Principles of Planetary Climate

This book introduces the reader to all the basic physical building blocks of climate needed to understand the present and past climate of Earth, the climates of Solar System planets, and the climates of extrasolar planets.

Author: Raymond T. Pierrehumbert

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139495066

Category: Science

Page:

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This book introduces the reader to all the basic physical building blocks of climate needed to understand the present and past climate of Earth, the climates of Solar System planets, and the climates of extrasolar planets. These building blocks include thermodynamics, infrared radiative transfer, scattering, surface heat transfer and various processes governing the evolution of atmospheric composition. Nearly four hundred problems are supplied to help consolidate the reader's understanding, and to lead the reader towards original research on planetary climate. This textbook is invaluable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in atmospheric science, Earth and planetary science, astrobiology, and physics. It also provides a superb reference text for researchers in these subjects, and is very suitable for academic researchers trained in physics or chemistry who wish to rapidly gain enough background to participate in the excitement of the new research opportunities opening in planetary climate.
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Non equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Production of Entropy

The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings.

Author: Axel Kleidon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540224955

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 153

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The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers from a wide range of backgrounds, the book presents a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.
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The Oxford Handbook of the Macroeconomics of Global Warming

Principles of Planetary Climate. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
Roe, G. H., and Baker, M. B. (2010). Notes on a catastrophe: A feedback analysis
of snowball Earth. Journal of Climate, 23(17), 4694–4703. Schaefer, K., Zhang, T.
, ...

Author: Lucas Bernard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190204198

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 560

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The first World Climate Conference, which was sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization in Genève in 1979, triggered an international dialogue on global warming. From the 1997 United Nations-sponsored conference-during which the Kyoto Protocol was signed-through meetings in Copenhagen, Cancún, Durban, and most recently Doha (2012) and Warsaw (2013), worldwide attention to the issue of global warming and its impact on the world's economy has rapidly increased in intensity. The consensus of these debates and discussions, however, is less than clear. Optimistically, many geoscience researchers and members of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have supported CO2 emission reduction pledges while maintaining that a 2°C limit in increased temperature by the year 2100 is achievable through international coordination. Other observers postulate that established CO2 reduction commitments such as those agreed to at the Copenhagen United Nations Climate Change Conference (2009) are insufficient and cannot hold the global warming increase below 2°C. As experts theorize on precisely what impact global warming will have, developing nations have become particularly alarmed. The developed world will use energy to mitigate global warming effects, but developing countries are more exposed by geography and poverty to the most dangerous consequences of a global temperature rise and lack the economic means to adapt. The complex dynamics that result from this confluence of science and geopolitics gives rise to even more complicated issues for economists, financial planners, business leaders, and policy-makers. The Oxford Handbook of the Macroeconomics of Global Warming analyzes the economic impact of issues related to and resulting from global warming, specifically the implications of possible preventative measures, various policy changes, and adaptation efforts as well as the different consequences climate change will have on both developing and developed nations. This multi-disciplinary approach, which touches on issues of growth, employment, and development, elucidates for readers state-of-the-art research on the complex and far-reaching problem of global warming.
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Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer of Planetary Atmospheres

This book provides this fundamental knowledge to a depth that will leave a student with the background to become capable of performing quantitative research on atmospheres.

Author: Kelly Chance

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199662104

Category:

Page: 160

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Spectroscopy and radiative transfer are rapidly growing fields within atmospheric and planetary science with implications on various fields. Remote sensing and modeling atmospheric composition require detailed knowledge of how radiation and matter interact in planetary atmospheres. This book provides this fundamental knowledge to a depth that will leave a student with the background to become capable of performing quantitative research on atmospheres. The book is intended for graduate students or for advanced undergraduates. It spans across principles through applications, with sufficient background for students without prior experience in either spectroscopy or radiative transfer. Courses based on this book are intended to be accompanied by the development of increasing sophisticated atmospheric and spectroscopic modeling capability (ideally, the student develops a computer model for simulation of atmospheric spectra from microwave through ultraviolet).
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The Warming Papers

The Scientific Foundation for the Climate Change Forecast David Archer,
Raymond Pierrehumbert ... (Figure and associated discussion in this box are
reproduced from Pierrehumbert RT 2010: Principles of Planetary Climate,
Cambridge: ...

