Race Culture and the Revolt of the Black Athlete

Drawing on extensive archival research and newly gathered oral histories, Douglas Hartmann sets out to answer these questions, reconsidering this pivotal event in the history of American sport.

Author: Douglas Hartmann

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226318561

Category: History

Page: 344

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Ever since 1968 a single iconic image of race in American sport has remained indelibly etched on our collective memory: sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos accepting medals at the Mexico City Olympics with their black-gloved fists raised and heads bowed. But what inspired their protest? What happened after they stepped down from the podium? And how did their gesture impact racial inequalities? Drawing on extensive archival research and newly gathered oral histories, Douglas Hartmann sets out to answer these questions, reconsidering this pivotal event in the history of American sport. He places Smith and Carlos within the broader context of the civil rights movement and the controversial revolt of the black athlete. Although the movement drew widespread criticism, it also led to fundamental reforms in the organizational structure of American amateur athletics. Moving from historical narrative to cultural analysis, Hartmann explores what we can learn about the complex relations between race and sport in contemporary America from this episode and its aftermath.
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Seeing through Race

“Olympic Trouble Threat Eases,” News, October 19, 1968, quoted in Douglas Hartmann, Race, Culture, and the Revolt of the Black Athlete: The 1968 Olympic Protests and Their Aftermath (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 164.

Author: Martin A. Berger

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520948343

Category: Photography

Page: 264

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Seeing through Race is a boldly original reinterpretation of the iconic photographs of the black civil rights struggle. Martin A. Berger’s provocative and groundbreaking study shows how the very pictures credited with arousing white sympathy, and thereby paving the way for civil rights legislation, actually limited the scope of racial reform in the 1960s. Berger analyzes many of these famous images—dogs and fire hoses turned against peaceful black marchers in Birmingham, tear gas and clubs wielded against voting-rights marchers in Selma—and argues that because white sympathy was dependent on photographs of powerless blacks, these unforgettable pictures undermined efforts to enact—or even imagine—reforms that threatened to upend the racial balance of power.
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Sidelined

New York Times, July 24, 1967; Hartmann, Race, Culture, and the Revolt of the Black Athlete, 81. 13. Edwards, Revolt of the Black Athlete, 52–56. 14. “OCHR Information Booklet,” December 15, 1967, copy in author's possession. 15.

Author: Simon Henderson

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 9780813141565

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 244

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A sociologist and oral historian explores the interwoven histories of sports and civil rights activism in this extensively researched volume. In 1968, noted sociologist Harry Edwards established the Olympic Project for Human Rights, calling for a boycott of that year's games in Mexico City as a demonstration against racial discrimination. Though the boycott never materialized, Edwards's ideas struck a chord with athletes and incited African American Olympians Tommie Smith and John Carlos to protest by raising their black-gloved fists on the podium after receiving their medals. Sidelined draws upon a wide range of historical materials and more than forty oral histories with athletes and administrators to explore how the black athletic revolt used professional and college sports to promote the struggle for civil rights in the late 1960s. By examining activists' successes and failures in promoting racial equality on one of the most public stages in the world, Henderson sheds new light on an often-overlooked subject and gives voice to those who fought for civil rights both on the field and off.
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Black Celebrity Racial Politics and the Press

Douglas Hartmann, Race, Culture, and the Revolt of the Black Athlete: The 1968 Olympic Protests and Their Aftermath (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003); Urla Hill, “Racing after Smith and Carlos: Revisiting Those Fists Some ...

Author: Sarah J. Jackson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134588442

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

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Shifting understandings and ongoing conversations about race, celebrity, and protest in the twenty-first century call for a closer examination of the evolution of dissent by black celebrities and their reception in the public sphere. This book focuses on the way the mainstream and black press have covered cases of controversial political dissent by African American celebrities from Paul Robeson to Kanye West. Jackson considers the following questions: 1) What unique agency is available to celebrities with racialized identities to present critiques of American culture? 2) How have journalists in both the mainstream and black press limited or facilitated this agency through framing? What does this say about the varying role of journalism in American racial politics? 3) How have framing trends regarding these figures shifted from the mid-twentieth century to the twenty-first century? Through a series of case studies that also includes Eartha Kitt, Sister Souljah, and Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf, Jackson illustrates the shifting public narratives and historical moments that both limit and enable African American celebrities in the wake of making public politicized statements that critique the accepted racial, economic, and military systems in the United States.
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Routledge Handbook of Sport History

15 Douglas Hartmann, Race, Culture, and the Revolt of the Black Athlete: The 1968 Olympics Protests and Their Aftermath (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 188. 16 Cited in Zirin, What's My Name, Fool?, 74.

Author: Murray G. Phillips

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000441611

Category: History

Page: 430

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The Routledge Handbook of Sport History is a new and innovative survey of the discipline of sport history. Global in scope, it examines the key contemporary issues in sports historiography, sheds light on previously ignored topics, and sets an intellectual agenda for the future development of the discipline. The book explores both traditional and non-traditional methodologies in sport history, and traces the interface between sport history and other fields of research, such as literature, material culture and the digital humanities. It considers the importance of key issues such as gender, race, sexuality and politics to our understanding of sport history, and focuses on innovative ways that the scholarship around these issues is challenging accepted discourses. This is the first handbook to include a full section on Indigenous sport history, a topic that has often been ignored in sport history surveys despite its powerful upstream influence on contemporary sport. The book also reflects carefully on the central importance of sport history journals in shaping the development of the discipline. This book is an essential reference for any student, researcher or scholar with an interest in sport history or the relationship between sport and society. It will also be fascinating reading for any historians looking for fresh perspectives on contemporary historiography or social and cultural history.
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Sports and the Racial Divide

Edwards also dealt with black student uprisings on college campuses in Black Students ( New York : Free Press , 1970 ) . Scholars who have dealt with the revolt of the black athlete include : Douglas Hartmann , Race , Culture , and the ...

