Race and Slavery in the Middle East

An Historical Enquiry
Author: Bernard Lewis
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195053265
Category: History
Page: 184
View: 9877
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From before the days of Moses up through the 1960s, slavery was a fact of life in the Middle East. Pagans, Jews, Christians, and Muslims bought and sold at the slave markets for millennia, trading the human plunder of wars and slave raids that reached from the Russian steppes to the African jungles. But if the Middle East was one of the last regions to renounce slavery, how do we account for its--and especially Islam's--image of racial harmony? How did these long years of slavery affect racial relations? In Race and Slavery in the Middle East, Bernard Lewis explores these questions and others, examining the history of slavery in law, social thought, and practice over the last two millennia. With 24 rare and intriguing full-color illustrations, this fascinating study describes the Middle East's culture of slavery and the evolution of racial prejudice. Lewis demonstrates how nineteenth century Europeans mythologized the region as a racial utopia in debating American slavery. Islam, in fact, clearly teaches non-discrimination, but Lewis shows that prejudice often won out over pious sentiments, as he examines how Africans were treated, depicted, and thought of from antiquity to the twentieth century. "If my color were pink, women would love me/But the Lord has marred me with blackness," lamented a black slave poet in Arabia over a millennium ago--and Lewis deftly draws from these lines and others the nuances of racial relations over time. Islam, he finds, restricted enslavement and greatly improved the lot of slaves--who included, until the early twentieth century, some whites--while blacks occasionally rose to power and renown. But abuses ring throughout the written and visual record, from the horrors of capture to the castration and high mortality which, along with other causes, have left few blacks in many Middle Eastern lands, despite centuries of importing African slaves. Race and Slavery in the Middle East illuminates the legacy of slavery in the region where it lasted longest, from the days of warrior slaves and palace eunuchs and concubines to the final drive for abolition. Illustrated with outstanding reproductions of striking artwork, it casts a new light on this critical part of the world, and on the nature and interrelation of slavery and racial prejudice.

Race and Slavery in the Middle East

Histories of Trans-Saharan Africans in Nineteenth-century Egypt, Sudan, and the Ottoman Mediterranean
Author: Terence Walz,Kenneth M. Cuno
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9774163982
Category: History
Page: 264
View: 7244
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New sources and research illuminate the individual lives of African slaves in the Middle East

Racism

A Global Reader
Author: Kevin Reilly,Stephen Kaufman,Angela Bodino
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
ISBN: 9780765610591
Category: History
Page: 400
View: 2260
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Racism has existed throughout the world for centuries and has been at the root of innumerable conflicts and human tragedies, including war, genocide, slavery, bigotry, and discrimination. Defined broadly, racism has had many forms and effects, from caste prejudice in India and mass extermination in Tasmania to slavery in the Americas and the Holocaust in Europe. Put simply, racism has been one of the overriding forces in world history for more than a millennium. This book provides a global perspective of racism in its myriad forms. Consisting of twelve parts and fifty-one articles, it focuses on racism worldwide over the past thousand years. It includes three types of articles: original documents, scholarly essays, and journalistic accounts.

Indian Ocean Slavery in the Age of Abolition


Author: Robert W. Harms,Bernard K. Freamon,David W. Blight
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 030016646X
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 2081
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div While the British were able to accomplish abolition in the trans-Atlantic world by the end of the nineteenth century, their efforts paradoxically caused a great increase in legal and illegal slave trading in the western Indian Ocean. Bringing together essays from leading authorities in the field of slavery studies, this comprehensive work offers an original and creative study of slavery and abolition in the Indian Ocean world during this period. Among the topics discussed are the relationship between British imperialism and slavery; Islamic law and slavery; and the bureaucracy of slave trading./DIV