Author: David Archer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118687338

Category: Science

Page: 432

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Chosen for the 2011 ASLI Choice - Honorable Mention (History Category) for a compendium of the key scientific papers that undergird the global warming forecast. Global warming is arguably the defining scientific issue of modern times, but it is not widely appreciated that the foundations of our understanding were laid almost two centuries ago with the postulation of a greenhouse effect by Fourier in 1827. The sensitivity of climate to changes in atmospheric CO2 was first estimated about one century ago, and the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration was discovered half a century ago. The fundamentals of the science underlying the forecast for human-induced climate change were being published and debated long before the issue rose to public prominence in the last few decades. The Warming Papers is a compendium of the classic scientific papers that constitute the foundation of the global warming forecast. The paper trail ranges from Fourier and Arrhenius in the 19th Century to Manabe and Hansen in modern times. Archer and Pierrehumbert provide introductions and commentary which places the papers in their context and provide students with tools to develop and extend their understanding of the subject. The book captures the excitement and the uncertainty that always exist at the cutting edge of research, and is invaluable reading for students of climate science, scientists, historians of science, and others interested in climate change.
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Exploring Planetary Climate

habitability of planets around other stars, depended rather critically on such
parameterization details [211]. ... The success of the Leighton–Murray model for
the present Mars climate relied on the atmosphere being very thin and so being
unable to transport ... He thought that perhaps some thermodynamic principle
might be useful in estimating the heat transports, and in 1975 found some
success with a ...

Author: Ralph D. Lorenz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108471541

Category: Nature

Page: 316

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An accessible and engaging account of the history of climate science and exploration on Earth and other planetary bodies.
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Global Climate Change

CLIMATE. CHANGE. IS. NOT. A. COST/BENEFIT. PROBLEM. Peter G. Brown
University of Maryland School of Public ... In contrast, I believe that attempting to
derive principles for planetary management—with implications for centuries to ...

Author: James C. White

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401129145

Category: Science

Page: 438

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Bacteria in a test tube and humans on our planet follow the same population curve as time elapses. We on this earth, largely through control of disease, are rapidly ap proaching maximum population, and through energy demands are using up our resour ces and accumulating wastes. We have come to realize the danger of a maturing system but have made essential ly no impact in mitigating or preventing the problems we face. While we have been able to change the world we live in, most of our effects have been to degrade the planet. We have nibbled away at the quality of the atmosphere for centuries and the ac cumulated damage has resulted in changing the world's climate at an ever-increasing rate. We now face the possibility of higher average temperatures over most of our planet, changing patterns of rainfall, rising sea levels, aggravated storm systems and a myriad of social effects.
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Planetary Climates

Although the principle is accepted and the phenomenon has been observed on
other planets, this upgradient momentum transfer has not been directly observed
on Venus, largely because we can't see below the cloud tops. There is no simple
 ...

Author: Andrew Ingersoll

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400848232

Category: Science

Page: 288

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This concise, sophisticated introduction to planetary climates explains the global physical and chemical processes that determine climate on any planet or major planetary satellite--from Mercury to Neptune and even large moons such as Saturn's Titan. Although the climates of other worlds are extremely diverse, the chemical and physical processes that shape their dynamics are the same. As this book makes clear, the better we can understand how various planetary climates formed and evolved, the better we can understand Earth's climate history and future.
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Repairing Domestic Climate Displacement

The structure of the Preamble to the Peninsula Principles The 18 Principles
contained within the Peninsula Principles on ... to 2°C or below, some degree of
climate change is all but inevitable given the lags in the planetary climate system.