Author: Michael E. Lomax

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 1604730145

Category: Social Science

Page: 220

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With essays by Ron Briley, Michael Ezra, Sarah K. Fields, Billy Hawkins, Jorge Iber, Kurt Kemper, Michael E. Lomax, Samuel O. Regalado, Richard Santillan, and Maureen Smith This anthology explores the intersection of race, ethnicity, and sports and analyzes the forces that shaped the African American and Latino sports experience in post-World War II America. Contributors reveal that sports often reinforced dominant ideas about race and racial supremacy but that at other times sports became a platform for addressing racial and social injustices. The African American sports experience represented the continuation of the ideas of Black Nationalism--racial solidarity, black empowerment, and a determination to fight against white racism. Three of the essayists discuss the protest at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. In football, baseball, basketball, boxing, and track and field, African American athletes moved toward a position of group strength, establishing their own values and simultaneously rejecting the cultural norms of whites. Among Latinos, athletic achievement inspired community celebrations and became a way to express pride in ethnic and religious heritages as well as a diversion from the work week. Sports was a means by which leadership and survival tactics were developed and used in the political arena and in the fight for justice. Michael E. Lomax is associate professor of health and sport studies at the University of Iowa and the author of Black Baseball Entrepreneurs, 1860-1901: Operating by Any Means Necessary. Kenneth L. Shropshire is David W. Hauck Professor at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and director of the school's Sports Business initiative.
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We Will Win the Day The Civil Rights Movement the Black Athlete and the Quest for Equality

28 (17) (29 April 1968), 29; Scott, “The White Olympics,” Ramparts, 60–61. 57. Hartman, Race, Culture, and the Revolt of the Black Athlete, 154. 58. “Carlos Airs Black Stars Protest,” Chicago Defender, October 19, 1968. 59.

Author: Louis Moore

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781440839535

Category: Social Science

Page: 233

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This exceedingly timely book looks at the history of black activist athletes and the important role of the black community in making sure fair play existed, not only in sports, but across U.S. society. • Offers the first significant synthesis covering the black athlete and the Civil Rights Movement • Provides a history of activist African American athletes, examining the central role the black athlete and sports played in shaping America's democracy from 1945 through the late 1960s • Discusses the role the black press and the black community played in integrating sports • Links stars like Jackie Robinson and Althea Gibson to athletes who are largely forgotten, like boxer Joe Dorsey who fought Louisiana's ban on integrated sports, and Maggie Hathaway who paved the way for integrated golf in Los Angeles
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Myths and Milestones in the History of Sport

See Edwards, Revolt of the Black Athlete, pp. 42–7 for conditions and details of San Jose State campus issues. For another version of the events, see Themis Chronopoulos, 'Racial Turmoil at San Jose State: The Incident of the 1967 ...

Author: S. Wagg

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230320819

Category: History

Page: 315

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The conventional history of sport, as conveyed by television and the sports press, has thrown up a great many apparent turning points, but knowledge of these apparently defining moments is often slight. This book offers readable, in-depth studies of a series of these watersheds in sport history and of the circumstances in which they came about.
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A Spectacular Leap

Black Women Athletes in Twentieth-Century America Jennifer H. Lansbury. “Pennel Vaults to World Mark, ... Hartmann, Race, Culture, and the Revolt of the Black Athlete, 85–87; Bass, Not the Triumph, 189–91. Bass calls the shift from ...

Author: Jennifer H. Lansbury

Publisher: University of Arkansas Press

ISBN: 9781557286581

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 317

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When high jumper Alice Coachman won the high jump title at the 1941 national championships with "a spectacular leap," African American women had been participating in competitive sport for close to twenty-five years. Yet it would be another twenty years before they would experience something akin to the national fame and recognition that African American men had known since the 1930s, the days of Joe Louis and Jesse Owens. From the 1920s, when black women athletes were confined to competing within the black community, through the heady days of the late twentieth century when they ruled the world of women's track and field, African American women found sport opened the door to a better life. However, they also discovered that success meant challenging perceptions that many Americans--both black and white--held of them. Through the stories of six athletes--Coachman, Ora Washington, Althea Gibson, Wilma Rudloph, Wyomia Tyus, and Jackie Joyner-Kersee--Jennifer H. Lansbury deftly follows the emergence of black women athletes from the African American community; their confrontations with contemporary attitudes of race, class, and gender; and their encounters with the civil rights movement. Uncovering the various strategies the athletes use to beat back stereotypes, Lansbury explores the fullness of African American women's relationship with sport in the twentieth century.
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When Race Religion and Sport Collide

Black Athletes at BYU and Beyond Darron T. Smith. 52. Bullock, C. (1996). ... Black athletes are cautioned not to cross picket lines. ... Race, culture, and the revolt of the Black athlete: The 1968 Olympic protests and their aftermath.

Author: Darron T. Smith

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442217904

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 230

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When Race, Religion, and Sport Collide tells the story of Brandon Davies’ dismissal from Brigham Young University’s NCAA playoff basketball team to illustrate the thorny intersection of religion, race, and sport at BYU and beyond. Author Darron T. Smith analyzes the athletes dismissed through BYU’s honor code violations and suggests that they are disproportionately African American, which has troubling implications. He ties these dismissals to the complicated history of negative views towards African Americans in the LDS faith. These honor code dismissals elucidate the challenges facing black athletes at predominantly white institutions. Weaving together the history of the black athlete in America and the experience of blackness in Mormon theology, When Race, Religion, and Sport Collide offers a timely and powerful analysis of the challenges facing African American athletes in the NCAA today.
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