Kritik der schwarzen Vernunft


Author: Achille Mbembe
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518738488
Category: Political Science
Page: 332
View: 6508
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Der globale Kapitalismus hat seit seiner Entstehung immer schon nicht nur Waren, sondern auch »Rassen« und »Spezies« produziert. Ihm liegt ein rassistisches Denken, eine »schwarze Vernunft« zugrunde, wie der große afrikanische Philosoph und Vordenker des Postkolonialismus Achille Mbembe in seinem brillanten und mitreißenden neuen Buch zeigt. In kraftvollen Linien zeichnet Mbembe die Genese unserer Gegenwart nach, indem er darstellt, wie sich der globale Kapitalismus seit dem Beginn der Neuzeit aus dem transatlantischen Sklavenhandel entwickelt hat. In dieser Zeit steigt Europa zum Zentrum der Welt auf und kreiert die Figur des »Negers«, des »Menschen-Materials«, der »Menschen-Ware«, die über den »schwarzen Atlantik« gehandelt wird. Mit dem Abolitionismus, der Revolution in Haiti, dem Antikolonialismus oder der amerikanischen Bürgerrechtsbewegung kommt zwar seit der Aufklärung eine erste globale Welle der Kritik an der Sklaverei und der »schwarzen Vernunft« des Kapitalismus auf. Dieser breitet sich jedoch in seiner neoliberalen Spielart unaufhaltsam weiter aus und überträgt die Figur des »Negers« nun auf die gesamte »subalterne Menschheit«. In diesem Prozess des »Schwarzwerdens der Welt«, so die radikale Kritik Mbembes, bilden auch Europa und seine Bürger mittlerweile nur noch eine weitere Provinz im weltumspannenden Imperium des neoliberalen Kapitalismus.

Invoking Slavery in the Eighteenth-Century British Imagination


Author: Professor Adam R Beach,Professor Srividhya Swaminathan
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409470008
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 228
View: 1686
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In the eighteenth century, audiences in Great Britain understood the term ‘slavery’ to refer to a range of physical and metaphysical conditions beyond the transatlantic slave trade. Literary representations of slavery encompassed tales of Barbary captivity, the ‘exotic’ slaving practices of the Ottoman Empire, the political enslavement practiced by government or church, and even the harsh life of servants under a cruel master. Arguing that literary and cultural studies have focused too narrowly on slavery as a term that refers almost exclusively to the race-based chattel enslavement of sub-Saharan Africans transported to the New World, the contributors suggest that these analyses foreclose deeper discussion of other associations of the term. They suggest that the term slavery became a powerful rhetorical device for helping British audiences gain a new perspective on their own position with respect to their government and the global sphere. Far from eliding the real and important differences between slave systems operating in the Atlantic world, this collection is a starting point for understanding how slavery as a concept came to encompass many forms of unfree labor and metaphorical bondage precisely because of the power of association.

An American Health Dilemma

A Medical History of African Americans and the Problem of Race: Beginnings to 1900
Author: W. Michael Byrd,Linda A. Clayton
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135960488
Category: History
Page: 616
View: 9167
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At times mirroring and at times shockingly disparate to the rise of traditional white American medicine, the history of African-American health care is a story of traditional healers; root doctors; granny midwives; underappreciated and overworked African-American physicians; scrupulous and unscrupulous white doctors and scientists; governmental support and neglect; epidemics; and poverty. Virtually every part of this story revolves around race. More than 50 years after the publication of An American Dilemma, Gunnar Myrdal's 1944 classic about race relations in the USA, An American Health Dilemma presents a comprehensive and groundbreaking history and social analysis of race, race relations and the African-American medical and public health experience. Beginning with the origins of western medicine and science in Egypt, Greece and Rome the authors explore the relationship between race, medicine, and health care from the precursors of American science and medicine through the days of the slave trade with the harrowing middle passage and equally deadly breaking-in period through the Civil War and the gains of reconstruction and the reversals caused by Jim Crow laws. It offers an extensive examination of the history of intellectual and scientific racism that evolved to give sanction to the mistreatment, medical abuse, and neglect of African Americans and other non-white people. Also included are biographical portraits of black medical pioneers like James McCune Smith, the first African American to earn a degree from a European university, and anecdotal vignettes,like the tragic story of "the Hottentot Venus", which illustrate larger themes. An American Health Dilemma promises to become an irreplaceable and essential look at African-American and medical history and will provide an invaluable baseline for future exploration of race and racism in the American health system.