Author: Scott Leckie

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317417118

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 198

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Climate change, sometimes thought of as a problem for the future, is already impacting people’s lives around the world: families are losing their homes, lands and livelihoods as a result of sea level rise, increased frequency and intensity of storms, drought and other phenomena. Following several years of preparatory work across the globe, legal scholars, judges, UN officials and climate change experts from 11 countries came together to finalise a new normative framework aiming to strengthen the right of climate-displaced persons, households and communities. This resulted in the approval of the Peninsula Principles on Climate Displacement within States in August 2013. This book provides detailed explanations and interpretations of the Peninsula Principles and includes in-depth discussion of the legal, policy and programmatic efforts needed to uphold the standards and norms embedded in the Principles. The book provides policy-makers with the conceptual understanding necessary to ensure that national-level policies are in place to respond to the climate displacement challenge, as well as a firm sense of the programme-level approaches that can be taken to anticipate, reduce and manage climate displacement. It also provides students and policy advocates with the necessary information to debate and critique responses to climate displacement at different levels. Drawing together key thinkers in the field, this volume will be of great relevance to scholars, lawyers, legal advisors and policy-makers with an interest in climate change, environmental policy, disaster management and human rights law and policy.
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Environmental Human Rights and Climate Change

The purpose of the Global Pact is to bring together principles of environmental
law and justice under a single instrument ... It also declares that All human beings
have the right to a planetary climate suitable to meet equitably the ecologically ...

Author: Bridget Lewis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811319600

Category: Law

Page: 250

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This book examines the current status of environmental human rights at the international, regional, and national levels and provides a critical analysis of possible future developments in this area, particularly in the context of a changing climate. It examines various conceptualisations of environmental human rights, including procedural rights relating to the environment, constitutional environmental rights, the environmental dimensions of existing human rights such as the rights to water, health, food, housing and life, and the notion of a stand-alone human right to a healthy environment. The book addresses the topic from a variety of perspectives, drawing on underlying theories of human rights as well as a range of legal, political, and pragmatic considerations. It examines the scope of current human rights, particularly those enshrined in international and regional human rights law, to explore their application and enforceability in relation to environmental problems, identifying potential barriers to more effective implementation. It also analyses the rationale for constitutional recognition of environmental rights and considers the impact that this area of law has had, both in terms of achieving stronger environmental protection and environmental justice, as well as in influencing the development of human rights law more generally. The book identifies climate change as the key environmental challenge facing the global community, as well as a major cause of negative human rights impacts. It examines the contribution that environmental human rights might make to rights-based approaches to climate change.
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Atmosphere Clouds and Climate

Sci . , 52 , 1784-1806 . 2010 : Principles of planetary climate . Cambridge
University Press , Cambridge , UK , 652 pp . 2011 : Infrared radiation and
planetary temperature . Phys . Today , 64 , 33–38 . Poincaré , H. , 1912 : Science
and method .

Author: David Allan Randall

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822039389556

Category: Science

Page: 277

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The atmosphere is critical to climate change. It can amplify shifts in the climate system, and also mitigate them. Giving readers an overview of key atmospheric processes, the author of this book looks at how our climate system receives energy from the sun and sheds it by emitting infrared radiation back into space. The atmosphere regulates these radiative energy flows and transports energy through weather systems such as thunderstorms, monsoons, hurricanes, and winter storms. The author explains how these processes work, and also how precipitation, cloud formation, and other phase changes of water strongly influence weather and climate. He discusses how atmospheric feedbacks affect climate change, how the large-scale atmospheric circulation works, how predicting the weather and the climate are fundamentally different challenges, and much more.
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Atmospheric Evolution on Inhabited and Lifeless Worlds

A comprehensive and authoritative text on the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres, for graduate-level students and researchers.

Author: David C. Catling

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521844123

Category: Science

Page: 592

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A comprehensive and authoritative text on the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres, for graduate-level students and researchers.
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Climate change and sustainable development

How should we handle conflicting ethical values or principles in pursuit of these
key objectives? ... The idea that to maintain a planetary climate suitable for
human flourishing system meant putting a break on energy demand and
reducingfossil ...

