149

Category: Science

Page: 198

View: 363

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Plastics are part of everyday life and contribute immensely to the benefit of humanity. When failures occur, they are due in part either to inferior properties (resulting from poor design or badly controlled processing), or to an incomplete understanding of the properties and applications of plastics materials. Since publication of the first edition, the plastics industry has increas ingly adopted advanced business procedures and automation (such as closed loop control and robotics), to combat the effects of recession, and has moved increasingly towards methods based on sound scientific and technological principles. Plastics have increasingly been used in appli cations once dominated by the use of metals and ceramics. For instance, in the automotive industry, the modern car now contains a much higher proportion of polymers, including commodity plastics and more spec ialized materials. In addition, compact discs are being made from new injection-moulding grades of polycarbonate, which meet the requirements of a demanding process. This second edition has been thoroughly revised and extended to include new materials, technologies and design concepts. Chapters on thermoplastics reflect the development of polymer blends and alloys, whilst the chapters devoted to thermosets have been reorganized to accommodate the renaissance in the applications of phenolics and to cover the growing importance of polyurethanes. The related two component process technologies are now included; having undergone major developments in the last decade, they have become important shaping processes.
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The Study of Ablation of Structural Plastic Materials

Results of ablation tests conducted on reinforced plastics at moderately severe heating conditions are reported . The materials tested include laminates of melamine , phenolic , and silicone reinforced with glass fabric as well as ...

Author: Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory

Publisher:

ISBN: CORNELL:31924004638643

Category: Building materials

Page: 103

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Handbook of Odors in Plastic Materials

Plastic. Materials. 6.1. EFFECT. OF. POLYMER. The odor of plastics is a result of many different influences, mostly discussed in this chapter, but many references are included in other chapters as well. It is common to recognize that ...

Author: George Wypych

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781927885178

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 260

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Handbook of Odors in Plastic Materials, Second Edition, analyzes the reasons behind unwanted odor formation and the methods for preventing it. The book covers the fundamentals of odor formation and its transport within a material, the relationship between odor and toxicity, and seventeen methods of odor removal. Odor can play a significant role in the success of a product; it can decide whether a customer purchases the product in the first place, or can be the cause of complaints or returns. Similarly, in scented products, the retention of volatile components is a particular challenge and opportunity. There are several factors which have an impact on the formation of odors in plastic materials, including the properties of the polymer, use of additives in processing, exposure to radiation and oxygen, storage, and recycling. Thirty-seven polymers and forty-one critical product groups are analyzed based on the latest research publications and patents. The book also discusses regulations related to odor in products, effects of odor on health and safety, and the effect of odors from plastic materials on indoor air quality. Analyzes the reasons behind odor formation Provides the best methods to prevent odors in various materials Contains information on testing odor changes and the relationship between odor and toxicity Includes a comprehensive list of methods for removal of unwanted odors from plastic materials
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New Plastic Materials Through Government Research

Development of Graze and Impact Resistance in Glazing Plastics by Multiadal Stretching . l . X. Kine , et al . ... Plastic Springs . pp . 70-71 , May 1956 3 . ... Properties of Materials at High Temperature . p . 117 , hune 1958 7 .

Author: United States. Department of Commerce. Office of Technical Services

Publisher:

ISBN: CORNELL:31924004581710

Category: Plastics

Page: 99

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Adiabatic Shear Bands in Simple and Dipolar Plastic Materials

... distribution with a peak forming in the center and a plateau forming in the outer regions as the plastic heating falls to zero . -4 In all calculations so far the case for l shows essentially no dirference from the simple material .

Author: Thomas W. Wright

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822004964029

Category: Deformations (Mechanics)

Page: 30

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A simple version of thermo/viscoplasticity is used to model the formation of adiabatic shear bands in high rate deformation of solids. The one- dimensional shearing deformation of a finite slab is considered. Equations are formulated and numerical solutions are found for dipolar plastic materials. These solutions are contrasted and compared with previous solutions for simple materials. Keywords: Shear bands, Viscoplasticity, High rate deformation.
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