In the Name of Education


Author: Jonas E. Alexis
Publisher: Xulon Press
ISBN: 1600347606
Category: Poetry
Page: 411
View: 9222
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Alexis convincingly examines the crisis in education from a Christian perspective. (Social Issues)

The Call of Bilal

Islam in the African Diaspora
Author: Edward E. Curtis IV
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 1469618125
Category: Religion
Page: 248
View: 9589
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How do people in the African diaspora practice Islam? While the term "Black Muslim" may conjure images of Malcolm X and Muhammad Ali, millions of African-descended Muslims around the globe have no connection to the American-based Nation of Islam. The Call of Bilal is a penetrating account of the rich diversity of Islamic religious practice among Africana Muslims worldwide. Covering North Africa and the Middle East, India and Pakistan, Europe, and the Americas, Edward E. Curtis IV reveals a fascinating range of religious activities--from the observance of the five pillars of Islam and the creation of transnational Sufi networks to the veneration of African saints and political struggles for racial justice. Weaving together ethnographic fieldwork and historical perspectives, Curtis shows how Africana Muslims interpret not only their religious identities but also their attachments to the African diaspora. For some, the dispersal of African people across time and space has been understood as a mere physical scattering or perhaps an economic opportunity. For others, it has been a metaphysical and spiritual exile of the soul from its sacred land and eternal home.

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought


Author: Gerhard Bowering,Patricia Crone,Wadad Kadi,Devin J. Stewart,Muhammad Qasim Zaman,Mahan Mirza
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140083855X
Category: Religion
Page: 704
View: 6288
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The first encyclopedia of Islamic political thought from the birth of Islam to today, this comprehensive, authoritative, and accessible reference provides the context needed for understanding contemporary politics in the Islamic world and beyond. With more than 400 alphabetically arranged entries written by an international team of specialists, the volume focuses on the origins and evolution of Islamic political ideas and related subjects, covering central terms, concepts, personalities, movements, places, and schools of thought across Islamic history. Fifteen major entries provide a synthetic treatment of key topics, such as Muhammad, jihad, authority, gender, culture, minorities, fundamentalism, and pluralism. Incorporating the latest scholarship, this is an indispensable resource for students, researchers, journalists, and anyone else seeking an informed perspective on the complex intersection of Islam and politics. Includes more than 400 concise, alphabetically arranged entries Features 15 in-depth entries on key topics Covers topics such as: Central themes and sources of Islamic political thought: caliph, modernity, knowledge, shari'a, government, revival and reform Modern concepts, institutions, movements, and parties: civil society, Islamization, secularism, veil, Muslim Brotherhood Islamic law and traditional Islamic societies: justice, taxation, fatwa, dissent, governance, piety and asceticism, trade and commerce Sects, schools, regions, and dynasties: Mu'tazilis, Shi'ism, Quraysh, Mecca and Medina, Baghdad, Indonesia, Nigeria, Central Asia, Ottomans Thinkers, personalities, and statesmen: Mawardi, Shafi'I, Saladin, Tamerlane, Akbar, Atatürk, Nasser, Khomeini Contains seven historical and contemporary maps of Muslim empires, postcolonial nation-states, populations, and settlements Guides readers to further research through bibliographies, cross-references, and an index

Labour in the Medieval Islamic World


Author: Maya Shatzmiller
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9789004098961
Category: History
Page: 450
View: 6187
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This comprehensive history analyses the role of labour in the medieval Islamic economy, studies women's and minority labour structures and explores doctrinal and religious approaches to labour. It includes an extensive dictionary of trade and occupational terms.

Ransom Slavery Along the Ottoman Borders

(Early Fifteenth - Early Eighteenth Centuries)
Author: Géza Dávid,Pál Fodor
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004157042
Category: History
Page: 253
View: 8914
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The volume is an ambitious attempt to give a comprehensive picture of trade in captives along the European borders of the Ottoman Empire, especially in Central Europe. It brings together a great deal of so far unpublished archival material and thus integrates a new area into the research.