Author: Thomas Potthast

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789086867530

Category: Science

Page: 526

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Climate change is a major framing condition for sustainable development of agriculture and food. Global food production is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and at the same time it is among the sectors worst affected by climate change. This book brings together a multidisciplinary group of authors exploring the ethical dimensions of climate change and food. Conceptual clarifications provide a necessary basis for putting sustainable development into practice. Adaptation and mitigation demand altering both agricultural and consumption practices. Intensive vs. extensive production is reassessed with regard to animal welfare, efficiency and environmental implications. Property rights pay an ever-increasing role, as do shifting land-use practices, agro-energy, biotechnology, food policy to green consumerism. And, last but not least, tools are suggested for teaching agricultural and food ethics. Notwithstanding the plurality of ethical analyses and their outcome, it becomes apparent that governance of agri-food is faced by new needs and new approaches of bringing in the value dimension much more explicitly. This book is intended to serve as a stimulating collection that will contribute to debate and reflection on the sustainable future of agriculture and food production in the face of global change.
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Moral Expertise

... supplies of these biogenic elements and compounds ( e.g. CO2 , H2O ) to
allow for a planetary - scale biosphere . ... our understanding of the general
principles of planetary climate and on a detailed knowledge of the present
mineral state of ...

Author: Don MacNiven

Publisher: London : Routledge

ISBN: UOM:39015017967285

Category: Ethics.

Page: 231

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The unusual essays gathered here explore the proposition that as a society we are becoming amoral, our professions no longer have a moral dimension. Wide-ranging, it looks at, for example, the ethics of forestry and planetary engineering.
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Occultations for Probing Atmosphere and Climate

Climate:Setting. theScene. G. Kirchengast1. Institute for Geophysics,
Astrophysics, and Meteorology (IGAM), University ... Abstract Use ofthe
occultation measurement principle for observing the Earth's atmosphere and
climatehas become so ... and chemistry, and other fields such as space weather
and planetary research.

Author: Gottfried Kirchengast

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783662090411

Category: Science

Page: 408

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Use of occultation methodology for observing the Earth's atmosphere and climate has become so broad as to comprise solar, lunar, stellar, navigation and satellite crosslink occultation methods. The atmospheric parameters obtained extend from the fundamental variables temperature, density, pressure, water vapor, and ozone via a multitude of trace gas species to particulate species such as aerosols and cloud liquid water. Ionospheric electron density is sensed as well. The methods all share the key properties of self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultation data are thus of high value in a wide range of fields including climate monitoring and research, atmospheric physics and chemistry, operational meteorology, and other fields such as space weather and planetary science. This wide area of variants and uses of the occultation method has led to a diversi fication of the occultation-related scientific community into a range of different sub-communities, however. The 1st International Workshop on Occultations for Probing Atmosphere and Cli mate-OPAC-1- held September 16-20, 2002, in Graz, Austria, has set in ex actly at this point. OPAC-1 aimed at providing a casual forum and stimulating at mosphere fertilizing scientific discourse, co-operation initiatives, and mutual learning and support amongst members of all the different sub-communities. The workshop was attended by about 80 participants from 17 different countries who actively contributed to a scientific programme of high quality and to an excellent workshop atmosphere, which was judged by the participants to have fully met the aims expressed.
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Lightning Principles Instruments and Applications

Colin Price Abstract The distribution of lightning around the planet is directly
linked to the Earth's climate, which is driven by ... If we change the climate we will
C. Price (B) Tel Aviv University, Department of Geophysics and Planetary
Science, ...

Author: Hans Dieter Betz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402090790

Category: Science

Page: 641

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Lightning represents a natural phenomenon of substantial interest. Due to its complex nature, research continues in many countries and reveals amazing results. Lightning is actively observed because of its relevance to Earth climate and air composition in addition to the classical aspects of related human fatalities and damage to forests, buildings, power lines, aircraft, structures and electronic devices. In this volume, the most important contemporary questions on lightning are addressed and analyzed under many experimental and theoretical aspects. Lightning detection techniques using ground-based and space-borne methods are described, along with network engineering and statistical analysis. Contributions detail research on atmospheric electricity, cloud physics, lightning physics, modeling of electrical storms and middle atmospheric events. Special phenomena such as triggered lightning and sprite observations are examined. Lightning-induced nitrogen oxides and their effects on atmospheric chemistry and climate are discussed. Each topic is presented by international experts in the field. Topics include: * air chemistry * convective storms * infrasound from lightning * lightning and climate change * lightning and precipitation * lightning and radiation * lightning and supercells * lightning and thunderstorms * lightning detection * lightning from space * lighting protection * lightning return strokes * observations and interpretations * spatial distribution and frequency * triggered lightning * weather extremes
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Principles of Atmospheric Science

The Earth's Climate INTRODUCTION The concept of climate refers to the long-
term statistics of all quantities re- quired to describe the state of ... space, changes
in the planetary albedo, and variations in the magnitude of the greenhouse effect.