The Victorian Reinvention of Race

New Racisms and the Problem of Grouping in the Human Sciences
Author: Edward Beasley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136923993
Category: History
Page: 258
View: 7883
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In mid-Victorian England there were new racial categories based upon skin colour. The 'races' familiar to those in the modern west were invented and elaborated after the decline of faith in Biblical monogenesis in the early nineteenth century, and before the maturity of modern genetics in the middle of the twentieth. Not until the early nineteenth century would polygenetic and racialist theories win many adherents. But by the middle of the nineteenth century in England, racial categories were imposed upon humanity. How the idea of 'race' gained popularity in England at that time is the central focus of The Victorian Reinvention of Race: New Racisms and the Problem of Grouping in the Human Sciences. Scholars have linked this new racism to some very dodgy thinkers. The Victorian Reinvention of Race examines a more influential set of the era's writers and colonial officials, some French but most of them British. Attempting to do serious social analysis, these men oversimplified humanity into biologically-heritable, mentally and morally unequal, colour-based 'races'. Thinkers giving in to this racist temptation included Alexis de Tocqueville when he was writing on Algeria; Arthur de Gobineau (who influenced the Nazis); Walter Bagehot of The Economist; and Charles Darwin (whose Descent of Man was influenced by Bagehot). Victorians on Race also examines officials and thinkers (such as Tocqueville in Democracy in America, the Duke of Argyll, and Governor Gordon of Fiji) who exercised methodological care, doing the hard work of testing their categories against the evidence. They analyzed human groups without slipping into racial categorization. Author Edward Beasley examines the extent to which the Gobineau-Bagehot-Darwin way of thinking about race penetrated the minds of certain key colonial governors. He further explores the hardening of the rhetoric of race-prejudice in some quarters in England in the nineteenth century – the processes by which racism was first formed.

The Last Slave Market

Dr John Kirk and the Struggle to End the East African Slave Trade
Author: Alastair Hazell
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 1849018146
Category: History
Page: 160
View: 992
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John Kirk was the only companion of explorer David Livingstone to emerge untainted from the disastrous, tragic expedition up the Zambezi river between 1859 and 1863. Three years later, Kirk returned to Africa, to the notorious island of Zanzibar, ancient post of the slave trade between Africa and the Middle East. Half a century after the abolition of slavery in Britain, slave traffi cking persisted on Africa's east coast, apparently tolerated and even connived with by parts of the British Empire in the Indian Ocean. Kirk, appointed as medical officer to the British Consulate in Zanzibar, could do nothing. This extraordinary and controversial book brings Kirk's years in Zanzibar to life. The horrors of the overland passage from the interior, and the Zanzibar slave market itself, are vividly described, together with Kirk's final, bitter conflict with Livingstone, who blamed Kirk for his own failings. But it was Kirk's success in closing down the slave trade on the island which made him famous across the world. Using private diaries and papers, a long forgotten Victorian hero and an extraordinary chapter in British history are revived in detail.

Islam, Peace and Social Justice

A Christian Perspective
Author: A. Christian Van Gorder
Publisher: James Clarke & Co
ISBN: 0227902009
Category: Religion
Page: 300
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Our world is fraught with horrific expressions of violence and injustice, which are often justified by religious rhetoric. 'Islam, Peace, and Social Justice: A Christian Perspective' is a relevant, comprehensive, and empathetic examination of some of these social-justice challenges within the Muslim world. Sadly, many non-Muslims only learn about Muslim views on social-justice issues from biased and inaccurate media portrayals. This book, written by a non-Muslim friend of Muslims, offers a more sympathetic and nuanced treatment, focusing especially on points of convergence and divergence between Islam and Christianity and exploring ways in which social-justice partnerships can be forged between adherents of these two great faith traditions. The book is filled with concrete and specific examples - often quoting directly from the Qur'an and the Bible as well as the newspaper - and is practical in its approach rather than loftily sermonic. The work seeks above all to foster more substantive and constructive contexts of interfaith dialogue and action for the purposes of addressing injustice.

Heimkehren

Roman
Author: Yaa Gyasi
Publisher: Dumont Buchverlag
ISBN: 3832189653
Category: Fiction
Page: 414
View: 6631
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Obwohl Effia und Esi Schwestern sind, lernen sie sich nie kennen, denn ihre Lebenswege verlaufen von Anfang an getrennt. Im Ghana des 18. Jahrhunderts heiratet Effia einen Engländer, der im Sklavenhandel zu Reichtum und Macht gelangt. Esi dagegen wird als Sklavin nach Amerika verkauft. Während Effias Nachkommen über Jahrhunderte Opfer oder Profiteure des Sklavenhandels werden, kämpfen Esis Kinder und Kindeskinder ums Überleben: auf den Plantagen der Südstaaten, während des Amerikanischen Bürgerkrieges, der Großen Migration, in den Kohleminen Alabamas und dann, im 20. Jahrhundert, in den Jazzclubs und Drogenhäusern Harlems. Hat die vorerst letzte Generation schließlich die Chance, einen Platz in der Gesellschaft zu finden, den sie Heimat nennen kann und wo man nicht als Menschen zweiter Klasse angesehen wird? Mit einer enormen erzählerischen Kraft zeichnet Yaa Gyasi die Wege der Frauen und ihrer Nachkommen über Generationen bis in die Gegenwart hinein. ›Heimkehren‹ ist ein bewegendes Stück Literatur von beeindruckender politischer Aktualität. New-York-Times-Bestseller Das Hörbuch erscheint am 4. August bei DAV, gelesen von 14 Sprecherinnen und Sprechern: Bibiana Beglau, Wanja Mues, Britta Steffenhagen, Götz Schubert, Johann von Bülow, Stefan Kaminski, Felix Goeser, Bjarne Mädel, Max Mauff, Rike Schmid, Jodie Ahlborn, Jule Böwe, Judith Engel, Lisa Wagner

The African Diaspora

A History Through Culture
Author: Patrick Manning
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231513550
Category: History
Page: 424
View: 4273
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Patrick Manning refuses to divide the African diaspora into the experiences of separate regions and nations. Instead, he follows the multiple routes that brought Africans and people of African descent into contact with one another and with Europe, Asia, and the Americas. In weaving these stories together, Manning shows how the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Indian Ocean fueled dynamic interactions among black communities and cultures and how these patterns resembled those of a number of connected diasporas concurrently taking shape across the globe. Manning begins in 1400 and traces five central themes: the connections that enabled Africans to mutually identify and hold together as a global community; discourses on race; changes in economic circumstance; the character of family life; and the evolution of popular culture. His approach reveals links among seemingly disparate worlds. In the mid-nineteenth century, for example, slavery came under attack in North America, South America, southern Africa, West Africa, the Ottoman Empire, and India, with former slaves rising to positions of political prominence. Yet at the beginning of the twentieth century, the near-elimination of slavery brought new forms of discrimination that removed almost all blacks from government for half a century. Manning underscores the profound influence that the African diaspora had on world history, demonstrating the inextricable link between black migration and the rise of modernity, especially in regards to the processes of industrialization and urbanization. A remarkably inclusive and far-reaching work, The African Diaspora proves that the advent of modernity cannot be imaginatively or comprehensively engaged without taking the African peoples and the African continent as a whole into account.

In the Image of God

Religion, Moral Values, and Our Heritage of Slavery
Author: David Brion Davis,Sterling Professor of History and Director of the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery Resistance and Abolition David Brion Davis
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300088144
Category: Philosophy
Page: 392
View: 8780
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In this broad-ranging book, the pre-eminent authority on the history of slavery meditates on the origins, experience, and legacy of this "peculiar institution." David Brion Davis begins with a substantial and highly personal introduction in which he discusses some of the major ideas and individuals that have shaped his approach to history. He then presents a series of interlocking essays that cover topics including slave resistance, the historical construction of race, and the connections between the abolitionist movement and the struggle for women's rights. The book also includes essays on such major figures as Reinhold Niebuhr and Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as appreciations of two of the finest historians of the twentieth century: C. Vann Woodward and Eugene D. Genovese. Gathered together for the first time, these essays present the major intellectual, historical, and moral issues essential to the study of New World slavery and its devastating legacy.

Commerce with the Universe

Africa, India, and the Afrasian Imagination
Author: Gaurav Desai
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231535597
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 352
View: 2640
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Reading the life narratives and literary texts of South Asians writing in and about East Africa, Gaurav Desai builds a surprising, alternative history of Africa's experience with slavery, migration, colonialism, nationalism, and globalization. Consulting Afrasian texts that are literary and nonfictional, political and private, he broadens the scope of African and South Asian scholarship and inspires a more nuanced understanding of the Indian Ocean's fertile routes of exchange. Desai shows how the Indian Ocean engendered a number of syncretic identities and shaped the medieval trade routes of the Islamicate empire, the early independence movements galvanized in part by Gandhi's southern African experiences, the invention of new ethnic nationalisms, and the rise of plural, multiethnic African nations. Calling attention to lives and literatures long neglected by traditional scholars, Desai introduces rich, interdisciplinary ways of thinking not only about this specific region but also about the very nature of ethnic history and identity. Traveling from the twelfth century to today, he concludes with a look at contemporary Asian populations in East Africa and their struggle to decide how best to participate in the development and modernization of their postcolonial nations without sacrificing their political autonomy.