Author: John E. Frederick

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763740894

Category: Science

Page: 211

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Providing a comprehensive introduction to atmospheric science, the author identifies the fundamental concepts and principles related to atmospheric science.
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Fundamental Planetary Science

Returning to the concept of Gaia (§ 16.8), life forms that exert negative feedback
on planetary climate are likely to have ... 'Intelligent' beings such as humans are
able to exert conscious control of their environment, including in principle the ...

Author: Jack J. Lissauer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107354616

Category: Science

Page:

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A quantitative introduction to the Solar System and planetary systems science for advanced undergraduate students, this engaging new textbook explains the wide variety of physical, chemical and geological processes that govern the motions and properties of planets. The authors provide an overview of our current knowledge and discuss some of the unanswered questions at the forefront of research in planetary science and astrobiology today. They combine knowledge of the Solar System and the properties of extrasolar planets with astrophysical observations of ongoing star and planet formation, offering a comprehensive model for understanding the origin of planetary systems. The book concludes with an introduction to the fundamental properties of living organisms and the relationship that life has to its host planet. With more than 200 exercises to help students learn how to apply the concepts covered, this textbook is ideal for a one-semester or two-quarter course for undergraduate students.
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The Principles of Science

Geological investigations show indeed that there have been extensive variations
of climate in past times ; vast glaciers ... In the first place , Laplace's theory of the
stability of the planetary system is of an abstract character , as paying regard to ...

Author: William Stanley Jevons

Publisher:

ISBN: COLUMBIA:CR60076623

Category: Logic

Page: 786

View: 332

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Dynamics of The Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans

This book presents a unique and comprehensive view of the fundamental dynamical and thermodynamic principles underlying the large circulations of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system Dynamics of The Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans provides a ...

Author: Peter J. Webster

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470662564

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 636

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This book presents a unique and comprehensive view of the fundamental dynamical and thermodynamic principles underlying the large circulations of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system Dynamics of The Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans provides a detailed description of macroscale tropical circulation systems such as the monsoon, the Hadley and Walker Circulations, El Niño, and the tropical ocean warm pool. These macroscale circulations interact with a myriad of higher frequency systems, ranging from convective cloud systems to migrating equatorial waves that attend the low-frequency background flow. Towards understanding and predicting these circulation systems. A comprehensive overview of the dynamics and thermodynamics of large-scale tropical atmosphere and oceans is presented using both a “reductionist” and “holistic” perspectives of the coupled tropical system. The reductionist perspective provides a detailed description of the individual elements of the ocean and atmospheric circulations. The physical nature of each component of the tropical circulation such as the Hadley and Walker circulations, the monsoon, the incursion of extratropical phenomena into the tropics, precipitation distributions, equatorial waves and disturbances described in detail. The holistic perspective provides a physical description of how the collection of the individual components produces the observed tropical weather and climate. How the collective tropical processes determine the tropical circulation and their role in global weather and climate is provided in a series of overlapping theoretical and modelling constructs. The structure of the book follows a graduated framework. Following a detailed description of tropical phenomenology, the reader is introduced to dynamical and thermodynamical constraints that guide the planetary climate and establish a critical role for the tropics. Equatorial wave theory is developed for simple and complex background flows, including the critical role played by moist processes. The manner in which the tropics and the extratropics interact is then described, followed by a discussion of the physics behind the subtropical and near-equatorial precipitation including arid regions. The El Niño phenomena and the monsoon circulations are discussed, including their covariance and predictability. Finally, the changing structure of the tropics is discussed in terms of the extent of the tropical ocean warm pool and its relationship to the intensity of global convection and climate change. Dynamics of the Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans is aimed at advanced undergraduate and early career graduate students. It also serves as an excellent general reference book for scientists interested in tropical circulations and their relationship with the broader climate system.
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